3Photosystem 2Sunlight hits the Chlorophyll in the Thylakoid exciting the electronsExcited electrons go to the electron acceptor where they will eventually go through the Electron Transport ChainAt the same time, with the help of a water splitting enzyme, 2 water molecules are split into 4 H+, 4e- & O2 in a process called Photolysis
4PHOTOSYSTEM 2 (PRODUCTS FROM) SUNCHLOROPLASTSTROMATHYLAKOID MEMBRANETHYLAKOID SPACECHLOROPHYLL4 H+ & 4e- & O2H+H+ADP + PiATPH+ATP SYNTHASEe-e-e-e-PROTON PUMPH+H+H+H+O2H+H+CHEMIOSMOSISPHOTOLYSISELECTRON ACCEPTOR CONCENTRATION GRADIENT WITH H+ IS CREATED
5Photosytem 2 (ATP & Oxygen are created) Electrons that have gone to the electron acceptor now pass through the Electron Transport Chain which uses the energy gained to pump H+ from the Stroma to the Thylakoid creating a Concentration Gradiente- created by Photolysis replace e- in the chlorophyll lost to the Electron Transport ChainThe Concentration Gradient created by the Proton Pump creates an environment where the H+ pass back through the Thylakoid Membrane through the only pathway available, ATP Synthase
6Photosytem 2 (ATP & Oxygen are created) Energy created by the passing of the H+ through the ATP Synthase Phosphorylate ADP & Pi into ATP which is the product produced for Light Independent Reactions (Dark Reaction) that will occur in the StromaThis process is known as Chemiosmosis:e- goes through the Electron Transport Chain providing energy to pump H+ from the Stroma to the ThylakoidThis Creates a concentration GradientThe only path for the H+ to balance is by going through ATP SynthaseAs the H+ pass through ATP Synthase to get back to the Stroma, ATP is Phosphorylated thus creating ATP in the Stroma for use in the dark reactions (Light Independent Reactions)
7ATP is Created for use in Dark Reactions ATP is created in Photosystem 2 for later use in the Light Independent Reactions (Dark Reactions)Oxygen is also created during Photolysis (the splitting of water into H+, e- & O2)Oxygen is vital for survival in Cellular Respiration but not needed in PhotosynthesisThe only compound created by Photosystem 2 that is needed in Light Independent Reactions (Dark Reactions) is ATP
8PHOTOSYSTEM 1 SUN PHOTOSYSTEM 1 CHLOROPLAST STROMA THYLAKOID MEMBRANE THYLAKOID SPACECHLOROPHYLL4 H+ & 4e- & O2H+H+ADP + PiATPH+e-e-ATP SYNTHASEe-e-e-e-e-NADP REDUCTASEPROTON PUMPELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAINH+ELECTRONACCEPTORH+H+H+O2H+H+CHEMIOSMOSISPHOTOSYSTEM 1PHOTOLYSISELECTRON ACCEPTOR CONCENTRATION GRADIENT WITH H+ IS CREATED
9Photosystem 1Sunlight hits the Chlorophyll in the Thylakoid of Photosystem 1 exciting the electronsExcited electrons go to the electron acceptor where they will eventually go through the Electron Transport Chain NADP Reductase
10PHOTOSYSTEM 1 (PRODUCT FROM) SUNCHLOROPLASTSTROMATHYLAKOID MEMBRANETHYLAKOID SPACECHLOROPHYLL4 H+ & 4e- & O2H+NADPHH+ADP + PiATPNADP+ H+e-e-e-e-H+ATP SYNTHASEe-e-e-e-e-e-e-NADP REDUCTASEPROTON PUMPELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAINH+ELECTRONACCEPTORH+H+O2H+H+H+CHEMIOSMOSISPHOTOSYSTEM 1PHOTOLYSISELECTRON ACCEPTOR CONCENTRATION GRADIENT WITH H+ IS CREATED
11Photosystem 1 produces NADPH The excited e- pass through NADP Reductase and combine with NADP+ & H+ in the Stroma to form NADPHNADPH is the second compound created by Photosynthesis that is using in the Light Independent Reactions (Dark Reactions)The NADPH is created in the Stroma where the Light Independent Reactions Occur
12Photosystem 1 e- supplied by Photosystem 2 e- are supplied by electrons that went through the Electron Transport Chain that pumped H+ into the Thylakoid in Photosystem 2These e- replace e- that are excited by Sunlight hitting the Chlorophyll in Photosystem 1
13In SummarySunlight excites the electrons in the chlorophyll of Photosystems 2 & 1Photolysis in Photosystem 2 splits water into O2 , H+ & e-The e- produced by Photolysis replace e- excited and moved to the electron acceptors in Photosystem 2 &1
14H+ pumped from Stroma to Thylakoid Electrons excited and in the electron acceptor go through the Electron Transport Chain creating energy to pump H+ from the Stroma to the ThylakoidThis creates a GradientThe only pathway for the H+ to get back to the Stroma is through ATP SynthaseDuring the process of H+ passing through the ATP Synthase, ATP is Phosphorylated from ADP & Pi in the Stroma
15NADPH is Created from Photosystem 1 e- excited by sunlight in Photosystem 1 move to the electron acceptor and pass through the Electron Transport Chain NADP ReductaseThough NADP Reductase, these e- combine with NADP+ & H+ in the Stroma to form NADPHNADPH and ATP are the compounds created in Photosynthesis that are needed in the Independent Light Reactions (Dark Reactions)Oxygen is also created, which is vital for our planet, it is not used in the Light Independent Reactions
16Light Absorption Spectrum/Light Action Spectrum -What color is most absorbed?-What color is second most absorbed?-What colors are least absorbed?-What confirms that this color is least absorbed when we look at the color of leaves?
17Light Absorption of pigments in leaves Chlorophyll a and b as well as Carotenoid absorb blue light the mostChlorophyll a and b absorb red light the second mostLeaves absorb Blue and Red light the mostGreen light is not absorbed therefore is reflectedThis is why leaves appear green
18Light Action of Pigments in leaves What colors have the most action of colors absorbed by leaves?What colors have the least action of colors absorbed by leaves?How does this correlate with the absorption of light by leaves?
19Leaf Cross Section -Where does most photosynthesis occur? -Why does this area have the most photosynthesis occur here?
24Effect of Carbon Monoxide on Cell Resp Effect on Cellular RespirationWithout oxygen to accept electrons from the mitochondrial electron transport chains, aerobic respiration cannot occur.As a result, brain cells must rely on glycolysis alone to produce ATP.Glycolysis is much less efficient than aerobic respiration, and the cells cannot make enough ATP to meet their needs.