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NOTE: To change the image on this slide, select the picture and delete it. Then click the Pictures icon in the placeholder to insert your own image. PHOTOSYNTHESIS.

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Presentation on theme: "NOTE: To change the image on this slide, select the picture and delete it. Then click the Pictures icon in the placeholder to insert your own image. PHOTOSYNTHESIS."— Presentation transcript:

1 NOTE: To change the image on this slide, select the picture and delete it. Then click the Pictures icon in the placeholder to insert your own image. PHOTOSYNTHESIS Light Dependent Reactions (Light Reactions) Light Independent Reactions (Dark Reactions)

2 e- CHLOROPLAS T STROMA THYLAKOID MEMBRANE THYLAKOID SPACE CHLOROPHYLL WATER SPLITTING ENZYME 2--H2O MOLECULES SUN H2OH2O PHOTOSYSTEM 2 e- ELECTRON ACCEPTOR ETC (PROTON PUMP) PHOTOSYSTEM 2 H2OH2O ATP SYNTHASE

3 Photosystem 2  Sunlight hits the Chlorophyll in the Thylakoid exciting the electrons  Excited electrons go to the electron acceptor where they will eventually go through the Electron Transport Chain  At the same time, with the help of a water splitting enzyme, 2 water molecules are split into 4 H+, 4e- & O 2 in a process called Photolysis

4 e- CHLOROPLAS T STROMA THYLAKOID MEMBRANE THYLAKOID SPACE CHLOROPHYLL 4 H+ & 4e- & O 2 SUN PHOTOLYSIS e- ELECTRON ACCEPTOR CONCENTRATION GRADIENT WITH H+ IS CREATED PHOTOSYSTEM 2 (PRODUCTS FROM) H+ e- H+ O2O2 ATP SYNTHASE PROTON PUMP ADP + P i ATP H+ CHEMIOSMOSIS

5 Photosytem 2 (ATP & Oxygen are created)  Electrons that have gone to the electron acceptor now pass through the Electron Transport Chain which uses the energy gained to pump H+ from the Stroma to the Thylakoid creating a Concentration Gradient  e- created by Photolysis replace e- in the chlorophyll lost to the Electron Transport Chain  The Concentration Gradient created by the Proton Pump creates an environment where the H+ pass back through the Thylakoid Membrane through the only pathway available, ATP Synthase

6  Energy created by the passing of the H+ through the ATP Synthase Phosphorylate ADP & Pi into ATP which is the product produced for Light Independent Reactions (Dark Reaction) that will occur in the Stroma  This process is known as Chemiosmosis:  e- goes through the Electron Transport Chain providing energy to pump H+ from the Stroma to the Thylakoid  This Creates a concentration Gradient  The only path for the H+ to balance is by going through ATP Synthase  As the H+ pass through ATP Synthase to get back to the Stroma, ATP is Phosphorylated thus creating ATP in the Stroma for use in the dark reactions (Light Independent Reactions) Photosytem 2 (ATP & Oxygen are created)

7 ATP is Created for use in Dark Reactions  ATP is created in Photosystem 2 for later use in the Light Independent Reactions (Dark Reactions)  Oxygen is also created during Photolysis (the splitting of water into H+, e- & O 2 )  Oxygen is vital for survival in Cellular Respiration but not needed in Photosynthesis  The only compound created by Photosystem 2 that is needed in Light Independent Reactions (Dark Reactions) is ATP

8 e- CHLOROPLAS T STROMA THYLAKOID MEMBRANE THYLAKOID SPACE CHLOROPHYLL 4 H+ & 4e- & O 2 SUN PHOTOLYSIS e- ELECTRON ACCEPTOR CONCENTRATION GRADIENT WITH H+ IS CREATED PHOTOSYSTEM 1 H+ e- H+ O2O2 ATP SYNTHASE PROTON PUMP ADP + P i ATP H+ CHEMIOSMOSIS e- PHOTOSYSTEM 1 NADP REDUCTASE e- ELECTRO N ACCEPTO R ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

9 Photosystem 1  Sunlight hits the Chlorophyll in the Thylakoid of Photosystem 1 exciting the electrons  Excited electrons go to the electron acceptor where they will eventually go through the Electron Transport Chain NADP Reductase

10 e- CHLOROPLAS T STROMA THYLAKOID MEMBRANE THYLAKOID SPACE CHLOROPHYLL 4 H+ & 4e- & O 2 SUN PHOTOLYSIS e- ELECTRON ACCEPTOR CONCENTRATION GRADIENT WITH H+ IS CREATED PHOTOSYSTEM 1 (PRODUCT FROM) H+ e- H+ O2O2 ATP SYNTHASE PROTON PUMP ADP + P i ATP H+ CHEMIOSMOSIS e- PHOTOSYSTEM 1 NADP REDUCTASE ELECTRO N ACCEPTO R ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN e- NADP+ H+ NADPH e-

11 Photosystem 1 produces NADPH  The excited e- pass through NADP Reductase and combine with NADP+ & H+ in the Stroma to form NADPH  NADPH is the second compound created by Photosynthesis that is using in the Light Independent Reactions (Dark Reactions)  The NADPH is created in the Stroma where the Light Independent Reactions Occur

12 Photosystem 1 e- supplied by Photosystem 2  e- are supplied by electrons that went through the Electron Transport Chain that pumped H+ into the Thylakoid in Photosystem 2  These e- replace e- that are excited by Sunlight hitting the Chlorophyll in Photosystem 1

13 In Summary  Sunlight excites the electrons in the chlorophyll of Photosystems 2 & 1  Photolysis in Photosystem 2 splits water into O 2, H+ & e-  The e- produced by Photolysis replace e- excited and moved to the electron acceptors in Photosystem 2 &1

14 H+ pumped from Stroma to Thylakoid  Electrons excited and in the electron acceptor go through the Electron Transport Chain creating energy to pump H+ from the Stroma to the Thylakoid  This creates a Gradient  The only pathway for the H+ to get back to the Stroma is through ATP Synthase  During the process of H+ passing through the ATP Synthase, ATP is Phosphorylated from ADP & P i in the Stroma

15 NADPH is Created from Photosystem 1  e- excited by sunlight in Photosystem 1 move to the electron acceptor and pass through the Electron Transport Chain NADP Reductase  Though NADP Reductase, these e- combine with NADP+ & H+ in the Stroma to form NADPH  NADPH and ATP are the compounds created in Photosynthesis that are needed in the Independent Light Reactions (Dark Reactions)  Oxygen is also created, which is vital for our planet, it is not used in the Light Independent Reactions

16 Light Absorption Spectrum/Light Action Spectrum -What color is most absorbed? -What color is second most absorbed? -What colors are least absorbed? -What confirms that this color is least absorbed when we look at the color of leaves?

17 Light Absorption of pigments in leaves  Chlorophyll a and b as well as Carotenoid absorb blue light the most  Chlorophyll a and b absorb red light the second most  Leaves absorb Blue and Red light the most  Green light is not absorbed therefore is reflected  This is why leaves appear green

18 Light Action of Pigments in leaves  What colors have the most action of colors absorbed by leaves?  What colors have the least action of colors absorbed by leaves?  How does this correlate with the absorption of light by leaves?

19 Leaf Cross Section -Where does most photosynthesis occur? -Why does this area have the most photosynthesis occur here?

20 Parts of a Chloroplast

21 What goes on in the chloroplast STROMA THYLAKOI D

22 Cyclic Photosynthesis (Prokaryotes)

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24 Effect of Carbon Monoxide on Cell Resp  Effect on Cellular Respiration  Without oxygen to accept electrons from the mitochondrial electron transport chains, aerobic respiration cannot occur.  As a result, brain cells must rely on glycolysis alone to produce ATP.  Glycolysis is much less efficient than aerobic respiration, and the cells cannot make enough ATP to meet their needs.

25 Title and Content Layout with Chart

26 Two Content Layout with Table  First bullet point here  Second bullet point here  Third bullet point here Group 1Group 2 Class Class Class 38490

27 Title and Content Layout with SmartArt Task description Step 1 Title Task description Step 2 Title Task description Step 3 Title Task description Step 4 Title

28 Picture with Caption Layout Caption

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