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© 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Harnessing Moore’s Law (with Selected Implications) Mark D. Hill Computer Sciences Department.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Harnessing Moore’s Law (with Selected Implications) Mark D. Hill Computer Sciences Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Harnessing Moore’s Law (with Selected Implications) Mark D. Hill Computer Sciences Department University of Wisconsin-Madison This talk is based, in part, on an essay I wrote as part of a National Academy of Sciences study panel.

2 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Motivation What the do the following intervals have in common? –Prehistory-2003 – Answer: Equal progress in absolute computer speed Furthermore, more doublings in , , … Questions –Why do computers get better and cheaper? –How do computer architects contribute (my bias)? –How to learn to project future trends and implications?

3 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Outline Computer Primer –Software –Hardware Technology Primer Harnessing Moore’s Law Future Trends

4 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Computer Primer: Software Application programmers write software: int main (int argc, char *argv[]) { int i; int sum = 0; for (i = 0; i <= 100; i++) sum = sum + i * i; printf (“The sum from is %d\n”, sum); } [Example due to Jim Larus]

5 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Computer Primer: Software, cont. System software translates for hardware:.main:... loop: lw $14, 28($sp) mul $15, $14, $14 <--- multiply i * i lw $24, 24($sp) addu $25, $24, $15 <--- add to sum sw $25, 24($sp) addu $8, $14, 1 sw $8, 28($sp) ble $8, 100, loop la $4, str lw $5, 24($sp) jal printf move $2, $0 lw $31, 20($sp) addu $sp, 32 j $31

6 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Computer Primer: Software, cont. What the hardware really sees: … <--- multiply i * i <--- add to sum

7 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Computer Primer: Hardware Components Processor –Rapidly executes instructions –Commonly: Processor implemented – as microprocessor chip (Intel Pentium 4) –Larger computers have multiple processors Memory –Stores vast quantities of instructions and data –Commonly: DRAM chips backed by magnetic disks Input/Output –Connect compute to outside world –E.g., keyboards, displays, & network interfaces

8 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Apple Mac 7200 (from Hennessy & Patterson) (C) Copyright 1998 Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. Reproduced with permission from Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware/Software Interface, 2E.

9 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Computer Primer: Hardware Operation E.g., do mul temp,i,i & go on to next instruction Fetch-Execute Loop { S1: read “current” instruction from memory S2: decode instruction to see what is to be done S3: read instruction input(s) S4: perform instruction operation S5: write instruction output(s) Also determine “next” instruction and make it “current” } Repeat

10 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Computer Big Picture Separate Software & Hardware (divide & conquer) Software –Worry about applications only (hardware can already exist) –Translate from one form to another (instructions & data interchangeable!) Hardware –Expose set of instructions (most functionally equivalent) –Execute instructions rapidly (without regard for software)

11 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Outline Computer Primer Technology Primer –Exponential Growth –Technology Background –Moore’s Law Harnessing Moore’s Law Future Trends

12 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Exponential Growth Occurs when growth is proportional to current size Mathematically: dy / dt = k * y Solution: y = e k*t E.g., a bond with $100 principal yielding 10% interest 1 year: $110 = $100 * ( ) 2 years: $121 = $100 * ( ) * ( ) … 8 years: $214 = $100 * ( ) 8 Other examples –Unconstrained population growth –Moore’s Law

13 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Absurd Exponential Example Parameters –$16 base –59% growth/year –36 years 1 st year’s $16  buy book 3 rd year’s $64  buy computer game 15 th year’s $16,000  buy car 24 th year’s $100,000  buy house 36 th year’s $300,000,000  buy a lot

14 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Technology Background Computer logic implemented with switches –Like light switches, except that a switch can control others –Yields a network (called circuit) of switches –Want circuits to be fast, reliable, & cheap Logic Technologies –Mechanical switch & vacuum tube –Transistor (1947) –Integrated circuit (chip): circuit of many transistors made at once (1958) (Also memory & communication technologies)

15 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison (Technologist’s) Moore’s Law Parameters –16 transistor/chip circa 1964 –59% growth/year –36 years (2000) and counting 1 st year’s 16  ??? 3 rd year’s 64  ??? 15 th year’s 16,000  ??? 24 th year’s 100,000  ??? 36 th year’s 300,000,000  ??? Was useful & then got more than 1,000,000 times better!

16 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison (Technologist’s) Moore’s Law Data

17 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Other “Moore’s Laws” Other technologies improving rapidly –Magnetic disk capacity –DRAM capacity –Fiber-optic network bandwidth Other aspects improving slowly –Delay to memory –Delay to disk –Delay across networks Computer Implementor’s Challenge –Design with dissimilarly expanding resources –To Double computer performance every two years –A.k.a., (Popular) Moore’s Law

18 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Outline Computer Primer Technology Primer Harnessing Moore’s Law –Microprocessor –Bit-Level Parallelism –Instruction-Level Parallelism –Caching & Memory Hierarchies –Cost & Implications Future Trends

19 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Microprocessor Computers for the 1960s expensive, using 100s if not 1000s of chips First Microprocessor in 1971 –Processor on one chip –Intel 4004 –2300 transistors –Barely a processor –Could access 300 bytes of memory ( megabytes) Use more and faster transistor in parallel

20 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Transistor Parallelism To use more transistor quickly, –use them side-by-side (or in parallel) –Approach depend on scale Consider organizing people –10 people –1000 people –1,000,000 people Transistors –Bit-level parallelism –Instuction-level parallelism –(Thread-level parallelism)

21 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Bit-Level Parallelism Less (e.g., 8 * 15 = 120): * = More: * = More bits manipulated faster!

22 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Instruction-Level Parallelism Limits to bit-level parallelism –Numbers are big enough –Operations are fast Seek parallelism executing many instruction at once Recall Fetch-Execute Loop { S1: read “current” instruction from memory S2: decode instruction to see what is to be done S3: read instruction input(s) S4: perform instruction operation S5: write instruction output(s) Also determine “next” instruction and make it “current” }

23 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Instruction-Level Parallelism, cont. One-at-a-time instructions per cycle = 1/5 Time ADD S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 SUB S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Pipelining instructions per cycle = 1 (or less) Time ADD S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 SUB.. S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 ORI.... S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 AND S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 MUL S1 S2 S3 S4 S5

24 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Instruction-Level Parallelism, cont. 4-way Superscalar instructions per cycle = 4 (or less) Time ADD S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 SUB S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 ORI S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 AND S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 MUL.. S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 SRL.. S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 XOR.. S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 LDW.. S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 STW.... S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 DIV.... S1 S2 S3 S4 S5

25 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Instruction-Level Parallelism, cont. Current processors have dozens of instructions executing Must predict which instructions are next Limits to control prediction? Look elsewhere? (thread-level parallelism later) Memory a serious problem –1980: memory access time = one instruction time –2000: memory access time = 100 instruction times

26 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Caching & Memory Hierarchies Memory can be –Fast –Vast –But not both Use two memories –Cache: small, fast (e.g., 64,000 bytes in 1 ns) –Memory: large, vast (e.g., 64,000,000 bytes in 100 ns) Use prediction to fill cache –Likely to re-reference information –Likely to reference nearby information –E.g., address book cache of phone directory

27 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Caching & Memory Hierarchies, cont. Cache + Memory makes memory look fast & vast –If cache has information on 99% of accesses – 1 ns + 1% * 100 ns = 2 ns –E.g. P3 (w/o L2 cache) Caching Applied Recursively –Registers –Level-one cache –Level-two cache –Memory –Disk –(File Server) –(Proxy Cache)

28 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Cost Side of Moore’s Law About every two years: same computing at half cost Long-term effect: –1940s Prototypes for calculating ballistic trajectories –1950s Early mainframes for large banks –1960s Mainframes flourish in many large businesses –1970s Minicomputers for business, science, & engineering –Early 1980s PCs for word processing & spreadsheets –Late 1980s PCs for desktop publishing –1990s PCs for games, multimedia, , & web Jim Gray: In ten years you can buy a computer for the cost of its sales tax today (assuming 3% or more)

29 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Outline Computer Primer Technology Primer Harnessing Moore’s Law Future Trends –Moore’s Law –Harnessing Moore’s Law –Computer uses –Some Non-Technical Implications

30 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Revolutions Industrial Revolution enabled by machines –Interchangeable parts –Mass production –Lower costs  expanded application Information Revolution enabled by machines –Interchangeable purpose (software) –Mass production (chips = integrated circuits) –Lower costs  expanded application

31 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Future of Moore’s Law Short-Term (1-5 years) –Will operate (due to prototypes in lab) –Fabrication cost will go up rapidly Medium-Term (5-15 years) –Exponential growth rate will likely slow –Trillion-dollar industry is motivated Long-Term (>15 years) –May need new technology (chemical or quantum) –We can do better (e.g., human brain) –I would not close the patent office

32 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Future of Harnessing Moore’s Law Thread-Level Parallelism –Multiple processors cooperating (exists today) –More common in future with multiple processors per chip –Parallelism in Internet? The Grid. System on a Chip –Processor, memory, and I/O on one chip –Cost-performance leap like microprocessor? –(e.g., accelerometer at right) Communication –World-wide web & wireless cell phone fuse! Other properties: robust & easy to design & use

33 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Future Computer Uses Computer cost-effectiveness determines application viability –Spreadsheets on a US$2M mainframe do not make sense –A 10x cost-performance change enables new possibilities [Joy] Most computers will NOT be computers –How many electric motors do you have in your home? –How many did you buy as electric motors? –I control several computers, but most computers I control are embedded in cars, remote controls, refrigerators, etc. Two Stories –Danny Hillis’s doorknobs –William Wulf’s “powerful” computer

34 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Future Computer Uses, cont. Technologists have always been poor predictors for future use –Edison invented the motion picture machine –Hollywood invented movies To Predict: –What would you want if it was 10 times cheaper? –What can be 10 time cheaper if you make more? –Better yet, ask a ten year old! What do you think?

35 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Some Non-Technical Thoughts We make over a billion transistors/second –One transistor per man/woman/child in < 10 seconds (humankind has made many more transistors than bricks!) –But those transistors are not being distributed equally Computers can be incredibly effectively tools –Knowledge workers in medicine, law, & engineering –But not unskilled laborers! Computer use will exacerbate the social gradient As citizens, we should ask –Can/should we ameliorate this trend? –If so how?

36 © 2003 Mark D. HillCS & ECE, University of Wisconsin-Madison Summary Computers are machines for purposes “to be determined” Vast cost reductions have enabled new uses –Software flexibility –Moore’s Law and its harnessing Technology should be our tool, not our master –Many benefits –Some costs


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