Presentation on theme: "MY FAVORITE TESTIMONIAL"— Presentation transcript:
1MY FAVORITE TESTIMONIAL So far, 3 of our 4 children have participated in the Science Olympiad (our last is in 4th grade). Our eldest daughter, Kate, elected to attend Indiana University where she is now a freshman. She recounted the following to her mother and me.During Freshman Orientation Week, all departments gathered together in trade show fashion to present their particular curriculums. Students were invited to visit each table to discover what may be of interest to them. Kate came upon a bold challenge presented by the Geology Department. Their sign read, "IF YOU CAN IDENTIFY ANY OF THESE SAMPLES, YOU MAY TAKE IT!" Nine items were in presentation on the table. Kate approached the table and identified all 9 rocks and minerals. The professor was stunned! Kate swept the items from the table and was ready to move on, but the professor pressed for more information. First, he asked what her major was. She replied, "Cognitive Science and English." Stunned, the professor pleaded, "NO,NO,NO, you must reconsider to become a geologist! Kate smiled and said, “Maybe as a hobby.” Floored, the professor asked how she had become so knowledgeable about geology? Kate confessed that she had been the primary team member who had responsibility for the geology events (R & M and Fossils) as a member of her B and C SO teams. After some more discussion she moved on only to note later that, without further samples to show, he closed up shop early. Way-To-Go-SO!As recorded by TOM SANDERS
2Earthquakes and Volcanoes Presented by Linder Winter,E-S Rules CommitteeEarthquakes and Volcanoes
4EVENT DESCRIPTIONStudents will use process skills to complete tasks related to earthquakes and volcanoes.A TEAM OF UP TO: 2APPROXIMATE TIME: 50 MINUTES
5EVENT PARAMETERSEach team may bring one 8.5” x 11” two-sided page of notes containing information in any form from any source. Each participant may bring any kind of (non-graphing) calculator (but no other resources).
6STUDENT RESOURCE SHEET Resources are to knowledge events as projects are to construction eventsStudents develop their own resources; no hand-me-downs!Provide an opportunity for coaches to easily monitor participant progress
7THE COMPETITIONParticipants will be presented with one or more tasks, many requiring the use of process skills (i.e., observing, classify-ing, measuring, inferring, predicting, communicating and using number relationships – source: AAAS) for any of the following topics.
8POSSIBLE TESTING OPTIONS Charts, tables, diagramsDetermining location of epicenterGiven the angle of repose and the diameter of a worn down, extinct volcano, calculate its tallest height from base to summitMatch general volcanic features with well-known examples, i.e. Devil’s Tower – Volcanic Neck; Crater Lake – CalderaPatterns of volcano and earthquake locations around the world (next slide)
9Image Interpretation possibility Courtesy of NASA. Plate boundaries (blue lines), the distribution of recent earthquakes (yellow dots) and active volcanoes (red triangles)Image Interpretation possibility Courtesy of NASA.
10COACHING RESOURCES Limit internet resources to: United States Geological Survey (USGS)National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)National Park Service (NPS)National Forest Service (NFS)
11COACHING RESOURCESMiddle/Junior High/Senior High Earth Science Textbooks, and even Introductory College Textbooks*The Game of Earth*Physical Geology Lab Manual*Theory of PLATE TECTONICS CD*http://www.otherworlds-edu.com
12TYPES OF VOLCANOES Shield volcanoes are huge in size. They are built up by many layers of runny lava flows spilling out of a central vent or group of vents. The broad shaped, gently-sloping cone is formed from basaltic lava which can't be piled up into steep mounds.
13TYPES OF VOLCANOESCinder cones are simple volcanoes which have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit and rarely rise more than a thousand feet above their surroundings.They usually are created of eruptions from a single vent and are composed solely of lava remnants.Cinders of lava, blown into the air during eruptions, break into small fragments that fall into a pile around the vent.
14TYPES OF VOLCANOESComposite volcanoes are also called stratovolcanoes.They are built of alternating layers of lava flows and pyroclastic materials including cinders, blocks, and bombs.Composite volcanoes are symmetrically shaped, tall and have steep sides, sometimes rising 10,000 feet high.
15TYPES OF VOLCANOESComposite volcanoes usually erupt in an explosive way due to viscous (thick) magma. When very viscous magma rises to the surface, it usually clogs the craterpipe, and gas in the craterpipe gets locked up. Therefore, the pressure will increase resulting in an explosive eruption.
16TYPES OF VOLCANOESLava Dome – Masses of solid rock formed when viscous lava erupts slowly from a vent. If the lava is viscous enough, it will pile up above the vent to form a dome rather than move away as a lava flow.
18SUBMARINE VOLCANOESShallow water volcanoes disclose their presence by blasting steam and rock-debris high above the surface of the sea.The tremendous weight of water above volcanoes at great depths results in high, confining pressure and prevents the formation and explosive release of steam and gases.Even very large, deep-water eruptions may not disturb the ocean surface.
20Possible interpretive activity. CONTROLS ON EXPLOSIVITYPossible interpretive activity.SiO2MAGMATEMPERATUREVISCOSITYGASERUPTION STYLETYPE(centigrade)CONTENT~50%mafic~1100lownonexplosive~60%intermediate~1000~70%felsic~800highexplosive
21VOLCANIC HAZARDSPyroclastic flows – turbulent mixture of pyroclastics and gases flowing down the flank of a volcanoLahars – similar to pyroclastic flows with much more water from ice and snowVolcanic gases – most is water vapor with lesser amounts of CO2, SO2, H2S, HCLLava flows – incineration and burial of buildings, property, and agricultural land are the primary hazards
22VOLCANIC FEATURESCalderas – formed (1) when a volcano’s summit is blown off or (2) when the crater floor collapses into a vacated magma chamberCrater lakes – Oregon’s Crater Lake is really a calderaLava plateaus – formed from large outpourings of fluid lava along lengthy, narrow openings in the crustGeysersHot springsVolcanic plugs – formed when lava solidifies in the pipe of an extinct volcano. Over time, the volcanic cone composed of less resistant rocks wears away, leaving behind the solidified plug
23Identify this volcanic feature and explain its formation. USGS image. Possible participant activityIdentify this volcanic feature and explain its formation. USGS image.
24ROCK TYPESAs related to kinds of eruptions – tuff and volcanic breccia from explosive volcanoes; aa and pahoehoe flows from thin, flowing lavaAs related to plate boundaries – sediments are metamorphosed at convergent boundaries; some igneous rocks are formed at spreading zones; new igneous rocks may form in subduction zonesAs related to submarine volcanoes – hot spots (which occur on continents as well)
25KINDS OF SEISMIC WAVESPrimary (P) – fastest traveling, i.e. first to arrive at a distant seismographSecondary (S) – do not travel through fluids, so these do not exist in the outer coreLove (L) – also known as surface waves and long waves; decreases in amplitude with depth
26P WAVESP waves are longitudinal or compressional waves, which means that the ground is alternately compressed and dilated in the direction of propagation.
27S WAVESS waves are transverse or shear waves, which means that the ground is displaced perpendicularly to the direction of propagation, alternately to one side and then the other. S waves can travel only through solids.
28SURFACE WAVESSurface waves are analogous to water waves and travel over the Earth's surface.They travel more slowly than body waves.Because of their low frequency, they are more likely than body waves to stimulate resonance in buildings, and are therefore the most destructive type of seismic wave.
29EARTH’S INTERIOR Boundaries and characteristics of: Lithosphere – crust and upper mantleMoho – In geology, the term “discontinuity” is used for a surface at which seismic waves change velocity. One of these surfaces exists at an average depth of 8 km beneath the ocean or about 32 km beneath the continents. This surface is known as the Mohorovicic Discontinuity or Moho.MantleOuter coreInner core
31HANGING WALL VS FOOTWALL Vertical faults are the result of up or down movement along a break in the rocks. Actually, both blocks may move up or both blocks may drop, or one might go up and one might go down.It is the end result of the movement that classifies the relationship between the blocks.
32HANGING WALL VS FOOTWALL The hanging wall block is the one on the left and the foot wall block is the one on the right.
33NORMAL FAULTS Normal faults form when the hanging wall drops down. The forces that create normal faults are pulling the sides apart (extensional
34REVERSE FAULTSReverse – Reverse faults form when the hanging wall moves up.Forces creating reverse faults are compressional, pushing the sides together.
35STRIKE-SLIP FAULTSStrike-slip faults have walls that move sideways, not up or down.The forces creating these faults are lateral or horizontal, carrying the sides past each other.
36HANGING WALL VS FOOTWALL Identify the footwall block, the hanging wall block, the fault trace, and the fault scarp.
37HANGING WALL VS FOOTWALL The footwall block is on the left.The hanging wall block is on the right.The fault trace is the line along the surface of the earth formed by the fault.The fault scarp is the cliff that results from the fault movement.Note that this is a normal fault.
38THRUST FAULTSThrust faults are described in most introductory textbooks as low angle reverse faults.Reverse faults are steeply dipping (more near vertical), thrust faults are closer to horizontal. 45° is a commonly cited cut-off between the two types of faults.
39ASSESSING EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE Mercalli Scale – a scale of earthquake intensity based upon observed effects ranging from 1 (detectable only with instruments) to XII (causing almost total destruction).Richter Scale – a logrithmic scale used to express the total amount of energy released by an earthquake. Its values typically range between 0 and 9, with each increase of 1 representing a 10-fold increase in energy.
40EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Do not panic!If you are indoors, stay there. Seek protection under a table or desk, or in a doorway. Stay away from glass.If you are outside, move away from buildings and power lines. Stay in the open.If you are in a car, bring it to a stop as soon as possible. The car’s springs will absorb some of the shaking. The car will offer some protection.
41CLIMATE CHANGE AS RELATED TO VOLCANIC ACTIVITY Human-made CO2 dwarf the estimated global release of CO2 from volcanoes by at least 150 times.Volcanic dust blasted into the atmosphere causes temporary cooling.Volcanoes that release huge amounts of sulfur compounds affect the climate more strongly than those that eject just dust. Combined with atmospheric water, they form a haze of sulfuric acid that reflects a great deal of sunlight which may cause global cooling for up to two years. Much more in-depth information at:
42TOPOGRAPHIC MAP SKILLS AS RELATED TO TECTONICS The Physical Geology Lab Manual (from offers a lesson on Kilauea along with a topographic map.Identify fault lines on a topographic map of strategic areas in California.
43PLATE BOUNDARIESConvergent – where plates crash or crunch together
44PLATE BOUNDARIESDivergent – where plates are coming apart
45PLATE BOUNDARIES Transform – where plates slide past each other The next slide shows a possible slide participants could be asked to interpret during the event.
47PLATE BOUNDARIES Earthquake patterns Mid-ocean ridges Subduction zones Volcanic arcs and mountain chainsTrenchesMountain ranges
48EVIDENCE OF CONTINENTAL DRIFT FossilsRock typesShape of continentsMountain ranges
49SEA FLOOR SPREADING Magnetic reversals Age of rocks on either side of a mid-ocean ridge
50TSUNAMISA tsunami can be generated by any disturbance that displaces a large mass of water, such as an earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide or meteor impact.
51TSUNAMISTypically undersea earthquakes give rise to between 3 and 5 distinct waves (crests), the second or third of which are usually the largest.In instances where the leading edge of the tsunami is its trough, the sea will recede from the coast half the wave's period before the wave's arrival.
52TSUNAMISIn instances where the leading edge of the tsunami is its first peak, low-lying coastal areas are flooded before the higher second wave reaches them.
53Tsunamis travel swiftly across the open ocean Tsunamis travel swiftly across the open ocean. The map below shows how a tsunami produced by an earthquake along the coast of Chile in 1960 traveled across the Pacific Ocean, reaching Hawaii in about 15 hours and Japan is less than 24 hours.
54SCORINGPoints will be awarded for the quality and accuracy of responses.Ties will be broken by the accuracy and/or quality of answers to pre-selected questions.
55NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION STANDARDS Content Standard D. Structure of the Earth System; Earth’s History
56Test your knowledge of volcanoes & earthquakes These and other questions may be found at:Test your knowledge of volcanoes & earthquakes
57QUESTION # 1Explosive eruptions are typically associated with magmas having ________ viscosities and ________ volatile contents. a) high / low b) low / high c) low / low d) high / high e) viscosity and volatile content have no relationship to explosivity
58QUESTION 2Which of the following island chains were generated by intraplate volcanism above a mantle plume. a) the Aleutian Island chain b) Emperor Island chain c) Hawaiian Island chain d) both (b) and (c) e) all the above
59QUESTION 3 This volcano is an example of a _________. a) stratovolcano b) shield volcanoc) scoria coned) spatter conee) parasitic cone
60QUESTION 4 Stratovolcanoes are commonly found at ________. a) divergent plate boundaries b) intraplate boundaries c) transform plate boundaries d) regions of continental extension e) convergent plate boundaries
61QUESTION 5Active lava domes generally have ______ viscosities and ______ gas contents.a) low / high b) high / low c) low / low d) high / high e) variable / variable
62QUESTION 6Which of the following shield volcano types are exceptionally symmetrical, with flat tops occupied by large and very deep calderas (photo)? a) Galapagos shields b) Hawaiian shields c) Icelandic shields d) Saudi Arabian shields e) Andean shields
63QUESTION 7Basalt lava with a smooth, billowy, or ropey surface is called ________. a) cheesy lava b) a'a lava c) mokeoweoweo lava d) pahoehoe lava e) rheomorphic lava
64QUESTION 8 a) Hawaiian hot pot b) spatter hole c) fumarole d) caldera A collapse depression above a lava tube is called a(n) __________. a) Hawaiian hot pot b) spatter hole c) fumarole d) caldera e) skylight
65QUESTION 9The bulbous bodies with quenched glassy rinds in the photo below are known as ________. a) peperites b) accretionary lava balls c) pillow basalts d) pahoehoe toes e) lava stalagmites
66QUESTION 10 a) water vapor b) CO2 c) SO2 d) H2S e) H Which gas constitutes 70-90% of the gases dissolved in magma. a) water vapor b) CO2 c) SO2 d) H2S e) H
67HOW DID YOU DO? 6. a) Galapagos 7. d) pahoehoe lava 8. e) skylight 1. a) high / low2. d) both b and c3. a) stratovolcano4. e) convergent5. b) high / low6. a) Galapagos7. d) pahoehoe lava8. e) skylight9. c) pillow basalts10. a) water vapor