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8 July 2004 Page 1 Training Package TP 01/04 Oxygen Deficiency Disclaimer All publications of AIGA or bearing AIGA’s name contain information, including.

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Presentation on theme: "8 July 2004 Page 1 Training Package TP 01/04 Oxygen Deficiency Disclaimer All publications of AIGA or bearing AIGA’s name contain information, including."— Presentation transcript:

1 8 July 2004 Page 1 Training Package TP 01/04 Oxygen Deficiency Disclaimer All publications of AIGA or bearing AIGA’s name contain information, including Codes of Practice, safety procedures and other technical information that were obtained from sources believed by AIGA to be reliable and/ or based on technical information and experience currently available from members of AIGA and others at the date of the publication. As such, we do not make any representation or warranty nor accept any liability as to the accuracy, completeness or correctness of the information contained in these publications. While AIGA recommends that its members refer to or use its publications, such reference to or use thereof by its members or third parties is purely voluntary and not binding. AIGA or its members make no guarantee of the results and assume no liability or responsibility in connection with the reference to or use of information or suggestions contained in AIGA’s publications. AIGA has no control whatsoever as regards, performance or non performance, misinterpretation, proper or improper use of any information or suggestions contained in AIGA’s publications by any person or entity (including AIGA members) and AIGA expressly disclaims any liability in connection thereto. AIGA’s publications are subject to periodic review and users are cautioned to obtain the latest edition.  AIGA AIGA grants permission to reproduce this publication provided the Association is acknowledged as the source Asia Industrial Gases Association 298 Tiong Bahru Road, #20-01 Central Plaza, Singapore Internet: http//www.asiaiga.org

2 8 July 2004 Page 2 Acknowledgement This document is adopted from the European Industrial Gases Association document “Oxygen Deficiency”and acknowledgement and thanks are hereby given to EIGA for permission granted for the use of their document

3 8 July 2004 Page 3 OXYGEN DEFICIENCY ASPHYXIATION DANGER

4 8 July 2004 Page 4 It's a phenomenon INSIDIOUS SUDDEN WITHOUT WARNING A SERIOUS HAZARD ASPHYXIATION DANGER

5 8 July 2004 Page 5 3 WEEKS WITHOUT FOOD 3 DAYS WITHOUT DRINK 3 MINUTES WITHOUT BREATHING ENDANGER YOUR LIFE 2 BREATHS WITHOUT OXYGEN

6 8 July 2004 Page 6 IN CASE OF TOTAL OXYGEN DEFICIENCY the blood suddenly loses its oxygen SUDDEN O2 DEFICIENCY BLOOD ATMOSPHERE WITHOUT O2 O2O2 CO 2 WITH 0% OXYGEN, THE SECOND BREATH WILL CAUSE WITHOUT WARNING LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS WITHOUT WARNING WITHIN A FEW MINUTES, BRAIN DAMAGE MAY BE IRREVERSIBLE O2 content in blood O2 content in blood NORMAL CONDITION BLOOD ATMOSPHERE O2O2 CO 2

7 8 July 2004 Page 7 IN CASE OF PROGRESSIVE OXYGEN DEFICIENCY Oxygen content is decreasing in blood These symptoms are similar to those of general malaise and are not recognised as asphyxiation by the victim (inert gases are odourless, colourless, tasteless) The victim tries to overcome this by himself THE VICTIM DOES NOT CALL FOR HELP CAN'T REACT OVER A CERTAIN THRESHOLD, THE VICTIM CAN'T REACT : THE LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS IS SUDDEN CAN'T REACT OVER A CERTAIN THRESHOLD, THE VICTIM CAN'T REACT : THE LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS IS SUDDEN BUTBUT O2 content less than 18% 8 Vertigo 8 headache 8 speech difficulties ß Progressive asphyxiation 8 reduction and loss of consciousness 8 dulling of the mind 8 loss of muscle control

8 8 July 2004 Page 8 With less than 6% of oxygen : With less than 6% of oxygen : immediate loss of consciousness immediate loss of consciousness all In all cases: NEVER THE VICTIM NEVER REALISES THE RISK BUTBUT

9 8 July 2004 Page 9 If the blood fails in bringing oxygen:  Cells don't operate anymore  Loss of consciousness DEATH  Irreversible consequences (paralysis, comatose state,...)..... DEATH OXYGEN OXYGEN IS ESSENTIAL FOR : HUMAN LIFE BRAIN and BRAIN PROCESSES

10 8 July 2004 Page 10 REMEMBER BUT.... REMEMBER : Asphyxiation is a phenomenon...  INSIDIOUS  SUDDEN  WITHOUT WARNING ASPHYXIATION DANGER

11 8 July 2004 Page 11 IN ALL THE CONFINED SPACES THEDANGER OFASPHYXIATION may arise

12 8 July 2004 Page 12 confined space any A confined space is a space which has any of the following characteristics :  Limited opening for entry and exit  Unfavourable natural ventilation  Not designed for continuous worker occupancy How can you identify a confined space ? ASPHYXIATION DANGER

13 8 July 2004 Page 13 If you are required to construct or work in a : Boiler, cupola, degreaser, furnace, pipeline, pit, pumping station, reaction or process vessel, septic tank, sewage digester, sewer, silo, storage tank, ship's hold, utility vault, vat, Boiler, cupola, degreaser, furnace, pipeline, pit, pumping station, reaction or process vessel, septic tank, sewage digester, sewer, silo, storage tank, ship's hold, utility vault, vat, or similar type of enclosure... You are working in a confined space You are working in a confined space How can you identify a confined space ? ASPHYXIATION DANGER

14 8 July 2004 Page 14 Attention ! O2 deficient atmospheres can arise also in normal working areas, when gases are stored or used ASPHYXIATION DANGER

15 8 July 2004 Page 15 You must : Be aware of the risk, Always implement a safe system of work before allowing people to enter into a confined space Be aware of the risk, Always implement a safe system of work before allowing people to enter into a confined space ASPHYXIATION DANGER

16 8 July 2004 Page 16 You must : ASPHYXIATION DANGER Make operators aware of the risk Implement a procedure to authorise the access Warn people of the danger, place signs at entrances to areas where O2 deficiency may arise Develop and apply safety measures

17 8 July 2004 Page 17 You must also : ASPHYXIATION DANGER Develop and apply appropriate safety measuresAND Always monitor the oxygen content

18 8 July 2004 Page 18 IN ALL CASES: Inform about the risk Train in the method to detect the danger PLACE SIGNS TO WARN OF THE DANGER TO ALERT THE OPERATORS ASPHYXIATION DANGER

19 8 July 2004 Page 19 RESCUE Rescuers must be trained in and follow established emergency procedures and use appropriate equipment and techniques Rescue should be well planned and drills should be conducted frequently on emergency procedures Remember Remember : an unplanned rescue will probably be your last ASPHYXIATION DANGER

20 8 July 2004 Page 20 KEY WORD : When you design a gas installation When you install and commission a gas installation When you work on a gas installation Before acting in an emergency or abnormal event Before reacting to any accident or incident

21 8 July 2004 Page 21 RESPECT PRODUCT SPECIFIC CONNECTIONS designed to segregate product IDENTIFY PIPES INFORM users : Safety data sheets, safety notices NEVER IMPROVISE REPAIRS on installations MISTAKES IN GAS USE : Preventive measures

22 8 July 2004 Page 22 ALWAYS CHECK WHERE GAS RELEASES WILL GO: s the cold vapour from cryogenic liquids s vent exhausts s the outlets of safety valves and rupture discs VERIFY periodically the extraction efficiency Install, if necessary, an ANALYSER with alarm VENT rooms where liquid gases are utilised or stored MISTAKES IN GAS USE : Preventive measures

23 8 July 2004 Page 23 SPACES WHERE INERTING IS CARRIED OUT SPACES WHERE INERTING IS CARRIED OUT : s to protect a product, or s to allow work, such as welding SPACES WHERE INERTING IS CARRIED OUT SPACES WHERE INERTING IS CARRIED OUT : s to protect a product, or s to allow work, such as welding EXPLAIN ASPHYXIATION DANGER WORK PERMIT CREATE A PROCEDURE TO ENTER : WORK PERMIT PREPARE FOR EMERGENCIES with appropriate equipment : s self contained breathing apparatus s oxygen meter s safety harness s ropes s winch TRAIN PEOPLE to verify the equipment & procedures before issuing the permit ASPHYXIATION DANGER

24 8 July 2004 Page 24 DON'T RUSH... THINK !  Pipe vents to a safe area  Look for leaks  Do not rely on a closed valve which may leak  Always use physical isolation methods, e.g. blind flanges BEFORE AN ACCIDENT, THINK ABOUT : MEASURES FOR ENTERING A CONFINED SPACE MEASURES FOR ENTERING A CONFINED SPACE Before entering : assess risks and consequences to yourself and other MEASURES FOR ENTERING A CONFINED SPACE MEASURES FOR ENTERING A CONFINED SPACE Before entering : assess risks and consequences to yourself and other ABNORMAL CIRCUMSTANCES, CONSIDER :  Any noise indicating a possible leak  Abnormal fluid flow

25 8 July 2004 Page 25 25A February 1997 CONCLUSION: s If you hear a gas leak, s If you see cold vapours, s If you have symptoms of general malaise, s If a colleague lies unconscious CONCLUSION ASPHYXIATION DANGER CONSIDER the ASPHYXIATION RISK IMPLEMENT the APPROPRIATE PROCEDURE LEAVEthe DANGER AREA


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