Presentation on theme: "Spring 2012 Final Exam Review"— Presentation transcript:
1Spring 2012 Final Exam Review Gateways to Biology
2Ch 3.1 – Solar Energy Transformations What is the chemical reaction for photosynthesis?sun6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2
3Ch 3.1 – Solar Energy Transformations What are the reactants of photosynthesis?carbon dioxide & waterWhat are the products of photosynthesis?glucose (sugar) & oxygen
4Ch 3.1 – Solar Energy Transformations What is the specialized tube in plants called that carries water from the roots to the rest of the plant?xylem
5Ch 3.1 – Solar Energy Transformations Identify three factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis and explain the effect of each.Amount of lightAmount of waterTemperatureAccess To CO2
6Ch 3.2 – Energy Transformations in Ecosystems What do the arrows represent in a food chain?the direction of the transfer of energy
7Ch 3.2 – Energy Transformations in Ecosystems Describe how much energy gets passed from one energy level to another in a food chain.10% of the available energy90% of the energy is used and released a s heat
8Producers – transform light energy into usable chemical energy (sugars) consumers – consume 10% of the available energy from the previous trophic level decomposers – consume 10% of the available energy from any of the trophic levels in a food chain
9What is function of bacteria in ecosystem? To fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into the soil for the plants to use.
11Ch 3.3 – Energy in FoodsWhat is the chemical formula for high energy sugar (glucose)?C6H12O6
12Ch 3.3 – Energy in FoodsFiber in a healthy diet is supplied by which nutrient?carbohydrates
13How is the energy available in food measured? Burning it and measuring the change in temperature in water
14What is a calorie?The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1˚ Celsius
15Ch 3.4 – Transforming Food Energy in Usable Nutrients Where does digestion begin?the mouth (with amylase)
16Ch 3.4 – Transforming Food Energy in Usable Nutrients What is the function of the large intestine?reabsorbs water
17Ch 3.4 – Transforming Food Energy in Usable Nutrients What kind of proteins catalyze (speed up) metabolic reactions in the body?enzymes
18Ch 3.4 – Transforming Food Energy in Usable Nutrients Name the organs of the digestive system that food passes through in the proper order and describe the function of each organ.1. mouth: chewing, mech. and chem. digestion2. Esophagus: transports food bolus to stomach
19Ch 3.4 – Name the organs of the digestive system that food passes through… 3. Stomach: mech and chem digestion4. Small Intestine: absorption of nutrients5. Large Intestine: reabsorption of water6. Rectum: wastes exit body
20What is the function of the villi in the small intestine? The villi are the site of nutrient absorbtion and increase the surface area of the small intestine in order to maximize the amount of nutrients being absorbed
21Function of pancreas?Makes enzymes to digest foods, such as starch (amylase)Produces a substance to neutralize stomach acid
22What is the enzyme found in saliva that breaks down carbohydrates? amylase
233.5 Cellular Respiration and Energy Transformations What are the steps in the process of cellular respiration?1. Glycolysis2. Krebs Cycle3. electrontransport chain
25How does the body maintain homeostasis when the concentration of carbon dioxide increases? The body will continue to break down glucose (glycolysis) without oxygen in order to make ATPlactic acid builds up in muscles and keeps them from contracting resulting in muscle fatigue
26In the presence of oxygen how many net ATP molecules will one glucose molecule produce? 38 total
27Air is forced into the lungs by the contraction of what? The diaphragm
28Ch 4.1 – DNA: The Molecule of Life Why is DNA known as the molecule of life?Because it contains the hereditary material (DNA).
29Ch 4.1 – DNA: The Molecule of Life What is the base pairing rule for DNA?thymine pairs with adeninecytosine pairs with guanine
30Ch 4.1 – DNA: The Molecule of Life What is the structure of DNA?double helix
31Ch 4.1 – DNA: The Molecule of Life Which enzyme links nucleotides to the open strand of DNA?DNA polymerase
32Ch 4.1 – DNA: The Molecule of Life What makes up the backbone of DNA?sugar and phosphates
33Ch 4.1 – DNA: The Molecule of Life What is the sequence that complements the DNA sequence ATGCCATGC?TACGGTACG
34Ch 4.1 – DNA: The Molecule of Life Why does DNA unzip and separate into single strands to form two identical copies?To ensure that each new cell has exact copies of genetic material.
35Ch. 4.2 – Cell Growth through Cell Division What takes place in prophase?Nuclear membrane breaks down.DNA condensesCentrioles divide and move toweards opposite sides of the cellSpindle fibers form between the centrioles
36Ch. 4.2 – Cell Growth through Cell Division In which phase of the cell cycle does DNA replicate?S phase (synthesis)
37Ch. 4.2 – Cell Growth through Cell Division Chromatids attach to each other at what?centromere
38Ch. 4.2 – Cell Growth through Cell Division In which phase of the cell cycle does the nucleus divide through a series of steps?Mitosis
39Ch. 4.2 – Cell Growth through Cell Division Be able toidentify picturesof the phasesof mitosis.
40Ch. 4.2 – Cell Growth through Cell Division What kind of cell is an undifferentiated cell that can become almost any type of cell in the body?stem cell
41Ch. 4.2 – Cell Growth through Cell Division What is the process where unspecialized cells develop into adult cells?cell differentiation
42Ch. 4.2 – Cell Growth through Cell Division What is the best surface area to volume ratio for moving materials into and out of cells?6:1 (largest ratio)
43Ch. 4.3 – Plant Growth and Development What are the two plant hormones that stimulate growth?auxins and giberrellins
44Ch. 4.3 – Plant Growth and Development What is the function of apical meristem tissues?New cells are added along the tips of root and stems that elongate and differentiate into other tissues.
45Ch. 4.3 – Plant Growth and Development Know theparts of across-sectiondiagramof a leaf.
46Ch. 4.3 – Plant Growth and Development What is the structure on roots that increases the surface area for water absorption in plants?root hairs
47Ch. 4.3 – Plant Growth and Development What are somecharacteristics of seedsthat require animals fordispersal? That requirethe wind for dispersal?That require water fordispersal?
48Ch. 4.3 – Plant Growth and Development What are some characteristics of a plant that survives in a dry environment?types of leaves, types of roots, modifications to stems
49Ch. 4.3 – Plant Growth and Development After seeds have soaked in water for several days, a root emerges from the enlarged seeds. What conclusion can be made from this observation?Energy stored in seeds is activated and used to grow roots to anchor the plant and establish a system for obtaining water.
50What structure regulates movement of gases in and out of leaves? stomata
51Ch. 4.4 – ReproductionWhy do flowers have more pollen grains than ovules in the ovary?Because the pollen grains have to travel to the ovary.
52Ch. 4.4 – ReproductionWhat is the main difference between mitosis and meiosis?The results of meiosis provide a greater variety of genetic outcomes while mitosis produces a clone of the original cell.
53Ch. 4.4 – ReproductionThe male and female reproductive systems are similar in several ways. Which pair of organs is most similar in structure and function?vas deferens to fallopian tube
54Ch. 4.4 – Reproduction Why are gametes haploid? Haploid gametes maintain the species’ chromosome number during fertilization.
55Ch. 4.4 – ReproductionWhich reproductive organs play a role in both the reproductive and endocrine systems?ovaries and testes
56Ch. 4.4 – ReproductionWhich reproductive organ functions to protect fertilized ova?ovary
57Ch. 4.4 – Reproduction What is an advantage of asexual reproduction? Energy is conserved because production of gametes is not required.
58Ch. 4.4 – ReproductionExplain the similarities and differences between asexual and sexual reproduction. Include examples of both in your response.Similar – both produce new organismsDifferent – asexual produces exact copy of parent; sexual requires haploid gametes from 2 parents for a new individual
59Ch. 4.4 – ReproductionExplain the similarities and differences between asexual and sexual reproduction. Include examples of both in your response.Examples:Asexual: budding, fission.Sexual: pollination, fertilization.
60Ch. 5.1 – Protein SynthesisWhat is the sequence of mRNA bases for the correct transcription of the DNA sequence 5’GGGACATGATTCGCC3’?3’CCCUGUACUAAGCGG5’
61Ch. 5.1 – Protein SynthesisWhat is the role or job of tRNA in protein synthesis?tRNA bring amino acids to the ribosomes to help make proteins.
62Ch. 5.1 – Protein SynthesisWhat is the type of mutation represented by the amino acid sequence below?Correct sequence:Leucine – Alanine – Glycine –LeucineMutated sequence:Leucine – Alanine – Valine –Substitution
63Ch. 5.1 – Protein SynthesisWhich series of amino acids is the correct translation of the mRNA molecule represented here - 3’CCU AAA AGU GCA5’?proline, lysine, serine, alanine
64Ch. 5.1 – Protein SynthesisTranslate the following DNA strand to determine the correct order of amino acids - 5’CGG CAA TTT AAC3’.alanine, valine, lysine, leucine
65Ch. 5.1 – Protein SynthesisA gene represented by the DNA strand 5’AGA GGG CCA AAT3’ undergoes a mutation. Which type of mutation would have the greatest affect on a person’s health?the more codons affected, the more the affect on the final protein
66Ch. 5.1 – Protein SynthesisWhich molecule transcribes the code for proteins?mRNA molecule
67Ch. 5.2 – GeneticsIf the letters P and p represent alleles of the same gene, then a cat with the genotype Pp would be considered what?Heterozygous or hybrid
68Ch. 5.2 – Genetics What is Mendel’s law of segregation? Parent alleles separate into different gametes during meiosis.
69Ch. 5.2 – GeneticsWhat is the phenotypic ratio of the F1 monohybrid cross of two heterozygotes?3:1
70Ch. 5.2 – GeneticsIn pea plants, tallness is dominant over shortness and yellow seed color is dominant over green seed color. If pea plants that are heterozygous for tallness and heterozygous for seed coat color is crossed, what are the possible alleles in the gametes?TY, Ty, tY, ty
71Ch. 5.3 – Human GeneticsSkin color and eye color are examples of what type of inheritance?polygenic traits
72Ch. 5.3 – Human GeneticsIn snapdragons, R represents red flowers and r represents white flowers. In the cross RR x rr, all of the offspring have pink flowers. What is this pattern of inheritance?incomplete dominance
73Ch. 6.1 – Natural Selection What is natural selection? Natural selection determines which phenotypes in a population support survival.
74Ch. 6.1 – Natural SelectionSurvival of the populations of organisms hinges on adequate supplies of food, water and shelter. What would limit available resources?competition
75Ch. 6.1 – Natural SelectionMutualism is a type of symbiotic relationship between two species that supports survival of both species. What is an example of a mutual relationship?bees pollinate flowering plants
76Ch. 6.1 – Natural SelectionHow are traits for camouflage and mimicry are result of natural selection?Predators recognize, hunt and eat prey.
77Ch. 6.1 – Natural SelectionHow do mutualism, parasitism and commensalism influence natural selection?Mutualism – benefits both organismsParasitism – benefits one, harms the otherCommensalism – benefits one, but not the otherSince organisms depend on each other, if one dies, the other could follow.
78Ch. 6.3 – Classification What taxonomic group is the most general? KingdomKingdom PhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies
79Ch. 6.3 – Classification What is binomial nomenclature based on? genus and species
80Ch. 6.3 – ClassificationBased on the characteristics of the unknown organism, how should it be classified?Characteristics of unknown organismeukaryoticmulticellularheterotrophicextracellular digestionfungus