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ROAD TO LIMA www.isciences.com November 19, 2014 The 13 th installment in an ongoing series on multilateral agreements related to climate change.

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1 ROAD TO LIMA November 19, 2014 The 13 th installment in an ongoing series on multilateral agreements related to climate change

2 Introduction Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)2 Kyoto and Beyond is a series of presentations on the evolving international climate treaty process that began with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Road to Lima is a summary of preparations for COP20, the 20th session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC and the 10th session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. COP20 will be held Dec. 1 – 12, 2014 in Lima, Peru. COP20 * Available at Other presentations in the Kyoto and Beyond series include*:  2008 Kyoto and Beyond  2009 Kyoto and Beyond, Update  2009 Report on Copenhagen COP15  2010 Road to Cancun COP16  2011 Report on Cancun COP16  2011 Road to Durban COP17  2012 Report on Durban COP17  2012 Road to Rio+20  2012 Report on Rio+20  2012 Road to Doha COP18  2013 Report on Doha COP18  2014 Report on Warsaw COP19

3 Contents Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)3 Historical Background Conference Overview Multilateral Process Issues & Positions Conclusion This presentation includes hyperlinks to additional information indicated by underlined text.

4 Background: Timeline Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC) UN Framework Convention on Climate Change 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change 1992 | 1997 | 2002 | 2007 | Durban Platform adopted at COP Durban Platform adopted at COP IPCC 4 th Assessment Report 2007 IPCC 4 th Assessment Report 2010 Cancun Agreements drafted at COP Cancun Agreements drafted at COP IPCC 1 st Assessment Report 1990 IPCC 1 st Assessment Report 1995 IPCC 2 nd Assessment Report 1995 IPCC 2 nd Assessment Report 1997 Kyoto Protocol adopted 1997 Kyoto Protocol adopted 2001 IPCC 3 rd Assessment Report 2001 IPCC 3 rd Assessment Report Arctic Sea Ice Extent Sept Arctic Sea Ice Extent Sept Kyoto Protocol enters into force 2005 Kyoto Protocol enters into force 2009 Copenhagen Accord drafted at COP Copenhagen Accord drafted at COP IPCC 5 th Assessment Report 2013 IPCC 5 th Assessment Report “A Year in the Life of Earth’s CO2” (Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center) A simulation of carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere provides an ultra- high-resolution look at how the key greenhouse gas moves around the globe and fluctuates in volume throughout the year. NASA’s Goddard Space Flight CenterNASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center Visualization Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 2006

5 Background: Climate Policy Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)5 In 1992 the UNFCCC established the goal of reducing global greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) to “prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.” Since then the global policy framework has continued to evolve The Kyoto Protocol created an international legal framework within the UNFCCC for emissions reduction targets during the period for developed countries. Kyoto ProtocolKyoto Protocol 2009 The Copenhagen Accord, conceived outside of the UNFCCC process, called for voluntary emissions reduction targets achieved by 2020, and endorsed a cap on global temperature increase of 2⁰C. The UNFCCC officially “took note” of the Accord. Copenhagen AccordCopenhagen Accord 2010 The Cancun Agreements acknowledged within the UNFCCC framework the objective of keeping the average global temperature rise below 2⁰C. Cancun AgreementsCancun Agreements 2011 The Durban Platform for Enhanced Action, adopted within the UNFCCC process, mandated the creation of a new agreement (post-Kyoto Protocol) that would be “applicable to all.” Durban Platform for Enhanced ActionDurban Platform for Enhanced Action (Image Credit: UNFCCC) For a more detailed history of the UNFCCC see

6 Background: The ADP Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)6 In 2011 at COP17 Durban, South Africa, UNFCCC negotiators created the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP). The ADP was tasked with:  Developing a post-2020 treaty applicable to all that would be completed and adopted by 2015 at COP21 Paris and enter into force by 2020, the year in which the 2 nd period of the Kyoto Protocol expires.  Enhancing mitigation ambition to close the ambition gap – the difference between emissions levels expected in 2020 if pledges are met and levels needed by 2020 to meet the 2⁰C target. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its seventeenth session, held in Durban from 28 November to 11 December 2011 (FCCC/CP/2011/9/Add.1 ) In order to adopt a new treaty in 2015, the ADP should have a detailed working draft of the text ready for discussion at COP20 Lima on Dec. 1, 2014.

7 Overview: COP20 Lima 2014 Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)7 COP20 will be held Dec. 1 – Dec. 12, 2014 in Lima, Peru. The 2014 meeting is the 20 th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC and the 10 th session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. * Following the procedural rules of the UNFCCC, the office of COP President and host country rotates among the 5 UN regional groups.5 UN regional groups The Conference will be hosted by Manuel Pulgar-Vidal, Minister of the Environment of Peru, and President-Designate of COP 20 and CMP 10* and Christiana Figueres, Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC. More than 15,000 people are expected, representing 194 nations and more than 5,000 observer organizations. observer organizationsobserver organizations Manuel Pulgar-Vidal (Image Credit: UNFCCC) Christiana Figures

8 Overview: COP20 Objectives Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)8 COP20’s primary objective is to elaborate elements for a draft negotiating text of the 2015 agreement. Overall Objectives for COP20:  Produce a draft text of the 2015 agreement.  Decide whether adaptation, as well as mitigation, will be included in the agreement.  Clarify how transparency and assessment of the INDCs* will be accomplished.  Consolidate the financial mechanisms of the Convention that will support the agreement.  Accelerate implementation of pre-2020 ambition through concrete actions. “We expect that the COP 20 will produce a draft agreement to be signed in 2015, and we wish the Lima Document to be clear and coherent, we do not want a compilation of loose and inarticulate ideas.” - Peruvian President Ollanta Humala, Sept. 23, 2014 * INDCs-Intended Nationally Determined Contributions. contributionshttp://www.mitigationpartnership.net/international-partnership-mitigation-and-mrv-2014-intended-nationally-determined- contributions

9 Overview: Peru’s Leadership Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)9 With glaciers melting and drought in the Amazon, Peru is clearly vulnerable to climate change, yet its environmental progress has been slow, and at times, violent. Lima, Peru (Image Credit: Christian Cordova, Lima has the worst air pollution in Latin America*, and the country’s illegal mining and logging have resulted in the deaths of environmental activists. deaths of environmental activists. deaths of environmental activists. Peru’s Environment Ministry wasn’t created until 2008 and only under pressure from the US as a condition of trade. Environment Minister Pulgar-Vidal has spent years in environmental roles but recent economic reforms by Peruvian President Humala have sacrificed environmental standards and undermined the Ministry’s authority. Though it may be difficult to lead by example, Peru must garner timely climate commitments from international negotiators. * Peruvian Times. May 8,

10 Process: UN Preparations Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)10 The UNFCCC multilateral preparatory process for COP20 involves many interconnected UN bodies and working groups. (Image Credit: UNFCCC, php)

11 Process: Pre-COP March 2014 Bonn Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)11 At the first of three scheduled inter-COP meetings, negotiators at the March 10-14, 2014 Climate Change Conference in Bonn began open-ended discussions on the two workstreams of the ADP. ADP Co-Chairs Kishan Kumarsingh (Trinidad and Tobago) and Artur Runge-Metzger (EU) (Image Credit: UNclimatechange/flickr) Workstream 1: The 2015 agreement Concerns were expressed about transparency and inclusiveness of process, not wanting a repeat of Copenhagen where the Accord was created outside of the COP. A workshop addressed domestic preparations for INDCs.workshopINDCs Workstream 2: Increasing pre-2020 ambition Two Technical Expert Meetings* (TEMs) were held during which guest panelists shared options on renewable energy and energy efficiency. renewable energyenergy efficiency Delegates agreed to start drafting text of the 2015 agreement at the upcoming meeting in June. * In Warsaw, the ADP requested technical expert meetings at 2014 sessions to share policies, practices and technologies with high mitigation potential.technical expert meetings

12 Process: Pre-COP June 2014 Bonn Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)12 At the Bonn Climate Change Conference June 4-15, 2014 conversations were lively as representatives began articulating a wide spectrum of positions. ADP Co-Chairs Kumarsingh and Runge-Metzger were asked to compose and make available by July a draft text in advance of the next pre-COP meeting in Bonn October Workstream 2: Increasing pre-2020 ambition TEMs focused on opportunities for action on urban environment and land use.urban environmentland use Workstream 1: The 2015 Agreement Heated exchanges on INDCs captured much of the floor time. Delegates discussed how INDCs should be defined, submitted, and reviewed. Developed countries viewed INDCs as mitigation-based; developing countries pushed for inclusion of adaptation, finance, capacity-building, and technology. Bonn Climate Change Conference, June 4, 2014 (Image Credit: UNclimatechange/flickr)

13 Process: Summit Sept 2014 NYC Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)13 UN Secretary Ban Ki-Moon invited leaders from government and business to a Climate Summit, Sept. 23, 2014 in New York City. Not part of the official UN negotiating process, its purpose was to mobilize action ahead of On the Sunday before the Summit, a global climate march rallied 310,000 people in NYC and 270,000 elsewhere around the world. Outcome Highlights:  New York Declaration on Forests; halve deforestation by 2020, end it by 2030; New York Declaration on Forests New York Declaration on Forests  a total pledge of US$2.3 billion made to the Green Climate Fund (GCF); Green Climate FundGreen Climate Fund  the launch of the Global Alliance of Climate-Smart Agriculture; Global Alliance of Climate-Smart AgricultureGlobal Alliance of Climate-Smart Agriculture  the announcement by the insurance industry of intention to create a Climate Risk Investment Framework by 2015 in Paris; Climate Risk Investment FrameworkClimate Risk Investment Framework  launch of a new Compact of Mayors; Compact of MayorsCompact of Mayors  World Bank’s Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition to advance carbon pricing. Carbon Pricing Leadership CoalitionCarbon Pricing Leadership Coalition Ban Ki-moon (second from right) at climate march, NYC Sept. 21, (Image Credit: UN Photo) leaders of key CO2 emitting nations China and India - did not attend Though Xi Jinping and Narendra Modi - leaders of key CO2 emitting nations China and India - did not attend, US President Barack Obama and 100 Heads of State did, along with commercial and civic leaders.

14 Process: Pre-COP Oct 2014 Bonn Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)14 Negotiators at the Bonn Climate Change Conference October 20-25, 2014 slowly inched forward on refining a draft negotiating text. Though the meeting produced revised drafts* by the Co-Chairs, content remained light on negotiable substance, reflecting ongoing lack of agreement. Workstream 1: The 2015 Agreement Progress was slow on defining how INDCs will operationalize differentiation, scope and review, and whether to include adaptation as well as mitigation. Brazil created a buzz with “concentric differentiation,” a dynamic that would preserve differentiated responsibilities while encouraging graduated targets.concentric differentiation Bonn Climate Change Conference, Oct. 20, 2014 (Image Credit: UNclimatechange/flickr * Draft INDCs;* Draft INDCs; Draft Pre-2020 ActionDraft Pre-2020 Action Workstream 2: Increasing pre-2020 ambition TEMs on carbon capture, use and storage, and on non-CO2 GHGs were held.carbon capture, use and storagenon-CO2 GHGs The ADP agreed to hold two additional sessions in 2015, the first of which will be held February 8-13 February in Geneva.

15 Process: Conference Schedule Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)15 The 12-day gathering at COP20 in Lima includes meetings of the COP, CMP, SBI, SBSTA, and ADP. SCHEDULE OF MEETINGS SESSIONDATEAGENDA COP 20 COP 20 1 – 12 Dec 2014 FCCC/CP/2014/1 CMP 10 CMP 10 1 – 12 Dec 2014 FCCC/KP/CMP/2014/1 SBI 41 SBI 41 1 – 8 Dec 2014 FCCC/SBI/2014/9 SBSTA 41 SBSTA 41 1 – 6 Dec 2014 FCCC/SBSTA/2014/3 ADP 3 ADP 3 1 – 11 Dec 2014 ADP/2014/AGENDA (Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons) Overview scheduleOverview schedule as of Oct. 15, 2014 Overview schedule as of Oct. 15, Overview schedule COP – Conference of the Parties Conference of the PartiesConference of the Parties CMP – Conference of the Parties service as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol Conference of the Parties service as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto ProtocolConference of the Parties service as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol SBI – Subsidiary Body for Implementation Subsidiary Body for ImplementationSubsidiary Body for Implementation SBSTA – Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological AdviceSubsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice ADP – Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced ActionAd Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action

16 Issues: 2020 Treaty Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)16 On Nov. 11, 2014 the ADP released a “Non-paper on elements for a draft negotiating text” of the 2015 agreement. To be ready for adoption at COP21 Paris in December 2015, the draft negotiating text should be translated, reproduced, and available by May Mitigation commitments. Options: (1) all Parties to be prepared, communicated and implemented without conditions; (2) developing country Parties to be prepared, communicated and implemented specifying additional enhanced levels of mitigation commitments/contributions subject to the provision of support by developed country Parties; (3) developing country Parties to be prepared, communicated and implemented subject to the provision of finance, technology transfer, and capacity-building. Cooperation and support for implementation. Options: (1) developed country Parties to provide support to developing country Parties for implementation, taking into account CBDR*; (2) all Parties in a position to do so to provide support for implementation; (3) a collective goal for support to be achieved by all Parties. Time frames and process related to commitments/contributions. Options: (1) every 5 yrs for all parties or for developed parties only; (2) every 5 yrs indicating the commitment/contribution for the subsequent 5-yr period as well as for the following 5-yr period; (3) every 10 yrs; (4) period to be determined by the governing body. The challenge in Lima will be to reduce the many options and sub-options currently outlined in the “Non-paper” into a clear framework with core elements. Issues include:Non-paper * CBDR-Common But Differentiated Responsibilities

17 Issues: INDCs Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)17 The ADP is considering several options related to the kinds of information that must be provided as countries submit their INDCs. Mitigation: type, time-frame, sectors, quantification, transparency. Process decisions may include cycles of action enabling increasing commitment, and the explicit goal of GHG phase-out. Adaptation: inclusion, type, projected climate impacts, vulnerable sectors, timelines for support. Sentiment is leaning towards inclusions of adaptation in the 2015 agreement. Finance, technology and capacity-building: scale, type, time-frame, channels. The Green Climate Fund is a critical vehicle, currently funded at $7.5 billion with a $10 billion goal. Negotiators must also create a path towards mobilization of $100 billion a year in climate finance. Assessment and transparency: means, methods. Assessment must be framed by the 2°C goal. Countries will submit their INDCs in early 2015, with major emitters expected to do so by the end of March. * Options are outlined in a separate draft, also released on Nov. 11, 2014.separate draft Embedded in those options is whether and how requirements for developed and developing countries differ.

18 Issues: Pre-2020 Ambition Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)18 Pre-2020 ambition must increase in order to close the gap between pledged cuts and targets recommended to keep warming to 2  C. As of Nov. 14, 2014 only 19 countries have ratified the Doha Amendment. At the pre-COPs in Bonn, Technical Expert Meetings showcased ways to shift to low- carbon economies; countries must now implement those opportunities as part of their near-term climate action plans.Technical Expert Meetings Ratification of the 2012 Doha Amendment, which extended the Kyoto Protocol to Dec. 31, 2020, is also an important piece of the ambition formula. Carbon pricing could play a role. So far, 73 countries, 1,000 businesses, and 354 major institutional investors have declared support for carbon pricing. The EU currently runs the largest carbon market but China has announced plans for a system in 2016 and Chile approved a carbon tax beginning in 2018.carbon pricing

19 Issues: The Science Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)19 On Nov. 1, 2014 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released the Fifth Assessment Synthesis Report to inform delegates of scientific realities as they work towards the Paris climate deal. Fifth Assessment Synthesis ReportFifth Assessment Synthesis Report  To limit global average temperature increase to 2°C (3.6°F) above pre-industrial levels emissions must fall 40 to 70 percent from current levels by 2050 and to zero by  With fast action, this could be done at a manageable cost, a 0.06 percentage point reduction a year in consumption of goods and services, below annual projected growth of 1.6 to 3.0 percent. (Image Credit: IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report Presentation, Nov. 2, 2014,AR5 Synthesis Report Presentation Without timely emissions cuts, warming by the end of the 21st century will bring high risks of severe, widespread, and irreversible impacts globally.* * AR5 Synthesis ReportAR5 Synthesis Report

20 Positions: A Landmark Deal Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)20 A potentially pivotal moment in global climate history occurred on Nov. 11, 2014 when the US and China struck a deal. President Xi Jinping and President Obama, leaders of the No. 1 and No. 2 carbon polluters, jointly announced targets for emissions reductions. US pledged to emit 26 to 28 percent less carbon in 2025 than in 2005 The US pledged to emit 26 to 28 percent less carbon in 2025 than in 2005, double the pace targeted for period 2005 to China pledged to reach peak carbon emissions by 2030 China pledged to reach peak carbon emissions by 2030 and that clean energy would account for 20 percent of total energy production by This handshake between the developed and developing world puts pressure on foot-draggers in both camps to step forward with meaningful targets. President Obama and President Xi Jinping, Nov. 11, 2014 (Image Credit: wh.gov) The two also agreed to co-finance a carbon capture and storage project in China.

21 Positions: Global Responses Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)21 The China-US announcement elicited various responses around the globe and created a ripple in bloc alliances. AUSTRALIA.caught off-guard AUSTRALIA. Australia’s PM and G20 host Tony Abbott was caught off-guard. Australia had repealed its cap-and-trade policy and Abbott fought unsuccessfully to keep climate change off the G20 agenda. The G20 agreed to support adoption of a protocol with legal force in 2015, financing for the Green Climate Fund, and submission of INDCs by first quarter of 2015.caught off-guardcaught off-guard INDIA. downplayed pressure India’s action or inaction will be key in INDIA. India downplayed pressure the deal put on India to fall in line and announce meaningful INDCs, responding that India would declare an emissions peak “at the right moment". India’s action or inaction will be key in 2015.downplayed pressuredownplayed pressure CANADA. will fall short CANADA. The deal presented challenges for Canada as well, which had generally aligned itself with the US in insisting that China and other emerging economies set targets. Canada withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol in 2011 and will fall short of its 2020 targets. will fall shortwill fall short EUROPEAN UNION. already announced targets EUROPEAN UNION. The EU, the first major economy to set post-2020 emissions targets, had already announced targets at least 40 percent below 1990 levels by 2030, with renewable energy to provide at least 27 percent.already announced targetsalready announced targets BRAZIL. developed countries must be held responsible BRAZIL. Brazil maintains that developed countries must be held responsible for their historic contributions to climate change.developed countries must be held responsibledeveloped countries must be held responsible Though the landmark deal between the two global powerhouses is still a promise that must be kept, governments can no longer point to China and the United States to justify their own inaction. The timing of the announcement, just prior to the G20 Summit, was significant.

22 Conclusion: Hope for Paris? Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)22 The US and China have created much-needed momentum towards a “last chance” summit in Paris, but India and the rest of the world must commit. Watch for ISciences’ post-Lima analysis of COP20 at “If you don’t have an agreement in Paris, we may well say goodbye to the world we have today.” - Fatih Birol, IEA chief economist Actions by India and Russia will be critical, as will those of the developing world who will look to China in formulating their targets. As important as the US-China deal is in setting the stage, it will not be enough to keep global warming within the 2°C target.

23 Sources Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)23 The Age. Nov. 13, Climate change squarely on G20 agenda after historic china-US deal. agenda-after-historic-chinaus-deal lrrc.htmlhttp://www.theage.com.au/comment/climate-change-squarely-on-g20- agenda-after-historic-chinaus-deal lrrc.html Bloomberg. Nov. 17, Brazil Sees China, U.S. Climate Deal as ‘Signal,’ Secretary Says. deal-as-signal-secretary-says.htmlhttp://www.bloomberg.com/news/ /brazil-sees-china-u-s-climate- deal-as-signal-secretary-says.html Brookings. Sept. 22, What to Expect from the UN Climate Summit. Brookings. Nov. 17, The $3 billion U.S. Pledge for the Green Climate Fund: Is it a lot? climate-fund-robertshttp://www.brookings.edu/blogs/planetpolicy/posts/2014/11/17-green- climate-fund-roberts Business Insider. Oct. 26, U.N. Climate Change Report Sees Risks Of Irreversible Damage. irreversible-damage http://www.businessinsider.com/r-un-climate-change-draft-sees-risks-of- irreversible-damage Climate Action Network. Oct. 23, Beyond binary. Climate Progress. Sept. 16, Measuring Up: How To Assess The Upcoming U.N. Climate Summit. assess-un-climate-summit/https://www.cdproject.net/CDPResults/CDP-Global-500-Climate-Change-Report-2012.pdfhttp://thinkprogress.org/climate/2014/09/16/ /how-to- assess-un-climate-summit/https://www.cdproject.net/CDPResults/CDP-Global-500-Climate-Change-Report-2012.pdf COP 20 Peru. Sept. 23, Peru expects the COP20 sets the foundations for a climate and development alliance [machine translated]. Eco. Oct. 24, 2014.Beyond Binary. EE News. Nov. 17, U.S. China climate surprise -- a coal plant that stores CO2 and makes fresh water. Globe and Mail. Nov. 12, U.S.-China climate deal presents challenges for Harper. china-climate-deal-presents-challenges-for-harper/article /http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/international-business/us- china-climate-deal-presents-challenges-for-harper/article / GlobalPost. Sept. 21, With its green cred under fire, Peru prepares to host UN climate talks. Green Climate Fund. Pledges made towards GCF at the United Nations Climate Summit Accessed Oct. 23, 2014http://news.gcfund.org/pledges/ Hindu. Nov. 12, China-U.S. deal on emission cuts. pollution-levels/article ecehttp://www.thehindu.com/news/international/world/climate-change-us-china-unveil-ambitious-goals-to-cut- pollution-levels/article ece Hindu. Nov. 13, India faces climate pincer. Huffington Post. Sept. 21, Hundreds Of Thousands Turn Out For People's Climate March In New York City. climate-march_n_ htmlhttp://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/09/21/peoples- climate-march_n_ html

24 Sources Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)24 IIP Digital, US Embassy. Nov. 11, FACT SHEET: U.S.-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change and Clean Energy Cooperation, President Obama Announces. Independent. Oct. 24, Climate change: Carbon trading edges closer as UN brokers deal. change-carbon-trading-edges-closer-as-un-brokers-deal htmlhttp://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/climate- change-carbon-trading-edges-closer-as-un-brokers-deal html International Cooperative and Mutual Insurance Federation. Sept. 24, Insurance industry to double its climate-smart investment by end of International Institute for Sustainable Development. Mar. 17, Earth Negotiations Bulletin Vol. 12 No International Institute for Sustainable Development. Aug. 29, Lima Climate Finance Week Paves Way for COP 20. finance-week-paves-way-for-cop-20/http://climate-l.iisd.org/news/lima-climate- finance-week-paves-way-for-cop-20/ International Institute for Sustainable Development. Sept. 26, Climate Summit Bulletin. Vol. 172 No International Institute for Sustainable Development. Oct. 23, Earth Negotiations Bulletin.Vol. 12 No International Institute for Sustainable Development. Oct. 25, Earth Negotiations Bulletin. Vol. 12 No International Institute for Sustainable Development. Oct. 28, Earth Negotiations Bulletin. Vol. 12 No International Investors Group on Climate Change. Nov. 14, Investors urge G20 to address climate change. g20-to-address-climate-changehttp://www.iigcc.org/press/press-release/investors-urge- g20-to-address-climate-change IPCC. Nov. 1, IPCC Fifth Assessment Synthesis Report. Mashable.com. Sept. 23, UN Climate Summit: Who's Promised What. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Nov. 17, NASA Computer Model Provides a New Portrait of Carbon Dioxide. National Geographic.com. Sept. 11, Quadruple Homicide in Peruvian Amazon Puts Criminal Logging in Spotlight. New Republic. Oct. 21, These Two World Leaders Are Laughing While the Planet Burns Up. change-record-leaders-deniershttp://www.newrepublic.com/article/119896/canada-australias-climate- change-record-leaders-deniers New York Times. Oct. 24, E.U. Greenhouse Gas Deal Falls Short of Expectations. expectations.htmlhttp://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/25/world/eu-greenhouse-gas-deal-falls-short-of- expectations.html New York Times. Oct. 29, Climate Change Concerns Push Chile to Forefront of Carbon Tax Movement.

25 Sources Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)25 New York Times. Nov. 11, U.S. and China Reach Climate Accord After Months of Talks. apec.htmlhttp://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/12/world/asia/china-us-xi-obama- apec.html Peruvian Times. May 8, World Health Organization Says Lima has Worst Air Pollution in LatAm. lima-has-worst-air-pollution-in-latam/22119/.http://www.peruviantimes.com/08/world-health-organization-says- lima-has-worst-air-pollution-in-latam/22119/ Reuters UK. Sept. 21, UPDATE 4-New York climate march draws hundreds of thousands. idUKL1N0RM0QQ http://uk.reuters.com/article/2014/09/21/usa-climatechange-march- idUKL1N0RM0QQ Reuters. Nov. 12, UPDATE 3-China, US agree limits on emissions, but experts see little new. idUSL3N0T21YK http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/11/12/china-usa-climatechange- idUSL3N0T21YK Reuters. Nov. 16, G20 commits to higher growth, fight climate change; Russia isolated over Ukraine. putin-idUSKCN0J002Z http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/11/16/us-g20-summit- putin-idUSKCN0J002Z StarTribune. Oct. 23, EU leaders agree to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40 percent by Telegraph. Nov. 12, China-US climate change deal a 'giant leap for mankind', says IEA. Times of India. Nov. 14, US-China climate deal is not so ambitious, says India. climate-deal-is-not-so-ambitious-says-India/articleshow/ cmshttp://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/global-warming/US-China- climate-deal-is-not-so-ambitious-says-India/articleshow/ cms Think Progress. Oct. 24, We Have A Deal: European Union Agrees To Cut Its Emissions 40 Percent By Think Progress. Nov. 13, Heat Wave Roils Australia As Pressure Builds To Elevate Climate On G20 Agenda. Think Progress. Nov. 16, At G20, Obama Leapfrogs Australia’s PM With Call To Action. climate-action/http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2014/11/17/ /g20-obama-australia- climate-action/ UNFCCC. Bonn Climate Change Conference - March Accessed Oct. 23, 2014.http://unfccc.int/meetings/bonn_mar_2014/meeting/7979.php UNFCCC. Mar. 11, REMARKS BY MANUEL PULGAR-VIDAL COP 20/CMP 10 PRESIDENT-DESIGNATE. https://unfccc.int/files/bodies/news_from_the_convention_and_protocol_bodies/application/pdf/cop20_cmp10_pres_des_statement.pdf https://unfccc.int/files/bodies/news_from_the_convention_and_protocol_bodies/application/pdf/cop20_cmp10_pres_des_statement.pdf UNFCCC. Oct. 24, DRAFT TEXT on ADP 2-6 agenda item 3 Implementation of all the elements of decision 1/CP.17 Version of 24 October 2014 at 21.00, Accelerating the implementation of enhanced pre-2020 climate action, Draft by the Co-Chairs. session/application/pdf/adp2-6_i3_24oct2014t2100_dt.pdfhttp://unfccc.int/files/meetings/bonn_oct_2014/in- session/application/pdf/adp2-6_i3_24oct2014t2100_dt.pdf UNFCCC. Oct. 24, DRAFT TEXT on ADP 2-6 agenda item 3 Implementation of all the elements of decision 1/CP.17 Version of of 7, Information on intended nationally determined contributions in the context of the 2015 agreement, Draft by the Co-Chairs. session/application/pdf/adp2-6_i3_24oct2014t1530.dt.pdfhttp://unfccc.int/files/meetings/bonn_oct_2014/in- session/application/pdf/adp2-6_i3_24oct2014t1530.dt.pdf

26 Sources Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)26 UNFCCC. Oct Questions and answers on some legal and institutional aspects of the 2015 agreement. UNFCCC. Nov. 11, ADP DraftText, Advancing the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action draft by co-chairs. UNFCCC. Nov. 11, ADP NonPaper, Non-paper on elements for a draft negotiating text. UNFCCC. Technical Expert Meetings. Accessed Oct. 29, 2014.http://unfccc.int/focus/mitigation/technical_expert_meetings/items/8179.php United Nations. Sept. 23, Global Alliance for Climate-Smart Agriculture Action Plan. content/uploads/sites/2/2014/09/AGRICULTURE-Action-Plan.pdfhttp://www.un.org/climatechange/summit/wp- content/uploads/sites/2/2014/09/AGRICULTURE-Action-Plan.pdf United Nations. Sept. 23, Mayors Compact Action Statement. compact.pdfhttp://www.un.org/climatechange/summit/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2014/09/CITIES-Mayors- compact.pdf United Nations. Sept. 23, New York Declaration on Forests. Declaration-on-Forests.pdfhttp://www.un.org/climatechange/summit/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2014/09/FORESTS-New-York- Declaration-on-Forests.pdf USA Today. Nov. 15, US announces $3 billion to Green Climate Fund. g20/ /http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2014/11/14/obama-brisbane-climate- g20/ / WhiteHouse.gov. Sept. 23, FACT SHEET: President Obama Announces New Actions To Strengthen Global Resilience To Climate Change And Launches Partnerships To Cut Carbon Pollution. World Bank. Sept. 22, Countries and Over 1,000 Businesses Speak Out in Support of a Price on Carbon. World Resources Institute. June 15, Key Themes from the Bonn Climate Talks. World Resources Institute. Oct. 25, Action Items After the Bonn Climate Negotiations. negotiationshttp://www.wri.org/blog/2014/10/6-action-items-after-bonn-climate- negotiations

27 Citation Road to Lima (ISCIENCES, LLC)27 When referencing this presentation please use the following citation. ISCIENCES, L.L.C. Road to Lima COP20. A slideshow; 13th installment in the series Kyoto and Beyond – the Evolution of Multilateral Agreements on Climate Change. November 19, Ann Arbor, Michigan.


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