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Copyright. Prozone Pool Products. phone: 256-539-4570 fax: 256-539-4225 www.prozoneint.com Corona Discharge and Vacuum Ultraviolet Ozone Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright. Prozone Pool Products. phone: 256-539-4570 fax: 256-539-4225 www.prozoneint.com Corona Discharge and Vacuum Ultraviolet Ozone Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright. Prozone Pool Products. phone: fax: Corona Discharge and Vacuum Ultraviolet Ozone Systems

2 phone: fax: Ozone and its Effects

3 phone: fax: WHAT IS OZONE? Ozone is a form of energetic oxygen that has three atoms of oxygen rather than the normal two. Oxygen = 0 2 Ozone = 0 3 Ozone is the most powerful disinfectant and oxidant which is readily available Does not produce harmful by-products Generated on-site Ozonation

4 phone: fax: EFFECTS OF OZONATION Ozone performs two major functions in water that are normally done by chlorine  Oxidation  Disinfection  Oxidation + Disinfection = Water Treatment Oxidation – Oxidation is a process by which contaminants (bather load) are removed from water Disinfection – Disinfection is the destruction of bacteria and viruses  Ozonation

5 phone: fax: Ozonation Ozone and Oxidation In a typical pool, 70 to 90 percent of chlorine is used up in oxidation of bather loading. This process creates byproducts (combined chlorines) which can cause the following problems:  Chlorine Odor  Eye Irritation  Skin Irritation  Hair Damage or Discoloration  Cloudy Water  Excessive Chlorine Consumption Ozone oxidizes the bather loading reducing chlorine consumption Ozone oxidizes combined chlorines, creating free chlorine and eliminating the problems listed above 

6 Ozone and Oxidation Ozone Oxidation Reacts with Bather Loading and Frees Chlorine Kills Bacteria, Viruses Filterable Compounds Reduced Chlorine Use Clarified Water Reduced Combined Chlorines Chlorine Effectiveness Increases No chlorine odor or Irritation Removes Metals Filterable Compounds Improved Sanitation Precipitation Disinfection

7 Characteristics of Ozone Chlorine Ozone Oxidation Strength High Highest Disinfection Strength High High Kill Time Fast Fast Stability Varies Generate On-Site Organism Resistance Yes No Major Byproducts Chloramines, No Combined Chlorines Staining Potential No No Solubility High High Stand Alone Yes No pH Dependent Yes No Chlorine Shock Equivalent Yes Yes Algicidal Properties High Medium

8 phone: fax: Generating Ozone with Corona Discharge

9 phone: fax:  Corona Discharge Corona: High voltage, low current electrical discharge across a discharge gap filled with gas (normally air or oxygen). The gas becomes partially ionized, resulting in a bluish glow.

10 phone: fax:  Corona Discharge Translation: Air or oxygen is exposed to a high voltage field which converts a portion (typically 1 to 5 percent) of the air or oxygen to ozone. ElectronsOxygen (O 2 )Ionized Oxygen (O - +O - ) Oxygen (O2) Ozone (O 3 )

11 phone: fax: Corona Discharge In addition to ionizing oxygen to create ozone, the corona process also breaks nitrogen bonds (in systems that are air fed or do not use pure oxygen) creating nitrogen oxides. ElectronsOxygen (O 2 )Ionized Nitrogen (N - +N - ) ElectronsOxygen (O 2 )Ionized Oxygen (O - +O - ) Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)

12 phone: fax: Corona Discharge Nitrogen Oxide Formation and Humidity: Air fed into corona devices should be extremely dry (dew point of -78 deg F, -61 deg C). In systems that run on air only, nitrogen oxide production increases with increasing dew point (moisture content). Nitrogen oxides convert to nitric acid in the presence of moisture. Nitric acid is extremely corrosive. Decreasing Ozone Production Formation of Nitrogen Compounds Increasing Increasing Moisture Content 14 deg F

13 phone: fax: Corona Discharge Effects of Heat: Heat is detrimental to ozone production as it inhibits formation of ozone and causes it to degrade faster. Increased temperature also contributes to the problem of nitrogen oxide formation. Representative Sample of the Effects of Heat on Ozone Production

14 phone: fax: Corona discharge devices can be divided into two categories: Type I Generators Use equipment to pretreat the feed air in order to remove nitrogen (10 percent or less) and moisture (Relative Humidity of -78 deg F or better) Water or air is used to cool the ozone cell in order to keep it below 100 deg F Generate high concentrations of ozone and are generally found only in commercial applications due to cost Type II Generators Stripped down corona discharge devices No or limited provisions in place to control the environmental factors which affect corona discharge ozone production Typically have erratic output, concentrations not comparable with commercial grade units Ozone Generation with Corona Discharge

15 phone: fax:  Corona Discharge Summary Humidity and heat are detrimental to ozone production and require removal to maximize ozone generator performance and limit the production of undesirable byproducts Clean air or oxygen free of contaminants and oil is required Generally, these issues are can only be controlled adequately on on commercial grade equipment Production of nitric acid by small units without air preparation Can cause damage and large pH variations in spas

16 phone: fax: Corona Discharge Generator Types

17 phone: fax:  Corona Discharge Cell Designs There are a variety of designs available for generating ozone with corona discharge. The most common in the pool and psa industry are: Surface Discharge (Only found on small spa type systems) Flat Plate Design (Commercial Systems Only) -Single Dielectric -Dual Dielectric (maximizes life and efficiency) Tubular Design (Used on spa and commercial Systems)

18 phone: fax:  Corona Discharge Cell Designs Surface Discharge Generate a corona discharge above a ceramic plate Systems use ambient air and have rely on air flow for cooling System output declines as it heats up Use of unfiltered, humid air degrades performance Used only in small applications Low Reliability, performance decays over time

19 phone: fax:  Corona Discharge Cell Designs Flat Plate Design Systems generate ozone when air or oxygen is passed through the gap between enclosed flat plate electrode/dielectric (ceramic) Systems can utilize single ceramic or dual ceramic plates (use of dual ceramics limits electrode erosion) Systems are air cooled (water cooling is an option) Oxygen is required for maximum performance Used in commercial systems Multiple cells for larger systems limit potential for catastrophic failure High Reliability, Easy to Service/Replace

20 phone: fax:  Corona Discharge Cell Designs Tubular Design Systems generate ozone when air or oxygen is passed through concentric tubes, one of which is coated with a ceramic-interior designs vary Oxygen and water cooling are required for maximum performance Used in commercial systems (water cooled) and small systems (air cooled) Capable of providing high quantities and concentrations of ozone Maintenance can be difficult Water cooling adds complexity in commercial systems Replacements can be costly

21 phone: fax: Corona Discharge Systems

22 phone: fax: Corona Discharge System Elements Type I Devices (Commercial Grade)

23 phone: fax: Corona Discharge System Elements

24 phone: fax: Corona Discharge System Elements Ozone Module Oxygen Concentrator Contactor System Boost Pump Unit is Approximately 6 feet High

25 phone: fax: Corona Discharge System Elements Contact/Degas Tank Oxygen Concentrator Corona Unit Degas Valve Boost Pump Contacting Loop Venturi

26 phone: fax: Corona Discharge System Elements Feed Gas Preparation Feed Gas preparation normally consists of a: -Compressor -Oxygen Concentrator or Regenerative Drier -Aftercooler for Compressed Air (Larger Systems) -Air Filters and Oil Removal -Safety Interlocks Smaller Oxygen Concentrators can be purchased with built in compressors Type I Devices (Commercial Grade)

27 phone: fax: Corona Discharge System Elements Feed Gas Preparation Oxygen Concentrators The two main types used on pool installations are: -Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) -Rotary Oxygen Concentrators dry the air and can be used for this function up to units which produce approximately 5 lbs/ozone per day Systems larger than 5 lbs/ozone per day require an Air Dryer prior to the Oxygen Concentrator to ensure adequate performance and system life Type I Devices (Commercial Grade)

28 phone: fax: Corona Discharge System Elements Feed Gas Preparation-Oxygen Concentrators Rotary-Advantages -Provide constant flow of oxygen -Compact design Rotary-Disadvantages -Operate at low pressure -Mechanical parts are prone to failure -Hard to replace/repair components Type I Devices (Commercial Grade)

29 phone: fax: Corona Discharge System Elements Feed Gas Preparation-Oxygen Concentrators Pressure Swing Adsorption-Advantages -Operate at higher pressures -More robust system -Easier to Service -Larger systems available Pressure Swing Adsorption-Disadvantages -Typically more complex -Require surge tanks on larger units to provide steady output Type I Devices (Commercial Grade)

30 phone: fax: Corona Discharge System Elements Contacting System There are a variety of ways to introduce ozone into water The most common ways in the United States use all or some of the following elements: -Venturi Injector -Contacting Loops -Contact Tanks -Degassing Columns or Gas Separators In the United States, systems are normally installed in a bypass configuration after the filter System Performance requirements have a large impact on components selected Type I Devices (Commercial Grade)

31 phone: fax: Corona Discharge System Elements Contacting Systems Contacting systems are designed to either mix the ozone rapidly and promote oxidation reactions or to hit a specific disinfection value (CT Value) which generates a residual of ozone in the water Systems Designed for Oxidation -Requires least ozone -System typically includes Venturi, Contact Loop and a Degasser Type I Devices (Commercial Grade) Also applicable for Vacuum Ultraviolet Systems

32 phone: fax: Corona Discharge System Elements Contacting Systems Systems Designed for Disinfection -Designed to kill toughest disease causing organisms (including cryptosporidium) -May be required for some installations -Requires highest amount of ozone -Typically results in excess capacity -Usually generates more off-gassing -Contact system requires Venturi, optional Contact Loop, Contact Tank and Degasser Type I Devices (Commercial Grade) Also applicable for Vacuum Ultraviolet Systems

33 phone: fax: Corona Discharge System Elements Ozone Destruction The Ozone Destruct portion of the system removes excess ozone and or air Components include: -Vent Valve -Catalyst to Destroy Excess Ozone -Water Traps System usually incorporates portions of the contact system to collect excess ozone/air Type I Devices (Commercial Grade)

34 phone: fax: Vacuum Ultraviolet Ozone Generation

35 phone: fax:  Translation: Air or oxygen is exposed to ultraviolet light at an ozone producing frequency (185 nm). Concentrations up to 1 percent can be produced. No nitrogen byproducts are produced. UV LightOxygen (O 2 )Ionized Oxygen (O - +O - ) Oxygen (O2) Ozone (O 3 ) Vacuum Ultraviolet Systems

36 phone: fax:  Low voltage operation  Little or no operator adjustment required  System can be installed, maintained and serviced by minimally trained service staff  Operation in any environmental condition  Easy installation, modular design  Rugged when properly designed  Readily configured for multiple injection points Characteristics of Vacuum Ultraviolet Systems

37 phone: fax: Ozone Generators Vacuum Ultraviolet System Components Ozone Producing Lamp(s) -Check lamp life -Check output drop over life of system -Check warranty Ballast  Electronic-Provide best performance and lowest energy consumption  Magnetic Housing Compressor or Air Pump (Used for Specific Installations and Circumstances) Installation Kit Proprietary and Confidential

38 phone: fax: Vacuum Ultraviolet System Types Proprietary and Confidential

39 phone: fax: Equipment Types Equipment Types Venturi Driven Relies on pressure differential created by the venturi in a bypass installation to inject ozone into water Compressor Driven Pressurizable lamp cartridges connected to diaphragm type air compressors Used in bypass or direct injection installations Large systems will include contact loops, degassing systems, and ozone destruct

40 phone: fax: Compressor Driven Systems Compressor driven systems are generally specified for: Commercial or Public Facilities (Pool and Spa) Heavily used or large residential pools Installations below water level, with non-adjustable jets, or with a potential for high head pressures at the injection point Pools with infloor cleaners Venturi Systems are typically used on: Residential Pools and Spas Small commercial facilities The use of a dedicated return in new residential construction is recommended to ensure a venturi system can be used Proprietary and Confidential

41 phone: fax: Benefits of Compressor Driven Systems Proprietary and Confidential Higher output Injects ozone in to water under pressure, improving effectiveness of ozone mixing Allows operation in a wider range of pressures and hydraulic conditions

42 phone: fax: Venturi Systems

43 phone: fax: Compressor Systems

44 phone: fax: Large Compressor Systems

45 phone: fax: Vacuum Ultraviolet Ozone Installation

46 Ozone Generator phone: fax: Bypass Basic Installation Bypass Basic Installation Extended Contact Distance Saddle or Tee Pool Venturi Ozone Generator

47 phone: fax: Installation-Direct Injection Installation-Direct Injection Compressor Only Saddle or Tee Ozone Injection Pool Extended Contact Distance Ozone Generator

48 phone: fax: Proprietary and Confidential Ozone Generators Vacuum Ultraviolet Lower Cost Easy Operation High Reliability Rugged Lower ozone concentration Operation in almost any environment Corona Discharge High Ozone Outputs available High Ozone Concentrations available Higher Cost up to 1 lb then lower More Complex Excellent performance when properly applied May be required for large applications

49 phone: fax: Safety and Regulatory Issues

50 phone: fax: Sources of Ozone Undissolved ozone released at water surface -Normal regulatory limit is.1 ppm -UL (Spas) or NSF (commercial systems) testing certify systems meet limit -Typically controlled by limiting system output or by ozone contact and/or destruct system Surface Discharge -Flat Plate design only -Does not generate substantial quantities, but levels can be detected by smell -Controllable by ventilation

51 phone: fax: Sources of Ozone Natural Leakage -Occurs as seals degrade or minor natural leaks -Can be a problem depending on severity Line Breaks or Accidental Discharges -Safety interlocks can limit -Large systems may require emergency shutdown -Respirators required by some states -Vacuum ultraviolet units often allowed to substitute pressure switches which shut of the unit in the vent of a pressure drop (required for compressor systems only)

52 phone: fax: Sources of Ozone Air Detection Devices Multiple Types on Market Two basic types typically used: Low cost units which detect ozone and similar oxidant; and expensive lab grade equipment which detects ozone only, but is difficult to use and uneconomical for many pool applications Low cost detectors can be set-off by chlorine and its byproducts Background discharges from electrical equipment in the plant room or atmospheric ozone can also cause false alarms and unnecessary equipment shutdowns if interlocked with equipment

53 phone: fax: Installation Considerations

54 phone: fax: Checklist Bather Loading -Adjustment in sizing may be required if excessive -Is system designed to meet a CT value or to act as a primary oxidizer? Space Considerations-Is there enough space to install the unit? Air Monitoring -Are chemicals or electrical equipment in the plant room which could cause erroneous readings? -May not be required for vacuum ultraviolet units Look at Vendor Claims-ozone is not a stand alone Product, chlorine is still required

55 phone: fax: Installation Checklist Training -Corona discharge units will require operator training for: safety, operation and maintenance -Vacuum ultraviolet units require less training Maintenance and Repair -Review maintenance costs and cost of spares -Check warranty and any warranty exclusions -Check on service an support form vendor -Consider a spares package to limit down time in the event of a component failure -Verify maintenance schedule (Daily, Weekly, Monthly, Annual) -Keep a maintenance log (corona systems)


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