Presentation on theme: "Health, Fitness and the Factors affecting Performance"— Presentation transcript:
1 Health, Fitness and the Factors affecting Performance
2 - Health and fitness - Diet - Physical Activity - Fitness for Physical Activities.
3 HEALTH AND FITNESSHealth=“a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (World Health Organisation)Fitness=general or specificGeneral= fit for everyday activities. For this, you need 4 S’sStrengthStaminaSpeedSupplenessAlso included are:Cardiovascular endurance-muscles get enough oxygen to work properlyMuscular endurance-muscles don’t get tired too quicklyGood body composition-neither too thin or too fat
4 Specific=fitness to play sport at a high level. AGILITY-to change direction quicklyBALANCE-so you don’t fall overCOORDINATION-to move accurately and smoothlyEXPLOSIVE STRENGTH-strength combined with speedREACTIONS-to respond quicklyGOOD TIMING-to act at the right momentCardiovascular Fitness – keeping muscles supplied with oxygenMuscular Fitness – you can push, pull, throw, lift very hard or very quickly.
5 DIET PROTEINS Helps body grow and repair itself Found in foods such as meat, fish, eggs, milk and soya beans.CARBOHYDRATESProvide energySimple carbs-found in sweets, jam, cakes. You shouldn’t eat too much of these.Complex carbs-found in bread, pasta, rice, potatoes, cereal. These should make up the main part of your meal.FATProvide energy and keeps us warm.Saturated fats –found mainly in animal productsMonosaturated fats –found in many foods, like olive oilPolyunsaturated fats –found in some margarines and oils, and oily fishFat 30%Carbohydrates 55%Protein 15%
6 VITAMINSHelp bones, skin and teeth growNeeded for the body’s chemical reactionsFat-Soluble VitaminsCan be stored in the bodyVitamin A –useful for night vision and growth. Found in vegetables, eggs and liver.Vitamin D –strengthens bones. Made by the skin in sunshine, and found in milk, fish, liver and eggs.Water-Soluble VitaminsCan’t store, so need to be eaten regularly.Vitamin C –good for skin, connective tissue and gums. Found in fruit and veg, particularly citrus fruits.MINERALSBuilds healthy bones and teethHelp in various chemical reactionsCalcium–needed for strong bones and teeth, and muscle contraction. Found in green veg, milk, cheese and some fish.Iron–handy for haemoglobin in red blood cells. Found in liver, beans and green vegIodine–needed for thyroid hormones. Found in sea food.
7 WATERWater is needed in lots of chemical reactions in the body. It’s lost in your breath, sweat, urine and faeces.If you don’t drink enough to replace what your body uses or loses, you will suffer from dehydration, and won’t perform as well.If you drink too much, your kidneys will produce more urine to get rid of the excess.DIETARY FIBRENeeded to keep your digestive system working properlyLots of fibre in fruit and veg
8 CORRECT FOOD FOR EXERCISE BALANCED DIETContains all the nutrients you need in the right amounts for good healthA good way to achieve this is to eat a varied diet, with plenty of fruit and veg, but not too much fatIncluding food from each of the groups below can help with a balanced diet:Bread, cereal, potatoes, nuts, pulsesFruit and vegMeat and fishDairyCORRECT FOOD FOR EXERCISEDifferent sports place different demands on the body, so athletes need to eat specific foods. Weightlifters/sprinters need muscle power, so need lots of protein for muscle growth; Gymnasts need to be strong, but also light, so need a good balance of carbs, proteins and fat; Marathon runners need endurance, so need lots of carbs for energy.
9 EATING AROUND ACTIVITY You must eat at the right times if you want to perform well!Before an activityTop athletes increase their carb intake a few days before the event. This increases the amount of glycogen stored in the muscles, giving them plenty of energy. This is called carbohydrate loading.During an activityYou should not eat during exercise, but should definitely drink to replace the lost fluid.After an activityContinue to replace lost fluid, but do not eat immediately. After a couple of hours, you should start eating to replace spent energy.
10 Physical Activity EXERCISE Exercise helps physically, mentally and socially.PHYSICALImprove body shape, muscle tone and posture.Strengthens the bones, reduces the chance of illness and increases life expectancy.Increases strength, endurance, flexibility and overall fitness.MENTALGives you a challenge.Helps deal with tension and stress.Helps you to feel better about yourself, and increases self-confidence.SOCIALImproves teamwork and cooperation.Can help you meet new people and lead to new friendships.Can improve your image and bring in money.
11 You can hurt yourself exercising if you’re not careful You can hurt yourself exercising if you’re not careful. Below are a few simple guidelines to help you look after yourself:Exercise should be regular. 20 minutes 4 times a week will help, and you should start to see a difference.Start slowly, and increase the intensity as you become fitter.Do not overdo it!You can start to exercise simply by changing a few habits:Do not use the car; walk or cycle short distances.Use the stairs rather than the lift.
12 THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE When you exercise, your muscles start to produce more carbon dioxide, so need more oxygen……so you start to breath quicker and deeper,…and your heart beats faster to circulate more oxygenated blood.Your arteries widen to stop your blood pressure increasing…by the blood vessels either widening (vasodilation) or constricting (vasoconstriction)And to make the most of the blood supply, it is diverted to your muscles.The heart then stretches and pumps the blood strongerThe contracting muscles then squeeze the veins, so blood travels back to the heart quickly.As the muscles work they generate heat, which warms the blood……which is shunted (diverted) closer to the skin, so heat can radiate out of your body (why you go red)You also start to sweat, which helps you keep cool
13 THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE Heart rateWhen you stop exercising, your heart rate falls back to normal resting rate. The fitter you are, the quicker it fallsRecovery timeThis depends on how hard the activity was and how fit you are.Glycogen storesIt takes up to 48 hours to replace the glycogen lost through exercising.Lactic acid removalOxygen is still needed when you stop exercise to help get rid of lactic acid.
14 CIRCULATORY SYSTEMAerobic training can help in the following ways:Your body makes more red blood cells, so it can transport more O2Your arteries get bigger so your blood pressure fallsMore capillaries form in the muscles, so O2 is delivered betterYour heart gets bigger, and the walls get thickerAfter exercising, your heart rate falls back to normal quickerRESPIRATORY SYSTEMAerobic training can help in the following ways:The diaphragm and intercostal muscles get stronger, making the chest cavity largerTherefore, more air can be breathed in, so your vital capacity increasesMore capillaries grow around the alveoli, so more CO2 and O2 can be swapped at any timeGas exchange is quicker, so vigorous exercise can be kept up
15 Not only is aerobic training good for you, but also other sorts of exercise are beneficial. Endurance TrainingMakes your body better at using fat for energyMakes your muscles more efficient at using O2Increases you VO2 max (the amount of O2 your body can use in 1 minute)Strength TrainingMakes your muscles thicker, so they can contract stronger. This is called hypertrophy.Makes the tendons bigger and strongerAnaerobic TrainingMakes the walls of the heart thickerMakes your muscles put up with lactic acid for longer, and get rid of it better.
16 ENERGYFats, carbohydrates and proteins give you energy.The amount of energy needed to keep the heart beating and the body breathing is the basal metabolic rate (BMR)Total energy needed=BMR+energy used to work, play etc.If you eat more than your body needs, the extra energy is stored as adipose tissue (fat), and you gain weight. This can lead to obesity, which is when someone has at least 20% more body fat then the norm for their height and build. This places a lot of strain and the heart and muscles.If you eat less then you need, your body uses up the stores of adipose tissue, and you lose weight. Anorexia is a mental illness, when sufferers refuse to eat and therefore become dangerously thin. They often have a distorted image of themselves, thinking they need to lose weight.There are 2 key ways to lose weight:Eating a balanced dietGet plenty of exercise
17 CARDIOVASCULAR ENDURANCE MUSCULAR ENDURANCEThis is when your muscles can keep exerting a force for a long period of time.When your muscles get tired, they start to feel heavy or weak, and muscle fatigue sets in.Slow twitch fibres get tired less quickly.To improve your muscular endurance, muscles need to get stronger. Weight training is a good way of doing this.CARDIOVASCULAR ENDURANCEThis is how good you are at keeping your muscles supplied with O2.As your muscles work harder, they need more O2, so your breathing and heart rate get faster to move more O2 around the body.The more efficient the CV system is, the slower the pulse rate will be, and the quicker it will return to normal after exercise.To improve your CV endurance, you need to work your heart and lungs hard for at least 15 minutes. To do this, you should be working at 60-90% of your maximum heart rate. To work this out minus your age from 220.
18 RESPIRATIONThis is the process that releases energy from food, converting glucose into energy. There are 2 kinds of respiration:Aerobic respiration-with O2During aerobic activity, your heart and lungs supply the muscles with O2Glucose+O2 CO2+H2O+energyYou breath out the CO2 through your lungs, and lose water through sweat, urine or in the air.As long as your muscles are supplied with enough O2, you can take part in aerobic exercise, so this is used for long periods of exercise. EG Marathon runnersAnaerobic respiration-without O2Muscles are not supplied with enough O2 during thisGlucose+no O2 lactic acid+energyLactic acid builds up if there is a shortage of O2 (O2 debt). This is a mild poison, which makes the muscles feel tired, so is used over short, strenuous activities. EG Sprinters
19 STRENGTH, SPEED AND POWER These are closely linked, but all a bit different.There are 3 types of strength:Static – when you exert a force against an immovable object, muscles stay the same length, useful in arm wrestling and rugby scrumExplosive – when you exert a force in short, fast movement, useful in the javelin and high jumpDynamic – when you apply a force repeatedly over a long period of time, useful for press-ups and cyclingFor speed, you need fast reaction times-the time it takes you to respond to something (a starter’s gun, or a pass in football), and fast movement times-the time it takes you to carry out a movement (a shot on goal, or 100m sprint)Power is strength and speed combined.
20 FLEXIBILITYFlexibility or suppleness has many benefitsStretching gets you ready to work – important part of a warm upBetter performance – you can’t do some sports without being flexible. Gymnastics for example. It can also make you more efficient in sports like swimming and hurdles.Fewer injuries – the more flexible you are, the less likely you are to pull or strain a muscle.Better posture – bad posture can lead to deformity of the spine, as well as straining the back and abdominal muscles. It can also impair breathing.There are 2 ways to improve your flexibilityActive stretching – you stretch your muscles slowly and gently. Don't bounce as it can damage muscle fibresPassive stretching – a partner stretches your muscles.
21 FLEXIBILITYFlexibility or suppleness has many benefitsStretching gets you ready to work – important part of a warm upBetter performance – you can’t do some sports without being flexible. Gymnastics for example. It can also make you more efficient in sports like swimming and hurdles.Fewer injuries – the more flexible you are, the less likely you are to pull or strain a muscle.Better posture – bad posture can lead to deformity of the spine, as well as straining the back and abdominal muscles. It can also impair breathing.There are 2 ways to improve your flexibilityActive stretching – you stretch your muscles slowly and gently. Don’t bounce as it can damage muscle fibresPassive stretching – a partner stretches your muscles.
22 Fitness For Physical Activity THE SKELETONSUPPORTRigid frame for the rest of the bodySupports the soft tissueWithout the skeleton, we would collapseSHAPEOur body shape it due to the skeletonPROTECTIONBones are toughThey protect delicate organs, like the brain, heart and lungsMOVEMENTThere are many jointsMuscles, attached by tendons can move different bonesMAKING BLOOD CELLSLong bones contain bone marrow, which makes the new blood cells
23 BONESBones are formed by the ossification of cartilage.All bones start off as cartilage in the womb, and gradually turn into bone.They have a tough outer layer called the periosteum.Some types of bone are light, but tough. These tend to contain red marrow, where red blood cells are made.The marrow cavity contains yellow marrow, where white blood cells are made.There are 4 different types of bone:Long…like the femurShort…like the carpels and tarselsFlat…like some bones in the skullIrregular…like the vertebrae
24 JOINTSDifferent types of connective tissue join muscles to bones:CARTILAGE – forms a cushion between the bone, to prevent them rubbing togetherLIGAMENTS – similar to a strong piece of string, that hold bones togetherTENDONS – attach muscle to bone or to other muscleJOINTSThere are 3 different types of joints:FIXED (IMMOVABLE) – also known as fibrous joints. Hold the bones together, like between the bones in the skull.SLIGHTY MOVABLE – also known as cartilaginous joints. Each bone rests on a cartilage, like in the vertebrae. Ligaments stop the bones from moving too far.FREELY MOVABLE – also known as synovial joints. These contain synovial fluid inside the synovial membrane, which lubricates the joints, like in the shoulder.
25 JOINTSThere are 5 types of joint movement:Extension – opening a jointFlexion – closing a jointAdduction – moving towards an imaginary centre lineAbduction – moving away from an imaginary centre lineRotation – turning a limb clockwise or anti-clockwiseJOINTSThere are 5 types of movable joints:BALL AND SOCKETFound in the hip and shoulderCan move an all directions, and rotate, allowing all 5 types of movement.HINGEFound in the elbow and kneeCan go backwards and forwards, but not sideways, allowing flexion and extensionPIVOTFound in the neck, between the axis and atlas bones, allowing only rotationCONDYLOIDFound in the wristCan move forwards and backwards, left to right, but not rotate, allowing flexion, extension, adduction and abductionGLIDINGFound between the carpels or tarselsCan move a little in all directions by sliding over one another
26 MUSCLESThere are 3 types of muscle:CARDIAC MUSCLEOnly found in the heartContract and relax continuouslyWork without conscious effortINVOLUNTARY MUSCLEAround organs like the intestinesVOLUNTARY MUSCLESAttached to the skeletonUnder your control
27 Muscles are made up of fibres, which are either fast twitch or slow twitch. Everybody has a similar number of fibres, but different people have different proportions of fast twitch and slow twitchPeople who are fit and have larger muscles have fatter fibres, so more are ready to be used.Nerve impulses tell the muscle to contract when it needs to.Complex movements are made by the coordination of nerve impulses sent to the muscle by the nervous system.Fast twitch and slow twitch are good for different things.Fast twitch fibres contract very quickly and powerfully, but get tired quickly. Sprinters and shot-putters have lots of fast twitch fibresSlow twitch fibres contract more slowly and with less force, but don’t get tired so quickly. Long distance runners have more slow twitch fibres.
28 To make a joint move in two directions, you need two muscles that pull in the opposite direction. Antagonistic muscles are pairs of muscles that work against one anotherOne muscle contracts (shortens) whilst the other relaxes (lengthens)The muscle that is doing the work (contracting) is the agonistThe relaxing muscle is the antagonistWe also have muscles called synergists. These hold the stationary bone still, so only one bone moves eg when the bicep contracts to bend the elbow, synergists stop the shoulder moving.ISOMETRIC CONTRACTIONThe muscle stays the same length, so nothing movesISOTONIC CONTRACTIONThe muscle changes length, so movesMuscle Fatigue – if you use your muscles a lot and they don’t get enough O2, they feel tired or fatiguedMuscle Atrophy – if you don’t use your muscles, they become smallerCramp – a sudden contraction of a muscle that won’t relaxMuscles never fully relax, they always have some tension in them This is called muscle tone, which is improved by regular exercise.
29 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM This is everything we use to breathe and supply our bodies with O2. We breath air into our lungs. O2 is then transported around our body by our blood.Air passes through the nose or mouth into the tracheaTRACHEATRACHEAThe trachea splits into 2 tubes called the bronchi, one going to each lungBRONCHIBRONCHIOLESThe bronchi split into smaller tubes, called the bronchiolesThe bronchioles end up at small bags called the alveoli, where gaseous exchange takes place.ALVEOLI
30 There are millions of alveoli in our lungs, where gaseous exchange takes place. When we breath, CO2 moves from the blood into the alveoli. O2 moves to the red blood cells, which contain haemoglobin. This combines with the O2 to make oxyhaemoglobin. The red blood cells carry O2 around the body, taking it to where its needed. Whilst this is taking place, the blood collects the CO2 to take it back to the lungs.The air we breath out has less O2, because the body has used some of it up through the respiration process.
31 BREATHINGBreathing in (inspiration)The intercostal muscles and diaphragm contract to widen the chest cavityAir is pushed into the lungs by the air pressure outsideBreathing out (expiration)The intercostal muscles and diaphragm relax to make the chest cavity smallerThe lungs are squeezed and air is forced outWhen you exercise, your body needs more O2 to make the muscles work. Therefore, you breath more quickly and your heart pumps faster, so the red blood cells can travel faster to deliver more O2. This increases your O2 uptake.
32 THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM This has 3 functions:TRANSPORT – moving things around the body in the bloodstream, such as O2, nutrients, water and wasteCONTROLS BODY TEMPERATURE – more blood near the skin cools the body quickerPROTECTION – moving antibodies around the body to fight disease.Humans have a double circulation. Each time blood goes around your body it goes through the heart twice (double circulation). This happens because there are 2 circuits:The systemic circuit – this is the main circuit which carries oxygenated blood around the body in the arteries, and deoxygenated blood back to the heart along the veinsThe pulmonary circuit – this includes the heart and lungs, and carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated.Oxygenated blood – has more O2, and found in all arteries (except pulmonary artery)Deoxygenated blood – has less O2, and is found in all veins (except pulmonary vein)
33 Blood pressure gives us two readings: Systolic pressure – pressure of the blood in the arteries when the left ventricle contractsDiastolic pressure – pressure of the blood in the arteries when the left ventricle relaxesIt can be affected by many thingsAge – increases with ageGender – generally higher in menExercise – reduces in ling term increases in short termStress – increasesIf your blood pressure remains high, you could be at risk from the following:Angina – sharp pains in the chest, caused by the heart not getting enough O2Heart attacks – the heart stopping because it is starved of O2Strokes – damage to the brain due to no O2
34 BLOOD VESSELSThere are 3 types of blood vessel:ARTERIES – carry oxygenated blood away from the heart. Have thick, strong, elastic walls to cope with the pressure. Small arteries are called arterioles.VEINS – carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Have thinner walls, because the blood is a lower pressure. Have valves to keep the blood going on the right direction. Small veins are called venulesCAPILLARIES – carry food and O2 directly to the tissues, and take the waste away from them. Very small, with very thin walls.RED BLOOD CELLS – carry O2 around the body. They have no nucleusWHITE BLOOD CELLS – fight against disease by destroying bacteria, toxins and foreign microbesPLASMA – carries everything in the bloodstream, including cells, digested food, water, hormonesPLATELETS – small fragments of cells with no nucleus, which help to clot wounds