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Hazmat Industry Technician
Types of Equipment Monitoring equipment Detection devices Air sampling systems
Purpose of Equipment Detect presence of substance Identify the substance Measure the concentration
Monitoring Equipment Continuously measure concentration Continuously measure concentration Detect fluctuations Detect fluctuations
Examples Flame ionization detectors Combustible gas indicators Photoionization detectors Specialized devices
Detection Devices One-time measuring devices Provide only positive or negative indication
Examples Test strips/indicator paper Carbon monoxide detector
Equipment in Both Categories pH paper Colorimetric tubes
Air Sampling Systems May be required for your worksite May be required for your worksite Measure long-term exposures Measure long-term exposures
Types of Air Sampling Systems Direct reading Collection systems
Caveat One size doesn’t fit all Each type has limitations
Types of Monitoring Instruments Photo Ionization Detectors (PID) Photo Ionization Detectors (PID) Flame Ionization Detectors (FID) Flame Ionization Detectors (FID)
Types of Monitoring Instruments Combustible Gas Indicators (CGI) Combustible Gas Indicators (CGI)
Types of Monitoring Instruments Substance specific Oxygen Carbon monoxide Hydrogen sulfide
Types of Monitoring Instruments Color change pH paper KI paper Lead acetate paper Colorimetric tubes
Capabilities and Limitations
Photo Ionization DetectorsPhoto Ionization Detectors Capabilities Detect wide variety of vapors Detects vapors at low concentrations Easy to use
Photo Ionization DetectorsPhoto Ionization Detectors Limitations Detection ability depends on lamp May need to be calibrated Corrosives kill it
Flame Ionization Detectors Capabilities Can detect more substances than a PID Can detect substances a PID can’t
Flame Ionization Detectors Limitations Heavier & bulkier than PID Can run out of hydrogen gas Won’t work well at low temperatures
Combustible Gas Indicators Capabilities Warns of flammable gases/vapors Accurate for most common gases Small, light & easy to use
Combustible Gas Indicators Limitations May not be accurate for a gas it’s not calibrated to Common substances can damage sensor Not accurate in oxygen-deficient atmosphere
Oxygen Sensors Capabilities Quickly & accurately measure O 2 level
Oxygen Sensors Limitations Lacks sensitivity of other sensors May be inaccurate in presence of oxidizing gases
Color Change Capabilities Provide quick indication of substance Limitation Detection range may be limited May not be specific to one substance
Monitoring & Detection Procedures #1 – identify IDLH conditions #1 – identify IDLH conditions
IDLH Conditions Lack of sufficient oxygen Lack of sufficient oxygen Oxygen-enriched atmosphere Oxygen-enriched atmosphere Flammable gases/vapors Flammable gases/vapors Highly toxic contaminants Highly toxic contaminants
Indications of IDLH Conditions Activated alarm system Visible vapor cloud Large amount of product leaking Dead stuff Insects, plants, etc.
Monitoring & Detection Procedures #2 – ID locations of IDLH conditions Examples in your worksite?
Monitoring & Detection Procedures #3 – measure level of contaminants #3 – measure level of contaminants
General Procedures Read the manual! Monitor for radioactivity Determine level of oxygen
Why Oxygen Level is Important Low O 2 – something displaced it High O 2 – not naturally occurring High O 2 – increased risk of fire/explosion Low O 2 – CGI may not work
More General Procedures Use pH paper Approach from upwind (if possible) Monitor high and low Zero reading? Doesn’t mean nothing is there1
Maintenance and Testing #1 – store and use properly #1 – store and use properly Read the manual! Read the manual!
Calibration Ensures instrument is accurate Follow manufacturer’s recommendations Written record? Does your workplace require it?
Bump Test Verifies calibration Expose instrument to known gas Bad bump test? Time for calibration
Detailed Procedures Read the manual Follow workplace procedures
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