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Presentation on theme: "MY FAVORITE TESTIMONIAL"— Presentation transcript:

So far, 3 of our 4 children have participated in the Science Olympiad (our last is in 4th grade). Our eldest daughter, Kate, elected to attend Indiana University where she is now a freshman. She recounted the following to her mother and me. During Freshman Orientation Week, all departments gathered together in trade show fashion to present their particular curriculums. Students were invited to visit each table to discover what may be of interest to them. Kate came upon a bold challenge presented by the Geology Department. Their sign read, "IF YOU CAN IDENTIFY ANY OF THESE SAMPLES, YOU MAY TAKE IT!" Nine items were in presentation on the table. Kate approached the table and identified all 9 rocks and minerals. The professor was stunned! Kate swept the items from the table and was ready to move on, but the professor pressed for more information. First, he asked what her major was. She replied, "Cognitive Science and English." Stunned, the professor pleaded, "NO,NO,NO, you must reconsider to become a geologist! Kate smiled and said, “Maybe as a hobby.” Floored, the professor asked how she had become so knowledgeable about geology? Kate confessed that she had been the primary team member who had responsibility for the geology events (R & M and Fossils) as a member of her B and C SO teams. After some more discussion she moved on only to note later that, without further samples to show, he closed up shop early. Way-To-Go-SO! As recorded by TOM SANDERS

2 Earthquakes and Volcanoes
Presented by Linder Winter, E-S Rules Committee Earthquakes and Volcanoes

3 EVENT ROTATION 2009 & 2010: Earthquakes & Volcanoes
2011 & 2012: Earth’s Fresh Waters 2013 & 2014: Glaciers 2015 & 2016: Oceanography

4 EVENT DESCRIPTION Students will use process skills to complete tasks related to earthquakes and volcanoes. A TEAM OF UP TO: 2 APPROXIMATE TIME: 50 MINUTES

5 EVENT PARAMETERS Each team may bring one 8.5” x 11” two-sided page of notes containing information in any form from any source. Each participant may bring any kind of (non-graphing) calculator (but no other resources).

Resources are to knowledge events as projects are to construction events Students develop their own resources; no hand-me-downs! Provide an opportunity for coaches to easily monitor participant progress

7 THE COMPETITION Participants will be presented with one or more tasks, many requiring the use of process skills (i.e., observing, classify-ing, measuring, inferring, predicting, communicating and using number relationships – source: AAAS) for any of the following topics.

Charts, tables, diagrams Determining location of epicenter Given the angle of repose and the diameter of a worn down, extinct volcano, calculate its tallest height from base to summit Match general volcanic features with well-known examples, i.e. Devil’s Tower – Volcanic Neck; Crater Lake – Caldera Patterns of volcano and earthquake locations around the world (next slide)

9 Image Interpretation possibility Courtesy of NASA.
Plate boundaries (blue lines), the distribution of recent earthquakes (yellow dots) and active volcanoes (red triangles) Image Interpretation possibility Courtesy of NASA.

10 COACHING RESOURCES Limit internet resources to:
United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Park Service (NPS) National Forest Service (NFS)

11 COACHING RESOURCES Middle/Junior High/Senior High Earth Science Textbooks, and even Introductory College Textbooks *The Game of Earth *Physical Geology Lab Manual *Theory of PLATE TECTONICS CD *

12 TYPES OF VOLCANOES Shield volcanoes are huge in size.
They are built up by many layers of runny lava flows spilling out of a central vent or group of vents.  The broad shaped, gently-sloping cone is formed from basaltic lava which can't be piled up into steep mounds.

13 TYPES OF VOLCANOES Cinder cones are simple volcanoes which have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit and rarely rise more than a thousand feet above their surroundings. They usually are created of eruptions from a single vent and are composed solely of lava remnants. Cinders of lava, blown into the air during eruptions, break into small fragments that fall into a pile around the vent.

14 TYPES OF VOLCANOES Composite volcanoes are also called stratovolcanoes. They are built of alternating layers of lava flows and pyroclastic materials including cinders, blocks, and bombs. Composite volcanoes are symmetrically shaped, tall and have steep sides, sometimes rising 10,000 feet high.

15 TYPES OF VOLCANOES Composite volcanoes usually erupt in an explosive way due to viscous (thick) magma.  When very viscous magma rises to the surface, it usually clogs the craterpipe, and gas in the craterpipe gets locked up. Therefore, the pressure will increase resulting in an explosive eruption.

16 TYPES OF VOLCANOES Lava Dome – Masses of solid rock formed when viscous lava erupts slowly from a vent. If the lava is viscous enough, it will pile up above the vent to form a dome rather than move away as a lava flow.


18 SUBMARINE VOLCANOES Shallow water volcanoes disclose their presence by blasting steam and rock-debris high above the surface of the sea. The tremendous weight of water above volcanoes at great depths results in high, confining pressure and prevents the formation and explosive release of steam and gases. Even very large, deep-water eruptions may not disturb the ocean surface.

19 Explosive vs. Effusive

20 Possible interpretive activity.
CONTROLS ON EXPLOSIVITY Possible interpretive activity. SiO2 MAGMA TEMPERATURE VISCOSITY GAS ERUPTION STYLE TYPE (centigrade) CONTENT ~50% mafic ~1100 low nonexplosive ~60% intermediate ~1000 ~70% felsic ~800 high explosive

21 VOLCANIC HAZARDS Pyroclastic flows – turbulent mixture of pyroclastics and gases flowing down the flank of a volcano Lahars – similar to pyroclastic flows with much more water from ice and snow Volcanic gases – most is water vapor with lesser amounts of CO2, SO2, H2S, HCL Lava flows – incineration and burial of buildings, property, and agricultural land are the primary hazards

22 VOLCANIC FEATURES Calderas – formed (1) when a volcano’s summit is blown off or (2) when the crater floor collapses into a vacated magma chamber Crater lakes – Oregon’s Crater Lake is really a caldera Lava plateaus – formed from large outpourings of fluid lava along lengthy, narrow openings in the crust Geysers Hot springs Volcanic plugs – formed when lava solidifies in the pipe of an extinct volcano. Over time, the volcanic cone composed of less resistant rocks wears away, leaving behind the solidified plug

23 Identify this volcanic feature and explain its formation. USGS image.
Possible participant activity Identify this volcanic feature and explain its formation. USGS image.

24 ROCK TYPES As related to kinds of eruptions – tuff and volcanic breccia from explosive volcanoes; aa and pahoehoe flows from thin, flowing lava As related to plate boundaries – sediments are metamorphosed at convergent boundaries; some igneous rocks are formed at spreading zones; new igneous rocks may form in subduction zones As related to submarine volcanoes – hot spots (which occur on continents as well)

25 KINDS OF SEISMIC WAVES Primary (P) – fastest traveling, i.e. first to arrive at a distant seismograph Secondary (S) – do not travel through fluids, so these do not exist in the outer core Love (L) – also known as surface waves and long waves; decreases in amplitude with depth

26 P WAVES P waves are longitudinal or compressional waves, which means that the ground is alternately compressed and dilated in the direction of propagation.

27 S WAVES S waves are transverse or shear waves, which means that the ground is displaced perpendicularly to the direction of propagation, alternately to one side and then the other. S waves can travel only through solids.

28 SURFACE WAVES Surface waves are analogous to water waves and travel over the Earth's surface. They travel more slowly than body waves. Because of their low frequency, they are more likely than body waves to stimulate resonance in buildings, and are therefore the most destructive type of seismic wave.

29 EARTH’S INTERIOR Boundaries and characteristics of:
Lithosphere – crust and upper mantle Moho – In geology, the term “discontinuity” is used for a surface at which seismic waves change velocity. One of these surfaces exists at an average depth of 8 km beneath the ocean or about 32 km beneath the continents. This surface is known as the Mohorovicic Discontinuity or Moho. Mantle Outer core Inner core


Vertical faults are the result of up or down movement along a break in the rocks. Actually, both blocks may move up or both blocks may drop, or one might go up and one might go down. It is the end result of the movement that classifies the relationship between the blocks.

The hanging wall block is the one on the left and the foot wall block is the one on the right.

33 NORMAL FAULTS Normal faults form when the hanging wall drops down.
The forces that create normal faults are pulling the sides apart (extensional

34 REVERSE FAULTS Reverse – Reverse faults form when the hanging wall moves up. Forces creating reverse faults are compressional, pushing the sides together.

35 STRIKE-SLIP FAULTS Strike-slip faults have walls that move sideways, not up or down. The forces creating these faults are lateral or horizontal, carrying the sides past each other.

Identify the footwall block, the hanging wall block, the fault trace, and the fault scarp.

The footwall block is on the left. The hanging wall block is on the right. The fault trace is the line along the surface of the earth formed by the fault. The fault scarp is the cliff that results from the fault movement. Note that this is a normal fault.

38 THRUST FAULTS Thrust faults are described in most introductory textbooks as low angle reverse faults. Reverse faults are steeply dipping (more near vertical), thrust faults are closer to horizontal. 45° is a commonly cited cut-off between the two types of faults.

Mercalli Scale – a scale of earthquake intensity based upon observed effects ranging from 1 (detectable only with instruments) to XII (causing almost total destruction). Richter Scale – a logrithmic scale used to express the total amount of energy released by an earthquake. Its values typically range between 0 and 9, with each increase of 1 representing a 10-fold increase in energy.

Do not panic! If you are indoors, stay there. Seek protection under a table or desk, or in a doorway. Stay away from glass. If you are outside, move away from buildings and power lines. Stay in the open. If you are in a car, bring it to a stop as soon as possible. The car’s springs will absorb some of the shaking. The car will offer some protection.

Human-made CO2 dwarf the estimated global release of CO2 from volcanoes by at least 150 times. Volcanic dust blasted into the atmosphere causes temporary cooling. Volcanoes that release huge amounts of sulfur compounds affect the climate more strongly than those that eject just dust. Combined with atmospheric water, they form a haze of sulfuric acid that reflects a great deal of sunlight which may cause global cooling for up to two years. Much more in-depth information at:

The Physical Geology Lab Manual (from offers a lesson on Kilauea along with a topographic map. Identify fault lines on a topographic map of strategic areas in California.

43 PLATE BOUNDARIES Convergent – where plates crash or crunch together

44 PLATE BOUNDARIES Divergent – where plates are coming apart

45 PLATE BOUNDARIES Transform – where plates slide past each other
The next slide shows a possible slide participants could be asked to interpret during the event.


47 PLATE BOUNDARIES Earthquake patterns Mid-ocean ridges Subduction zones
Volcanic arcs and mountain chains Trenches Mountain ranges

Fossils Rock types Shape of continents Mountain ranges

49 SEA FLOOR SPREADING Magnetic reversals
Age of rocks on either side of a mid-ocean ridge

50 TSUNAMIS A tsunami can be generated by any disturbance that displaces a large mass of water, such as an earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide or meteor impact.

51 TSUNAMIS Typically undersea earthquakes give rise to between 3 and 5 distinct waves (crests), the second or third of which are usually the largest. In instances where the leading edge of the tsunami is its trough, the sea will recede from the coast half the wave's period before the wave's arrival.

52 TSUNAMIS In instances where the leading edge of the tsunami is its first peak, low-lying coastal areas are flooded before the higher second wave reaches them.

53 Tsunamis travel swiftly across the open ocean
Tsunamis travel swiftly across the open ocean. The map below shows how a tsunami produced by an earthquake along the coast of Chile in 1960 traveled across the Pacific Ocean, reaching Hawaii in about 15 hours and Japan is less than 24 hours.

54 SCORING Points will be awarded for the quality and accuracy of responses. Ties will be broken by the accuracy and/or quality of answers to pre-selected questions.

Content Standard D. Structure of the Earth System; Earth’s History

56 Test your knowledge of volcanoes & earthquakes
These and other questions may be found at: Test your knowledge of volcanoes & earthquakes

57 QUESTION # 1 Explosive eruptions are typically associated with magmas having ________ viscosities and ________ volatile contents.   a) high / low   b) low / high   c) low / low   d) high / high   e) viscosity and volatile content have no relationship to explosivity

58 QUESTION 2 Which of the following island chains were generated by intraplate volcanism above a mantle plume.     a) the Aleutian Island chain   b) Emperor Island chain   c) Hawaiian Island chain   d) both (b) and (c)   e) all the above

59 QUESTION 3 This volcano is an example of a _________. a) stratovolcano
b) shield volcano c) scoria cone d) spatter cone e) parasitic cone

60 QUESTION 4 Stratovolcanoes are commonly found at ________.
a) divergent plate boundaries b) intraplate boundaries c) transform plate boundaries d) regions of continental extension e) convergent plate boundaries

61 QUESTION 5 Active lava domes generally have ______ viscosities and ______ gas contents. a) low / high b) high / low c) low / low d) high / high e) variable / variable

62 QUESTION 6 Which of the following shield volcano types are exceptionally symmetrical, with flat tops occupied by large and very deep calderas (photo)? a) Galapagos shields b) Hawaiian shields c) Icelandic shields d) Saudi Arabian shields e) Andean shields

63 QUESTION 7 Basalt lava with a smooth, billowy, or ropey surface is called ________. a) cheesy lava b) a'a lava c) mokeoweoweo lava d) pahoehoe lava e) rheomorphic lava

64 QUESTION 8 a) Hawaiian hot pot b) spatter hole c) fumarole d) caldera
A collapse depression above a lava tube is called a(n) __________.     a) Hawaiian hot pot   b) spatter hole   c) fumarole   d) caldera   e) skylight

65 QUESTION 9 The bulbous bodies with quenched glassy rinds in the photo below are known as ________. a) peperites b) accretionary lava balls c) pillow basalts d) pahoehoe toes e) lava stalagmites

66 QUESTION 10 a) water vapor b) CO2 c) SO2 d) H2S e) H
Which gas constitutes 70-90% of the gases dissolved in magma.     a) water vapor b) CO2 c) SO2 d) H2S e) H

67 HOW DID YOU DO? 6. a) Galapagos 7. d) pahoehoe lava 8. e) skylight
1. a) high / low 2. d) both b and c 3. a) stratovolcano 4. e) convergent 5. b) high / low 6. a) Galapagos 7. d) pahoehoe lava 8. e) skylight 9. c) pillow basalts 10. a) water vapor


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