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Carbon sequestration potential assessment in India by A/R activities and implementation of pilot studies Indo-Italian Business Seminar on Renewable Energy.

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Presentation on theme: "Carbon sequestration potential assessment in India by A/R activities and implementation of pilot studies Indo-Italian Business Seminar on Renewable Energy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carbon sequestration potential assessment in India by A/R activities and implementation of pilot studies Indo-Italian Business Seminar on Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation New Delhi October 2005 R.Valentini (1), V.K. Dadhwal (2), O.P. Toky (3), S.P.S. Kushwaha (2), L.Belelli Marchesini (1), A.Bombelli (1), L.Perugini (1) (1)University of Tuscia, Viterbo, (Italy) (2) Indian Institute of Remote Sensing,Dehradun (India). (3) Haryana Agricultural University,Hisar (India)

2 Project partners Prof. V. K. Dadhwal Indian Institute of Remote Sensing Dehradun (India) Prof. O.P. Toky Haryana Agricultural University Hisar (India) Prof. R. Valentini University of Tuscia Viterbo (Italy) State Department of Forest - Uttranchal

3 Outline:  Rules governing LULUCF (Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry) activities within CDM projects  Pilot studies in the framework of italian-indian collaboration

4 Marrakesh Accords -Decision 17/CP7 The eligibility of land use, land-use change and forestry project activities under the clean development mechanism is limited to AFFORESTATION AND REFORESTATION Greenhouse gas removals from such projects may only be used to help meet emission targets up to 1% of a Party’s baseline for each year of the commitment period. Art 3.3 KP: the net changes in GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks resulting from direct human-induced land use change and forestry activities, limited to afforestation, reforestation and deforestation since 1990, measured as verifiable changes in carbon stocks in each committment period, shall be used to meet the commitments of each party included in Annex I. Art 3.4 KP: includes sinks induced by other activities, defined in Marrakesh Accords (revegetation, forest management, cropland management, grazing land management)

5 Afforestation land that has not been forested for a period of at least 50 years Afforestation is the direct human-induced conversion of land that has not been forested for a period of at least 50 years to forested land through planting, seeding and/or the human induced promotion of natural seed resources Reforestation Reforestation is the direct human-induced conversion of non forested land to forested land through planting, seeding and/or the human induced promotion of natural seed resources, on land that was forested but that has been converted to non-forested land. lands that did not contain forest on 31 December For the first commitment period, reforestation activities will be limited on those lands that did not contain forest on 31 December Marrakesh Accords draft decision -/CMP.1 (LULUCF)

6 Site eligibility criteria Not forested at 31 December 1989 Outside of funded afforestation project areas No land tenure or land use conflict Low human pressure High carbon stock accumulation potential time 31 Dec 1989 A/R activity

7 Issues related to A/R CDM projects Additionality & Baseline Leakage Non-permanence Sustainability (environmental and socio-economic impact assessment) Computation of GHG removals by sinks

8 Additionality “A CDM project activity is additional if anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases by sources are reduced below those that would have occurred in the absence of the registered CDM project activity” Baseline “Baseline net greenhouse gas removals by sinks” is the sum of the changes in carbon stocks in the carbon pools within the project boundary that would have occurred in the absence of the afforestation or reforestation project activity under the clean development mechanism (CDM)

9 Carbon uptake by forest plantation Net C removals by sinks (natural degeneration scenario) Net C removals by sinks (anthropogenic degeneration scenario)

10 Leakage The leakage for emission reduction in CDM projects is “the net change of anthropogenic emissions by sources of greenhouse gases which occurs outside the project boundary, and which is measurable and attributable to the CDM project activity”. Before project project site forest plantation Beginning of project Shift of human activities out of the project boundaries

11 Calculations of net anthropogenic GHG removals by sinks changes in carbon stocks Verifiable changes in carbon stocks within the project boundaries The increase in emission of the GHG by sources ACTUAL NET GHG REMOVALS BY SINKS BASELINE & LEAKAGE NET ANTHROPOGENIC GHG REMOVALS BY SINKS

12 Land use changes dominated by losses of fertile land, forest conversion to croplands towards increasing demand of agricultural products for growing population, forest degradation. Forestry & LU change emissions: 0.40 TgC for 1990 (ALGAS, 1999) Cumulative C emissions 5.5 PgC caused by LU change and phytomass degradation (Chhabra et al., 2004) from Indian forests dominated over cumulative fossil fuel use & industrial activity C emissions of 3.45 Pg C over the 20th century. Environmental context of India Year Net annual C flux (MtC) CentralNorth westEast North eastSouthIndia Regional net C flux (MtC) due to deforestation & phytomass degradation Central: 1754, East: 755, NE: 1250, NW: 526, South: 1172, India: 5456

13 1.To evaluate the state of land degradation of Indian soil and potentials for land reclamation through reforestation in the framework of CDM mechanisms of Kyoto protocol 2.To establish a pilot study in an existing or newly established forest plantation and development of advanced technologies for determination of carbon sequestration 3.To exchange students and researchers between Indian and Italian Institutions. The project will develop along the following lines of action :

14 Role of remote sensing observations Provide information of land cover, land use & change (verification of eligibility criteria for A/R CDM project sites) Assessment of potential C sequestration and monitoring of C cycle dynamics driven by remotely sensed parameters (vegetation type, biomass density, biomass burning, etc.) for representative forest typologies along a transect encompassing different ecoregions. Up-scaling of attributes measured locally (pilot study forest) to landscape and regional level by models between canopy cover properties and RS observations

15 RAINFALL Vegetation, May 9, 2002 Climatic gradient

16 Models for the assessment of carbon sequestration potential of forest plantations for A/R CDM projects Design (baseline) and monitoring phase within the CDM project cycle Carbon accounting aimed at carbon credits (CERs) Forest management (silvicultural practices) Measurement of carbon stocks and fluxes Forest plantation with fast growing tree species

17 carbon stocks of the following pools as in draft dec.-/CMP.1 (LULUCF): Above-ground biomass Below-ground biomass Litter Dead wood Soil organic matter Estimation of carbon stock changes according to IPCC Good Practice Guidance for LULUCF (2003) Biometric measurements and chemical analysis (soil) Micrometeorological measurements by eddy covariance (EC) technique C stocks C fluxes Continuous monitoring of CO 2 fluxes and environmental parameters Carbon budget Parametrization of ecological models for assessment of carbon sequestration potential of A/R activities measurements

18 Network of worldwide CO2 flux monitoring sites Sites missing in India and general underrepresentation of climate combinations in Asia

19 Eddy covariance tower Daily trend of CO 2 flux sink source C budget

20 During the project exchanges of students and visiting researcher is foreseen. A position of doctorate student for an Indian candidate can be considered in the framework of the PhD programme in Forest Ecology and a position for Master on Global Environmental Protection and International Policies at the University of Tuscia (Italy). Also an exchange of up to 2 senior scientists can be foreseen for a period of 3 months to work in the Italian laboratories of University of Tuscia. Postgraduate education and researchers exchange

21 Project outputs Capacity building by enhancing know-how for research and management of forest ecosystems Scientific tools and guidelines to: Reverse land degradation Adopt best practices in forest management Evaluate carbon sequestration capacities of forest ecosystems Land suitability map for A/R CDM projects in selected sites in India and related potentials of carbon sequestration

22 Thank you for your attention!


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