Define the three meanings of the term: respiration
1)External respiration - the exchange O2 and CO2 between the air and the blood in lungs 2)Internal respiration - the exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood and the tissues (w/in systemic tissue) 3)Cellular respiration - the utilization of O2 and production of CO2 that occurs in the process of cellular metabolism
1)major component in the regulation of pH of blood and bodily fluids 2)contributes to the regulation of body temperature and fluid balance (phonation) for communication (speech, singing, laughter, etc.) 3)production of speech sounds (phonation) for communication (speech, singing, laughter, etc.) 4)special sense of olfaction (CN I)
respiratory system. Identify the organs and structures that comprise the conducting portion of the respiratory system and those that comprise the respiratory portion of the respiratory system.
Conducting Portion - devoted to mvmt of air into and out of lungs - Nose - Pharynx - Larynx - Trachea - Bronchi - Terminal bronchioles Respiratory Portion - site of gas exchange - Respiratory bronchioles - Alveoli
Identify the organs and structures that comprise the upper respiratory tract and those that comprise the lower respiratory tract.
- Warm, filter and humidify air before it reaches lungs (main function) - Detect odors -Provide resonance for amplification and shaping of vocal sounds in speech and singing - Serves as first line of defense against entry of airborne pathogens and allergens
of the internal nose Describe the structure of the nasal conchae (turbinates) and explain how this structure accounts for the function of these structures of the internal nose
mucous membrane, removing debris from air Structure - scroll-shaped bones that are lined with mucous membrane Function - Curvature of bones creates: - larger surface area for mucosa to remove dust and airborne pathogens - creates turbulence to slow down inflowing air so it increases contact w/ mucous membrane, removing debris from air
Identify the mechanisms by which the nose attempts to prevent airborne debris and pathogens from entering the airways and lungs
-vibrissae (course hairs) guard entrance to nose and filter our large particles -mucus secreted by goblet cells of mucous membrane lining nasal conchae trap smaller particles -mucus also contains lysozymes (bactericidal enzyme) that destroys bacteria -Cilia push small particles towards the pharynx
Describe the function of each of the three regions of the pharynx
Nasopharynx - passageway for air Oropharynx - passage for food and drink into the digestive tract Laryngopharynx - entry into digestive tract creating passage for food and drink into the digestive tract
Identify the other organ system to which the oropharynx belongs.
food borne pathogens from entering the body Identify the lymphoid structures that guard the entrance of the nasopharynx and oropharynx to prevent the entry of airborne or food borne pathogens from entering the body
pharyngeal (adenoid), palatine and lingual tonsils
Identify and describe the function(s) of the cricoid cartilage
-round cartilage connects the larynx to the trachea; -pressing it down compresses esophagus making it easier to bring tube into airway -Can also be used as location of emergency airway
Explain how sound is produced by the larynx and what determines the pitch and loudness of vocal (laryngeal) sounds and how these sounds are transformed into identifiable speech sounds.
-airflow passes through the adducted cords causes them to vibrate and produce a sound - Pitch - controlling the amount of tension on the cords - Volume - altering the force of air flowing past the cords
-continues passageway for air flow from the larynx -Another line of defense against the potential invasion of airborne pathogens and debris
Explain how the amount of airflow through the trachea can be adjusted to meet the body's demand
- trachealis muscles contract or relax to alter the diameter of the trachea and vary the flow of air
Describe the mechanisms by which the trachea attempts to prevent airborne debris and pathogens from entering the lower airways and lungs
-Mucociliary elevator - tracheal walls are lined with cilia that beat upward to move mucus and trapped debris upward toward pharynx to be expectorated or swallowed from reaching the lower respiratory tract and alveoli -helps prevent these particles from reaching the lower respiratory tract and alveoli
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