Presentation on theme: "W RITTEN F INAL R EVIEW. W HAT ARE SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CHLOROPLASTS AND MITOCHONDRIA ? MitochondriaChloroplast What kind of cell is it."— Presentation transcript:
W RITTEN F INAL R EVIEW
W HAT ARE SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CHLOROPLASTS AND MITOCHONDRIA ? MitochondriaChloroplast What kind of cell is it present in? What process takes place here? What are three parts or components? Both plant and animal cells. Plant cells only. Cellular respirationPhotosynthesis 1.DNA 2.Matrix 3.Cristae 1.Thylakoids 2.Stroma 3.Chlorophyll
W HAT ARE SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS ? ProkaryotesEukaryotes Bacteria and Archaea Type of organism that has these cells? Nucleus Present? Organelles Present? Unicellular? Multicellular? Plants and Animals NoYes NoYes All the timeSometimes NeverMost of the time
D RAW, L ABEL, AND DESCRIBE THE CELL CYCLE G 1 Cell grows During G 0, the cell does its job and either never or rarely divides S Cell replicates its DNA G 2 Cell grows again ALL of these are INTERPHASE!
W HY DO CELLS DIVIDE ? Mitosis Cells undergo mitotic division to repair damage or to help an organism grow. For example: You are riding your bike and totally biff it! Now, your hands and forearms are completely stripped of skin, and a scab forms. Beneath that scab, cells are undergoing mitotic division to replace the damaged or missing skin. For example: A male moose has to have large antlers to impress the ladies. His cells undergo mitotic division to help him grow manly antlers for mating season! Meiosis Cells undergo meiosis to increase genetic diversity in the population. For example: Because your parents produced gametes made during meiosis, you will NEVER be exactly like your mom or dad! Whew!
W HAT ARE THE SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION ? Photosynthesis Organelle for Process Reactants Electron Transport Chain location Cycle of Chemical Reactions Products Chemical equation Type of organim that undergoes process Cellular Respiration ChloroplastMitochondria CO 2 and H 2 OSugar (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) and O 2 Proteins in the chloroplast (thylakoid) Proteins in the mitochondria (matrix) Calvin Cycle builds the sugar molecule (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Krebs Cycle breaks down the sugar molecule (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Sugar (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) and O 2 CO 2 and H 2 O CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 +O 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 +O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O PlantsPlants and Animals
W HAT ARE THE FOUR TYPES OF CARBON - BASED MOLECULES ? Carbon-Based Molecule Nucleic Acids What structures in the cell are they a part of? What are the momomers? What are the polymers? Proteins Lipids Carbohydrates In the nucleus Transport proteins in the cell membrane Makes up the majority of the cell membrane Identification chains on the cell membrane nucleotides Amino acids triglycerides monosaccharides DNA Leucine (protein) Phospholipids cellulose
W HAT DO ALL THE CARBON - BASED MOLECULES HAVE IN COMMON ? All carbon-based molecules have carbon! Carbon makes all of these molecules organic in nature. All carbon-based molecules are necessary for life. All living organisms require the four carbon- based molecules to form components of their cells.
W HAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A HYPOTONIC AND HYPERTONIC SOLUTION ? Hypotonic Solute concentration outside the cell is LOWER than solute concentration inside the cell. Water is moving INSIDE the cell Cell swells and burst cytolysis Hypertonic Solute concentration outside the cell is HIGHER than solute concentration inside the cell. Water is moving OUTSIDE the cell. Cell shrinks plasmolysis
W HAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TRANSPORT ? Passive Transport Simple diffusion Facilitated diffusion Does not require energy. Molecules move DOWN the concentration gradient from high to low concentration. People getting off a crowded train! Active Transport Requires Energy (ATP) Molecules are pushed AGAINST the concentration gradient from low to high concentration. Think about the people getting pushed onto a crowded train!
W HAT IS SELECTIVE PERMEABILITY ? Selective permeability is where only some substances can cross a semi- permeable barrier. For example: When you strain coffee in a filter, the coffee grinds don’t go through but the water does. This is selective permeability. In cells, selective permeability is achieved by the cell membrane! Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a selectively-permeable membrane. Other substances, depending on their polarity (positive or negative charges) and size, may or may not easily pass through the cell membrane.
S CENARIO … Hunters on the planet Nefarious have started to complain to the Intergalactic Wildlife Foundation (IWF) that there has been a dramatic increase in the number of mutated Mountain Elkdeer since the IWF began gold mining in the high altitude environments. Gold mining results in mercury leaching into the soil and water, greatly contaminating it. Mountain Elkdeer breed in high altitude environments and drink from the streams there. A close cousin, the Plains Elkdeer, breed in low altitude and drink from lake water, and show no mutations. The IWF suspects that the mercury in the soil is causing newborn Mountain Elkdeer to become mutated. If you were a member IWF, how would you set up an experiment to test this?
WHAT WOULD YOUR PROCEDURE BE ? This experiment would have to take place in the field. 1. Make yearly observations of both the Mountain Elkdeer and the Plains Elkdeer populations for 5-10 years. 2. Establish total population numbers for each species per year. 3. Count the number of mutants occurring in each population. 4. Compute the average of mutated vs. normal elkdeer in each population.
W HAT CHARACTERISTIC, OTHER THAN LOCATION, IS DIFFERENT BETWEEN THE TWO POPULATIONS OF ELKDEER ? The Mountain Elkdeer are exposed to mercury tainted water. The Plains Elkdeer are drinking clean water.
W HAT DID THE HUNTER ’ S OBSERVE ABOUT THE M OUNTAIN E LKDEER ? The hunter’s had observed a large amount of mutated Mountain Elkdeer in areas near gold mining operations.
A S A MEMBER OF THE IWF, WHAT WOULD YOUR HYPOTHESIS BE ? The hypothesis would be… IF Mountain Elkdeer drink mercury tainted water, THEN they will become mutated.
W HAT WOULD YOUR INDEPENDENT VARIABLE BE ? The independent variable is something that the experimenter can manipulate. In this experiment, the independent variable would be the mercury tainted water.
W HAT WOULD YOUR DEPENDENT VARIABLE BE ? The dependent variable is something the experimenter will measure! In this experiment, the scientists are measuring the rates of mutation in Mountain Elkdeer.
W HAT CONTROLS WOULD YOU HAVE ? The Plains Elkdeer drinking regular water, will be the control of this experiment. They are not receiving the independent variable (the mercury tainted water) and will establish how “normal” elkdeer are.
W HAT CONSTANTS WOULD YOU HAVE ? This experiment is taking place in the field, so constants would be difficult to establish. However, they may be… The use of elkdeer for both the experimental and control groups. Both groups will be exposed to a water source.
W HAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TYPE OF ELKDEER AND MUTATIONS ? The Mountain Elkdeer, because they breed at high altitude and thus are exposed to the mercury tainted water, are more prone to mutations than the Plains Elkdeer.