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There are 3 ways things move in and out of a cell. 1. Diffusion (Passive Transport) 2. Osmosis (Passive Transport) 3. Active Transport.

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Presentation on theme: "There are 3 ways things move in and out of a cell. 1. Diffusion (Passive Transport) 2. Osmosis (Passive Transport) 3. Active Transport."— Presentation transcript:

1 There are 3 ways things move in and out of a cell. 1. Diffusion (Passive Transport) 2. Osmosis (Passive Transport) 3. Active Transport

2 Diffusion Movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration.

3 Osmosis The diffusion of just water molecules through membranes. A simple rule to remember is: the water from one side of a membrane to another

4 Active Transport The movement of molecules through the membrane using energy.

5 Photosynthesis and Respiration ► Photosynthesis ► Respiration ► Fermentation

6 Fun Facts ► The first cells on the earth are thought to have been capable of neither photosynthesis nor respiration. ► However, photosynthesis must have preceded respiration on the earth, since there is strong evidence that billions of years of photosynthesis were required before O2 had been released in sufficient quantity to create an atmosphere rich in this gas. (The earth's atmosphere presently contains 20% O2.)

7 Forests are sometimes called Earth’s lungs because they produce much of the oxygen we breathe…but they produce only 50% of the oxygen!

8 Kelp, coral with photosynthetic algae, and diatoms (algae) help create the other 50% of the oxygen.

9 Photosynthesis ► Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, and some bacteria, use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar. Photosynthesis

10 Photosynthesis IN: Sunlight Water Water CO2 CO2 OUT: O2 ATP (glucose) ATP (glucose)

11 How does the plant get: 1. Water 2. CO 2 3. Sunlight

12 Water ► Plants suck up water through their Xylem and let the water flow out in a Phloem.

13 CO 2 ► Plants let O 2 and CO 2 in and out through little openings under their leaves called stoma. Pea Leaf Stoma

14 Sunlight The process of photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts, specifically using chlorophyll, the green pigment involved in photosynthesis. chloroplastschlorophyll chloroplastschlorophyll

15 Why Green? ► Chlorophyll, the green pigment in Chloroplasts, absorbs all wavelengths of light except green, which is reflected to our eyes.

16 Why do leaves lose the green? ► As the chlorophyll in leaves decays in the autumn, the green color fades and is replaced by the oranges and reds of carotenoids (other pigments covered by the green chlorophyll)

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19 Question: What does the plant do to break the glucose into energy? Answer: RESPIRATE (yes, just like you and me)

20 Fact: We need plants to produce O 2 for us to breathe. Question: Do plants need us to produce CO 2 for them?

21 ANSWER: NO. Plants use CO 2 to create Carbohydrate and O 2 to break the carbohydrates into energy.

22 Respiration So what is respiration? During respiration, glucose reacts with oxygen to produce energy. Energy is needed for growth, repair and movement. Water and carbon dioxide are bi-products of respiration - they need to be excreted. ALL LIVING ORGANISMS (even plants!) NEED TO RESPIRATE!

23 Lingo… Respiration is the release of energy from glucose or another organic chemical. Aerobic Respiration requires oxygen. Anaerobic Respiration does not require oxygen and releases less energy. (Breathing: act of pulling air in/out)

24 Where in the cell does respiration occur? In plants: the mitochondria In animals: the mitochondria

25 Mitochondria Mitochondria are very important organelles - it is in the mitochondria that respiration occurs. There are thousands of them in every cell in your body. When Glucose enters the cell, it is broken down into smaller molecules. (AKA: Glycolysis) Those smaller molecules are taken in by the mitochondria, and with O2, are turned into ATP (energy) (AKA: Respiration)

26 Types of Respiration ► Aerobic Respiration ► Anaerobic Respiration  Lactic Acid Fermentation  Alcoholic Fermentation

27 Aerobic Respiration ► The use of O2 to break the glucose into ATP (energy) ► Lots of Energy is released by this process. Glucose + Oxygen = Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy

28 Anaerobic Respiration ► Also known as Fermentation ► Anaerobic Respiration is the release of energy from glucose in the absence of oxygen. ► It only produces a little bit of energy (only 2 ATPs) ► It occurs where there is little O 2 (single-cell organisms in ponds) or when there is not enough O 2 in the cells. ► Two Types of Fermentation:  Lactic Acid Fermentation  Alcoholic Fermentation

29 Lactic Acid Fermentation ► The side effects of Lactic Acid Fermentation is Muscle Fatigue, Pain, Cramps, and you feel Soreness. ► Fermentation is a series of enzymatic reactions where glucose is incompletely metabolized into lactate. ► Fermentation is a series of enzymatic reactions where glucose is incompletely metabolized into lactate.

30 Alcoholic Fermentation ► Occurs in yeast and some single-celled organisms. Sugar ====> Alcohol + Carbon dioxide gas (Glucose) (Ethyl alcohol) Bread Root beer Cheese

31 Getting the O 2 in and CO 2 out All vertebrate animals that live on land have lungs. When we breathe in, the muscle below the rib cage (called the diaphragm) is pulled down, and air gets sucked into the rib cage, filling the lungs. Blood cells circulating through tiny blood vessels near the lungs pick up oxygen and carry it around the body to the sites of respiration. Air is then forced out of the lungs as the diaphragm bows upwards.

32 Birds are different from humans in many ways. As you probably know, they fly, and their bodies are well adapted for flight. Their lungs are very efficient: they take in much more oxygen per breath than other animals do. Because they get this extra oxygen they have lots of energy to direct to the flight muscles in their wings - they can flap away for hours!

33 Frogs and toads have lungs, but when they are in water they can also breathe through their skin.

34 ► What animal does not have lungs? How do they breathe?

35 Most fish use gills to breathe. Gills are structures that allow water to pass through very fine channels. Next to these channels are blood vessels, with very thin walls that let the oxygen move from the water into the blood.

36 If there's oxygen in the water, then why can't humans breathe water? ► Because oxygen has to move from the water into our blood, which is much slower than when oxygen moves from the air into our blood. Gills are specialized to handle this slow movement, but our lungs can't pick up oxygen from the water fast enough to keep us alive, which is why we drown if we try to breathe water.

37 Movement of O 2

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41 Review ► NOVA NOVA


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