1 Vijay Diwan Nisarg Mitra Mandal, Aurangabad firstname.lastname@example.org Find out your ownVijay DiwanNisarg Mitra Mandal, Aurangabad
2 Global warming – a burning issue Earth is experiencing an unprecedented rise in average temperatures.Life of humans is jeopardized because of man-made emissions of GHGs.Deteriorating air quality, water pollution, destruction of habitats & geographical calamities have threaten the very existence of humans.Every carbon footprint of each human will matter.
3 What is a carbon footprint? Each one of us uses food, fuel, electricity, clothes, cosmetics, electronic goods, & such other products. This consumption is a ‘footstep’ that leaves a footprint on the ‘floor’, i.e. the environment, thereby destroying all the life-forms beneath it.
4 Kinds of footprintsEach individual’s water consumption for his life-time, OR for a specific period, is his water footprint.Similarly, his wood consumption or plastic consumption also leave impacting footprints on the environment.
5 The most critical footprint is the carbon footprint. An indicator of human impact on environment.Measure of total direct, or indirect, GHG emission caused by a person during one year.CO2 equivalents of NO2 & Methane + CO2 itself, in tons /year/person together, make up one’s carbon footprint.Average per capita footprint : World = 3.9 tons/CO2/year. / India 1.6 tons/CO2/year.
6 Why calculate individual footprints? Developed countries : Industries’ & environmental agencies’ own specific, carbon footprint calculators pertaining to the specific realities of their production processes exist.India : No national authority to determine the extent of emissions from factors like railways, buses, cars, flights, products, food production systems, food consumption patterns, life-styles or public activities.Hence, individual Carbon Footprint calculators necessary.
7 Indian Carbon Footprint Footprint Calculator - Salient Features Major contributors: Energy consumption Electricity, Cooking gas, kerosene, etc Transportation Manufacture & Fossil fuel burning Food consumption Beef, Pork , Lamb, & Goat meat.Number in the household: Shared footprint-related aspects like power, gas, newspapers, food grains, oil, etc. to be apportioned equally amongst the number of people in the household above 13 yrs of age. (excluding the household helpers).
8 Carbon Footprint Electricity consumption 80% power generation is on fossil fuels.Electricity has invisible emissions from usage.Gadget Usage/yr Kg CO2/yr Micro. Oven times OTG times Dishwasher times Fridge hrs/day W bulb hrs a day W CFL hrs a day TV CRT 29 in - 6 hrs a day1 ton AC (8 hrs) = 85 km driving
9 Carbon Footprint Transportation Besides the emission from the vehicle, the passenger load factor is important in calculation of the footprint.In a fully loaded bus, or any vehicle, passengers share equally the CO2 footprint of its journey.But if it is half full, then the per passenger footprint is doubled.
10 Carbon Footprint Milk consumption Indigenous cattle, buffalos crossbred cattle, and goats have to be reared for milk.Cattle feed cultivation & fertilizer and manure application on land used for it causes emission of Methane & NO2.1 ltr milk = 0.8 kg CO2 .eEqual to 5 km driving.
11 Carbon Footprint Meat consumption Meat production needs livestock farming.This necessitates animal-feed cultivation, manure & fertilizer use and dung disposal.Emission of Methane & NO2 is imperative.Cleared land reduces Carbon absorption.1 kg mutton = 13 kg CO2.eEqual to 65 km driving.Average 750 gm/day meat is required for a family of 4.
12 Carbon Footprint Fish & Poultry status Fish and poultry are usually excluded.Fish farming does not require clearing of forests.Poultry requires much less feed per kg of meat produced.No data on impacts of fish farming on global warming.This can be calculated in future when sufficient data is made available.
13 Carbon Footprint Rice consumption India practices water incentive methods of Rice cultivation.So we have greater emission of Methane from our paddy crops than the world’s.1kg rice = 920 gm of CO2.eEqual to 5 km driving.Average 600 gm of rice is needed to serve 4 persons a single meal.
14 Carbon Footprint Utilities & Infrastructure All the industrial & commercial activity, public utilities and infrastructure exist for the service of the individual.So, an averaged proportion of the emissions related to these 'services' be attributed to individuals.
15 Carbon Footprint Fuels used Burning fuels like coal, petrol, diesel, CNG, LPG causes GHG emission.1 ltr petrol = 3.17 kg CO2 .e1 ltr CNG = 1.50 kg CO2 .eFootprint calculation relies upon price conversion to equate type, quantity & expenditure on fuel.To accurately calculate the footprint of a journey, the make/model of the vehicle, and its fuel economy value, has to be known.
16 Carbon Footprint Time and distance of travel Greenhouse gas emissions per hour, from 2 or 4 wheelers in actual driving conditions are considered. (NPL & Bajaj Auto)Short, medium & long Bus or Train journeys are defined as:Short = up to 4 hours (between neighbouring cities) Medium = 4 to 12 hours Long = beyond 12 hours
17 Carbon Footprint Air travel Airplanes use enormous quantities of aviation fuel.Take offs & landings needs alarmingly more fuel.1000 km journey footprint: - Rail = 14 kg CO2.e /person Car = 40 kg CO2.e /person Plane = 110 kg CO2.e /pers.A single India – US trip creates an individual footprint of 2.6 tons of CO2.eA US round trip flight raises the average per head footprint by 62%
18 Carbon Footprint Air travel Impacts on climate are mainly attributed to aircraft fuels.Airport operations, ground services & catering services are not yet adequately studied for emission.Domestic airlines use a wide array of different aircrafts, so their emission results vary at the same distance travelled.Short flight = up to 45 mts Medium flight = 45 to 90 mts Long flight = above 90 mts
19 CO2 absorption by a tree For photosynthesis Trees absorb CO2. An average tree absorbs 12 kg of CO2 (UNEP Billion Tree Campgn.)Tree average life = 20 yearsSo, it has a capacity of absorbing 240 kg of NO2-CO2 equivalent emission (or 0.25 tons of CO2.e approximately)Thus, a footprint of 1 ton (1000 kg CO2.e) will require 4 trees to “neutralise” it.
20 and try reduce it want to know HOW? So now, find out your ownCarbon Footprintand try reduce it want to know HOW?
21 Try these simple lifestyle changes Consume lessTake what you need, not what you want!Optimize your travelShare, Recycle, and Re-useReduce your electric billAvoid or use less of air conditioning, geysers, electric motorsSwitch to CFL lamps, Make use of daylight when working
22 And remember… - JAI HIND - You don’t have to tackle the whole challenge, but start working towards solutions to small problems!Start small, think big!We haven’t yet figured out how to live ‘carbon neutral.But we can live as ‘carbon conscious citizens’ !- JAI HIND -