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DJ Dorum 5/16/2013 Respiratory System.

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Presentation on theme: "DJ Dorum 5/16/2013 Respiratory System."— Presentation transcript:

1 DJ Dorum 5/16/2013 Respiratory System

2 Functions Supply body with Oxygen Removing excess Carbon Dioxide
Filter incoming air Regulate temp of air & water content of air Produce sounds Smell Blood pH

3 Structures Nose Larynx Nasal Cavity Trachea Paranasal sinuses
Upper Respiratory Tract Lower Respiratory Tract Nose Larynx Nasal Cavity Trachea Paranasal sinuses Bronchial Tree Lungs Pharynx

4 Nose & Nasal Cavity Nasal Cavity Nose
Hollow space behind nose Septum separates nostrils Nasal conchae on each side Many mucous cells Heats incoming air Mucus traps large particles Cilia push particle towards pharynx Nose Bones and cartilage support internally Two nostrils Hairs for guarding

5 Paranasal Sinuses Air-filled gaps Reduce weight Affect voice Located:
Maxillary Frontal Ethmoid Sphenoid

6 Pharynx Aka: Throat Passage way for food and air 3 parts: Nasopharynx
Oropharynx Laryngopharynx

7 Larynx Moves air in & out of trachea 2 folds:
Upper: False vocal Prevents foreign intrusion of trachea Lower: True vocal Houses vocal cords Glottis opens during breathing Made of cartilage & muscles Epiglottis covers glottis during swallowing 3 portions of cartilage: Thyroid Cricoid Epiglottic

8 Trachea A.k.a. windpipe Anterior to esophagus Splits into bronchi
About 20 C-shaped cartilage pieces in wall Posterior made of smooth muscle Used to prevent collapse Cilia line inner wall Helps with filtering

9 Bronchial tree Airways within lungs Begin with primary bronchi
Branch into smaller bronchioles Into terminal bronchioles Respiratory bronchioles after Alveolar ducts are smallest tubes Ducts lead to Alveolar sacs Sacs divided into Alveoli Diffusion takes place here

10 Lungs Soft and spongy Within Thoracic cavity
Serous membrane Viscera Pleura, turns into Parietal Pleura Space between them is pleural cavity

11 Mechanics Ventilation= breathing. Moving air in and out Inspiration
Expiration Diaphragm contracts, pressure in cavity drops Diaphragm relaxes, pressure in cavity rises Attraction of water in lungs can cause collapse Substance surfactant synthesized to prevent collapse Forces come from elastic recoil of cavity Pectoralis minor and sternocleidomastoid help both Ventilation= breathing. Moving air in and out

12 Lung Capacity Respiratory cycle = one inspiration plus following expiration Tidal volume: amount of air moving during normal inspiration/ expiration. Inspiratory reserve volume: Large breath in Expiratory reserve volume: Large breath out Residual volume: Amount of air after forced expiration Avg volumes: Tidal: 500 ml I.R: 3,000 ml E.R:1,100 ml of expelled air Residual: 1,200 ml

13 Respiratory Center Medulla Oblongata and Pons Two special areas:
Rhythmicity in Medulla Pneumotaxic in Pons

14 Medullary Rhythmicity Area
Two neuron groups dorsal respiratory group ventral respiratory group Dorsal controls inspiration Impulses tell diaphragm to contract Ventral used only during forceful breathing

15 Pneumotaxic area Continuosly emits bursts originating from dorsal group Controls breathing rate Strong pneumotaxic inhibition= faster breathing rate Weak pneumotaxic inhibition= slower rate

16 Insane in the Membrane! Walls of alveoli and capillaries are simple squamos Wall of capillaries and alveoli create respiratory membrane

17 Diffusion of gases Gases diffuse into blood
Concentration proportional to partial pressure Amount of pressure contributed by proportion If capillary pressure is higher than alveolar, CO2 diffuses into lungs If capillary pressure is lower than alveolar, O2 diffuses into bloodstream

18 Transport Oxygen Transport
Gases dissolve into plasma or blood compounds More O2 released if: CO2 concentration rises pH rises Most O2 transported by hemoglobin in red blood cells Temp increases O2 deficiency called hypoxia Product of combination is oxyhemoglobin Hypoxia possible causes: Decreased arterial Po2 Unstable compound Lack of ability of blood to transport O2 Quick to release into surrounding O2 deprived cells Inadequate blood flow Cyanide poisoning

19 Transport Cont’d Carbon Dioxide transported 3 forms:
CO2 binds to “globin” part of molecule Dissolved in Plasma (least amount transported) Does not compete with O2 for binding sites Part of hemoglobin compound (mid amount) Bonds form carbaminohemoglobin Bicarbonate ion (highest amount) CO2 reacts with water: CO2 + H2O -> H2CO3 Amount in plasma determined by partial pressure Occurs slowly in plasma Diffuses into red blood cells Cells have enzyme carbonic anhydrase

20 X-factors of breathing
Inflation relfex regulates depth of breath Prevents over inflation of lung Chemosensitive areas sense CO2 and pH changes in spinal fluid Rise in chemicals increases tidal volume and faster breathing rate Drop in chemicals triggers opposite response Carotid & Aortic bodies detect O2 levels Found in Carotid arteries and Aorta Low O2 levels trigger increased breathing rate Hyperventilation increases capacity Smoking Physical fitness

21 Works Cited "Body Systems: Respiratory System - The Human Heart: An Online Exploration from The Franklin Institute, made possible by Unisys." The Franklin Institute - Home N.p., n.d. Web. 2 May <>. "Hiccups -" Mayo Clinic. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 May <>. "Inspiration and Expiration." STCC Faculty Webpages. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 May < at.htm>. "Lung Disease - American Lung Association." Homepage - American Lung Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 May < disease/?gclid=CNai74LP-bYCFWQ6Qgodvw0AYA>. Shier, David. "Respiratory System." Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology Reprint. Boston: McGraw Hill, Print.

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