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Neardrowning: Prehospital and Emergency Department Management James Hoekstra, MD, FACEP Ohio State University.

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Presentation on theme: "Neardrowning: Prehospital and Emergency Department Management James Hoekstra, MD, FACEP Ohio State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Neardrowning: Prehospital and Emergency Department Management James Hoekstra, MD, FACEP Ohio State University

2 Case Report: Neardrowning 17 year old male ejected from a boat during a violent turn in a fresh water reservoir Pulled from the water by friends Unconscious, not breathing at the scene Given mouth to mouth Total time submerged: 3-5 minutes EMS arrival in 20 minutes

3 Case Report: EMS At EMS arrival, breathing but unconscious BP 130/90, P 110, R 24, good BS Obvious head injury with parietal scalp laceration, moving all fours to pain Backboard and C-collar immobilization O2 per face mask, monitor Transport, IV established en route

4 Case Report: ED Arrival Airway: Guarded, alert but confused Breathing: R 32, good BS, Pulse Ox 96% on 100% FM Circulation: Good color, BP 140/100, P 130, pulses X 4 Neuro: Alert but confused, purposeful X 4 No signs of external trauma except scalp lac

5 Critical Actions IV X2, O2 FM, Monitor Tetanus, Ancef CXR, CS, Pelvis ECG Labs sent, ABG sent Foley cath inserted NG inserted Secondary survey: No apparent trauma

6 Laboratory Results pH 7.30/pO2 72/pCO2 32/HCO3 16 ECG: Sinus Tach, NAD CS and pelvis films normal WBC 14K, Hb 14, Hct 42 Na 134, K 3.9, Cl 104, CO2 17, Glucose 133. Renal function normal EtOH.130

7 Clinical Course CT head normal CT abd normal C, T, L spine films normal Scalp wound closed in the ED Sedated for combativeness with Midazolam Admitted to SICU

8 Clinical Course, Cont. Ventilation and oxygenation deteriorates, requiring intubation and ventilation PEEP at high levels Barotrauma with bilateral chest tubes, sub Q air Fever, purulent sputum, IV broad spectrum antibiotics instituted Rocky course, SICU on vent for 3 weeks. D/C after 5 weeks in the hospital

9 Neardrowning Nomenclature Epidemiology Pathophysiology Prognostics Prehospital Management Hospital Management

10 Nomenclature Drowning Neardrowning Secondary Drowning Wet drowning Dry drowning Immersion Syndrome

11 Epidemiology 7-8000 reported cases per year in US 40% are children 0-5 years old 1% of pediatric ICU admissions Male predominance Backyard pools Lack of supervision, seizures

12 Epidemiology Adult drowning, third most common cause of accidental death Alcohol, alcohol, alcohol Boys 15-19 Trauma, diving most common mechanism 90% within 10 feet of safety Swimming ability not a risk factor

13 Pathophysiology of Drowning Submersion Panic and Flailing (if conscious) Inhalation and aspiration or laryngospasm Hypoxia Cardiopulonary arrest

14 Near Drowning Pathophysiology Hypoxic episode interrupted with ROSC End organ damage with –ARDS (often delayed) –Hypoxic encephalophy –Renal failure (ATN) –Pancreatic necrosis –DIC –Cardiac dysrrhythmias

15 Fresh Water Inhalation (90%) Hypotonic load to alveoli Water absorbed into circulation Surfactant washout Alveolar cell damage Chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema Hypervolemia Hyponatremia Hemodilution Hemolysis

16 Salt Water Inhalation (10%) Hypertonic load to alveoli Protein rich effusion into alveoli Surfactant damage, alveolar basement membrane damage Alveolar cell damage Chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema Hypovolemia Hypernatremia Hemoconcentration

17 Salt versus Fresh Water Modell, series of 91 near drowning victims No significant electrolyte abnormalities No difference in treatment, but be vigil Differences in bacteria, chemical composition (chlorine), and temperature of the aspirated water more significant Conn: Animal model

18 Hypothermia Water conduction of heat Pulmonary heat exchange Cold water absorption Temperature of water a factor in fresh water near drowning Symptoms vary with degree of hypothermia Is hypothermia destructive or protective?

19 Prognostic Factors Submersion Time? Level of hypothermia? CPR? Mental Status? Combinations?

20 Submersion Time and Prognosis Frates: No correlation in time of submersion and survival Quan and Kinder: Duration of submersion >10 minutes predicts bad outcome (6/6) Field resuscitation >25 minutes predicts bad outcome (17/17)

21 CPR and Prognosis 66 near drowning patients in warm water 25% of victims who were under CPR with GCS of 3 in the ED survived intact, 50% died, 25% neurologically impaired 91% of patients who were still GCS 3 in the ICU either died or were persistently vegetative state Peterson: All who arrived under CPR died or were damaged

22 Hypothermia and Prognosis Many case reports of long submersion up to 45 minutes with survival in cold water In warm water, hypothermia is an indication of prolonged submersion time, a bad prognostic factor

23 Neurologic Status and Prognosis Kemp and Sibert: 188 admissions, dilated pupils 6 hours after admission had poor outcome, reactive pupils on ED admission 33% recovered intact, 33% with neurologic impairment Lavel and Shaw: 44 admissions: Nonreactive pupils and GCS <5 poor outcome Dean: GCS <5, unreactive pupils, poor outcome

24 Conn et al: Neurologic Classification and Prognosis Classification based on 105 patients A: Awake B: Blunted C: Comatose C1: Decorticate C2: Decerebrate C3: Flaccid

25 Other Predictors Initial pH Age Cardiac standstill Cardiotonic medications Best Predictor: Resuscitation effectiveness determined 12-24 hours after admission

26 Prehospital Management ABC’s Initiation of ventilation is the only way to interrupt the submersion time C-Spine control, backboard IV, O2, monitor, pulse ox ACLS if needed, with attention to hypothermia concerns Correction of acidosis NO HEIMLICH

27 Prehospital Management Cont. Passive Rewarming Rapid Transport All neardrowning victims need evaluation at a medical facility History is important

28 ED Management ABC’s, with C-spine control IV, O2, Monitor, Pulse Ox CXR ABGs Electrolytes Trauma workup, primary and secondary assessment. Treatment of Complications

29 Hospital Management Pulmonary Support Rewarming Cerebral Resuscitation

30 Pulmonary Support O2 Intubation and Ventilation PEEP Steroids? Antibiotics? New ventilation techniques ECMO Liquid Ventilation Surfactant Therapy

31 Rewarming Passive External Active External (beware of afterdrop) Active Internal –IV –Vent –NG/Bladder/Peritoneal –Bypass

32 Cerebral Resuscitation Frequent neurologic exams ICP monitoring Resuscitation techniques –Steroids/Mannitol –Barbiturates –Hypothermia –HYPER

33 Conn et al: HYPER Hyperhydration: diuretics and fluid restriction Hyperventilation: pCO2 30-35 mmHg Hyperpyrexia: hypothermia to 30 degrees C Hyperexcitability: barbiturate coma Hyperrigidity: paralysis Effective in C2 and C1 patients, not C3 Not supported elsewhere in the literature

34 Conclusions Neardrowning is a common cause of accidental death Remember: –Initiate ventilation early –Don’t forget trauma as a cause –Aggressive treatment of complications: Head, Lung, and Temperature

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