3photosynthesisThe process by which a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food.
4An organism that makes its own food. autotrophAn organism that makes its own food.
5heterotroph An organism that cannot make its own food. Many heterotrophs obtain food by eating other organisms. (lion, zebra, human)Some absorb their food from other organisms. (fungi)
6pigmentA color chemical compound that absorbs light and can be used to color other materials.
7chlorophyllThe main photosynthetic pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria.
8stomataSmall openings on a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move.
9Series (SIHR eez)NounA number of things or events of the same class coming one after another in a spatial or temporal succession.Ingesting food is the first step in a long series of mechanical and chemical steps.
10Photosynthesis Like baking cupcakes: “Recipe” for photosynthesis: Mix ingredients togetherBake in ovenYields 12 cupcakes“Recipe” for photosynthesis:Combine carbon dioxide and waterUse energy from sunlightYields a sugar molecule and 6 oxygen molecules
11Photosynthesis and Food Chains How do autotrophs get their food?They make their own food using sunlight and photosynthesis.How does the sun supply heterotrophs with energy?Heterotrophs get energy by eating plants or other animals that eat plants. The plants get their energy from sunlight, so heterotrophs get their energy from sunlight indirectly.
12What Happens During Photosynthesis? What are the two stages of photosynthesis?Capturing the sun’s energy and producing sugarsWhat is the energy captured in the first stage used for?To produce sugars in the second stage
13What Happens During Photosynthesis? What pigment in chloroplasts absorbs light?ChlorophyllHow is chlorophyll like a solar cell?Both chlorophyll and solar cells absorb light energy and use it to power a process.
14What Happens During Photosynthesis? What happens in the second stage?Water and carbon dioxide combine chemically to form sugars, and oxygen is released.How are roots and stomata important for photosynthesis?Roots take up water, and stomata take in carbon dioxide, both of which are needed for photosynthesis.
16The Photosynthesis Equation 6 Carbon Dioxide molecules combine with 6 water molecules due to a chemical reaction from light energy and produce one sugar molecule and 6 oxygen molecules!Light energyO2CO2H2OCO2H2OC6H12O6O2H2OCO2O2H2OO2CO2H2OO2CO2H2OO2CO26 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 and 6 O2
18respiration The process by which cells obtain energy from glucose. During respiration, cells break down simple food molecules such as sugar and release the energy they contain.
19fermentationThe process by which cells break down molecule to release energy without using oxygen.
20Constant (KAHN stunt) Noun Something invariable or unchanging. When birth and death rates are equal, a closed population will remain at a constant.
21What does a fire need to burn? What is released when fuel is burned? Background KnowledgeWhat does a fire need to burn?Fuel and oxygenWhat is released when fuel is burned?Energy in the form of heat and light
22RespirationA similar chemical process, called respiration, “burns” food molecules in cells.Like combustion, respiration uses fuel and oxygen to produce energy.The fuel comes from food, and the energy is used for cellular functions.
23What is Respiration?The process by which cells obtain energy from glucose.During respiration, cells break down simple food molecules such as sugar and release the energy they contain.All cells respire.
24Storing and Releasing Energy Like money in a bankStore it until you want to use itStore energyPlants: photosynthesis captures light energy and then stores it as sugar and carbohydrates.Animals: eat a meal – add to your energy savings account.Withdraw energy when needed
25Breathing and Respiration Respiration has two meanings.1. breathing – moving air into and out of lungs2. the process that takes place inside cells – sometimes called cellular respirationConnectionBreathing brings oxygen, which is usually necessary for cellular respiration, into your lungs.
26The Two Stages of Respiration Takes place in the cytoplasmGlucose molecules broken into smaller moleculesSmall amount of energy releasedStage 2Takes place in the mitochondriaThe small molecules are broken down even smallerLarge amount of energy released
27The Two Stages of Respiration Two products of respirationCarbon DioxideWater
28The Respiration Equation C6H12O6 + 6 O CO2 + 6 H2O + energyRaw materials for Respiration:SugarOxygen
29Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration Equations are opposite.Opposite processesThese two processes form a cycle that keeps the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide fairly constant in Earth’s atmosphere.
30Two methods of producing and using energy Two methods of producing and using energy. These methods work together to keep the atmosphere constant.
31Events During Respiration Reminder:The food you eat must be broken down to release energy it contains.What is the process called that releases energy from food?RespirationWhy is respiration important to cells?It provides cells with the energy they need to carry out their functions.
32Events During Respiration What happens in the first stage of respiration?Glucose is broken down into smaller molecules and a small amount of energy is released.What happens in the second stage of respiration?The smaller molecules are broken down into even smaller molecules and a large amount of energy is released.
33Apply It! Why do you think muscle cells have many mitochondria? The second stage of respiration, which produces lots of energy, takes place in the mitochondria.The large numbers of mitochondria in muscle cells supply a great amount of energy for movement.
34FermentationSome cells are able o obtain energy from food without using oxygen.Some single-celled organisms that live deep in the ocean or in the mud of lakes or swamps.Through fermentation, an energy-releasing process that does not require oxygen.
35Alcoholic Fermentation Occurs when yeast (and some single-celled organisms) break down sugars.Products of this process:AlcoholCarbon dioxideSmall amounts of energyImportant to Bakers and BrewersBread rises and has air pocketsCreates bubbles in in alcoholic drinks
36Lactic Acid Fermentation Occurs when muscle use up oxygen faster than it can be replacedFermentation occurs without oxygen to supply energy.Lactic Acid is a product of this type of fermentationYou would have sore and tired muscles.
37Obtaining Energy Without Oxygen What is the process in which energy is released without using oxygen?FermentationWhat are the products of alcoholic fermentation?Alcohol, carbon dioxide, and energy
38Obtaining Energy Without Oxygen What is a product of lactic-acid fermentation?Lactic AcidWhen might your body release energy using fermentation?If you are exercising so hard or long that your muscle cells cannot take up oxygen faster than it is being used.