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PHYTOMONITORING PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL & A Centralized Regional Information System for Agricultural Production in India (A Phytomonitoring.

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Presentation on theme: "PHYTOMONITORING PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL & A Centralized Regional Information System for Agricultural Production in India (A Phytomonitoring."— Presentation transcript:

1 PHYTOMONITORING PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL & A Centralized Regional Information System for Agricultural Production in India (A Phytomonitoring project Proposal) Phytech Ltd. - CROP GROWTH CONTROL Phytech Ltd. March 2005 Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL

2 Topics  Company overview Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL  What is it?  PHYTOMONITORING:  Why Phytomonitoring?  How it works?  How to get a benefit from it?  Case studies  Current application projects

3 Company Overview Phytech Ltd. - CROP GROWTH CONTROL Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL We develop and sell revolutionary crop monitoring solutions that dramatically improve crop sustainability, yield and quality. Our products: Remote systems for monitoring crop status and growth in the fieldRemote systems for monitoring crop status and growth in the field Software for system control and data downloadingSoftware for system control and data downloading Proprietary graphics softwareProprietary graphics software Application protocols and Software for decision support in crop growingApplication protocols and Software for decision support in crop growing Sensors and instruments for horticulture researchSensors and instruments for horticulture research

4 Company Overview Phytech Ltd. - CROP GROWTH CONTROL Headquartered in Israel Established in 1998 by Kibbutz Yad-Mordechai and the parent company was traded in TASE in Leading research company in Agricultural Crop Monitoring. Top class board of directors and international level advisory board. Sales in more than 30 countries world wide. Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL

5 Phytech Ltd. - CROP GROWTH CONTROL Phytomonitoring: What is it? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL Information and Decision-Support System for Crop Growing ADVANTAGES:  Direct, objective monitoring of plants  On-line diagnostics:  Early warnings  Quick feedback ADVANTAGES:  Direct, objective monitoring of plants  On-line diagnostics:  Early warnings  Quick feedback

6 Phytech Ltd. - CROP GROWTH CONTROL Phytomonitoring: What is it? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUEDATA ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION Information and Decision-Support System for Crop Growing

7 Phytech Ltd. - CROP GROWTH CONTROL Why Phytomonitoring? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL The Problem 1 More food on less land with half of the water! UN, 1999

8 Increasing water pollution Agriculture is the single largest user of freshwater on a global basis. The high chemicals content in groundwater is mainly from irrigation run-off from agricultural fields where chemical fertilizers have been used indiscriminately. Experts predict that, because pollution can no longer be remedied by dilution in many countries, freshwater quality will become the principal limitation for sustainable development in these countries. The Problem 2 Control of water pollution from agriculture - FAO irrigation and drainage paper 55 Why Phytomonitoring? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL

9 Loss of yield and quality caused by improper application of controllable factors (i.e. irrigation regime) Late response to harmful environmental changes (i.e. air drought) Lack of crop feedback after application of new control regimes Excessive inputs to crop production (i.e. overwatering) Laborious techniques for crop inspection Poor control of actual plant status and growth that reduce capability of quality control and timely production. The Problem 3 Sustainability and profitability of crop growing Sustainability and profitability of crop growing Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL Why Phytomonitoring?

10 Problem Summary 1.Land and water limitations 2.Increasing pollution due to indiscriminate irrigation 3.Poorly controllable sustainability and profitability 4.Lack of information channels about the current crop status. Disconnected character of the existing information sources. The Problem Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL Why Phytomonitoring?

11 Appropriate Needs 1.Tailored soil and crop management to fit the specific conditions found within a plantation or agricultural field (Precision Horticulture). 2.Precise control of crop water status and growth in order to provide timely and discriminate application of water with fertilizers and other controllable factors 3.Ability to observe instantly and remotely the current crop status as well as its recent trend 4.A single computerized information channel, which replace a variety of disconnected information sources about the current crop status and growth. 5.Reliable and low maintainable sensors and systems for assessing crop physiological status remotely Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL Why Phytomonitoring?

12 The Solution Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL Why Phytomonitoring? PhyTech has developed and manufactured proven solutions addressing all four needs mentioned PhyTech has developed and manufactured proven solutions addressing all four needs mentioned

13 Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL How it works? INSTRUMENTATION (sensors, systems and software) provides recording of plant characteristics and environment APPLICATION TECHNIQUES utilize the recorded data as follows: As inputs for Decision-making procedures For early Warning on plant stress For Adjustment of control regimes in trial-and-error mode

14 How it works? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL

15 The Solution Plant sensors Fruit growth Stem growth Stem diameter Sap flow rate Leaf temperature Environmental Solar radiation Air temperature Air humidity Wind speed Soil moisture Hardware How it works? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL

16 Graphics Software Multi-axis charts Shows both measured and derived calculated variables Presents both instant and daily average values Has a tool for generating reports and alarms Includes a tool for data filtering and threshold analysis How it works? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL

17  Designed for monitoring absolute temperature of leaves  Has minimal effect on leaf temperature  Effective to compare with the air temperature and/or dew point temperature SPECIFICATIONS: Measurement Range: 5-50 °C typical Instrumental accuracy: ± 0.2 °C Stability: ± 0.5 °C over 1 year period Calibration chart: individual, non- linear. 17 How it works? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL Leaf Temperature Sensor

18 An example of diurnal monitoring of air (red), soil (black), leaf (green) and flower bud (blue) temperatures in greenhouse roses 18 How it works? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL Leaf Temperature Sensor

19  The SF-4 and SF-5 sensors enable to monitor diurnal variations of sap flow rate in a leaf petiole or a small stem  Effective to compare with air VPD SPECIFICATIONS: Measurement Range: Not specified. Approximate range of 3 ml/h was determined with the use of stem simulator (5 mm diameter fiber filled PVC hose) Stem diameter: 1 to 5 mm for SF-4M 4 to10 mm for SF-5M Heating Power: 30 mW typical 19 How it works? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL Sap Flow Sensor

20 A typical record of sap flow rate: a top leaf demonstrated midday reduction of sap flow in result of stomatal response while the lower one had no signs of water deficit.. 20 How it works? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL Sap Flow Sensor

21  Enable monitoring of stem diameter variations in micron range caused by fluctuations of plant water content and growth. SPECIFICATIONS: Linear Measurement Range: 0-5 mm or 0-10 mm Diameter Adjustment Range: 4 to 25 mm for SD-5 20 to 70 mm for SD-6 Unlimited for DE-1 Resolution : 2-3 micron How it works? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL Stem Microvariation Sensors

22 ACTIVE TISSUE CAMBIUM XYLEM PITH PHLOEM 22 IMPORTANT FACTS - Active tissues have major contribution to diurnal variations of stem diameter - That is why the maximum daily shrinkage is almost the same for trunk, arm, shoot and leaf petiole - Actual water loss is much greater than apparent shrinkage volume - How it works? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL Stem Microvariation Sensors

23 GRAPEVINE        - trend pattern  - trend deviation  - daily contraction amplitude  - daily increment  - depression of daily maximum  - nighttime pattern How it works? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL Stem Microvariation Sensors Indices of plant status

24  The enhanced parallelogram design of the clip provides stable and firm positioning of a fruit under study SPECIFICATIONS: Linear Measurement Range: FI-XS (Extra Small Fruit): 3-30 mm FI-S (Small Fruit): 7-30 or 7-45 mm FI-M (Medium Fruit): or mm FI-L (Large Fruit) : or mm Resolution 0.1 % FS 24 How it works? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL Fruit Growth Sensors

25 Deficit irrigation Full irrigation TOMATO Fruit Diameter, mm Growth rate Growth acceleration Growth rate (trend), Trend deviation How it works? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL Fruit Growth Sensors

26 How it works? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL PTM-48M Photosynthesis Monitor Leaf CO2 exchange rate (μmolCO2/m²s) Leaf transpiration rate (mgH2O/m²s) CO2 concentration in the air (ppm) Absolute air humidity (g/m³) Atmospheric pressure (mbar) Solar radiation (either W/m² or μmol/m²s) Air temperature (°C) Air humidity (%RH) Leaf temperature Soil moisture Sap flow rate Stem diameter Fruit growth Auxanometer

27 How it works? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL PTM-48M Photosynthesis Monitor The LC-4B enhanced pneumatically powered self- clamping leaf chamber INSTALLATION QUEUING CHAMBER WORKING CHAMBER 27

28 Differentiation of Photosynthesis in the canopy 28 Greenhouse Tomato m How it works? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL PTM-48M Photosynthesis Monitor Photosynthesis of different tomato leaves

29 Limited water stress: low effect on photosynthesis and high on transpiration 29 Cotton Photosynthesis and Stomatal control How it works? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL PTM-48M Photosynthesis Monitor

30 How it works? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL 30 Chloroplasts Air chamber O2O2 CO 2 H2OH2O Guard cell Epidermal cell Stoma Boundary Layer s/cm s/cm Rb Rs Rb Rs Rc CO2H2O CO2 and H2O pathways in the leaf WATER CONTENT (STEM DIAMETER) STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE (Sap flow or LATD vs. VPD) TRANSPIRATION (PTM-48) PHOTOSYNTHESIS (PTM-48)Response to developing water stress

31 The Solution Trial-and-error testing of new regimes or treatments Stress! Detecting physiological disorders REMOTE DECISION SUPPORT Measurable information for decision- making algorithms (either formal or human-aided) WARNINGS Warning a grower in case of physiological disorder helps to reduce crop damage and loss caused by abiotic stress INTERACTIVE PHYTOMONITORING comparative interactive examination of different regimes, treatments and materials cropyield sample plants Remote Decision support (in formal decision-making procedures) How it works? Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL

32 How to get a benefit from it? Object of monitoring Growing strategy Effect Plant water status and trend (dendrometers plus environment) Non-stress irrigation Optimal yield and quality due to preventing eventual water stress, overwatering, salinity stress and non-optimal irrigation schedule. Saving irrigation water Regulated deficit irrigation Optimal application of water deficit for better quality due to precise continuous control of plant water status and trend. Prevention of excess water stress.

33 Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL How to get a benefit from it? Object of monitoring Growing strategy Effect Plant water status and trend (dendrometers plus environment) Non-stress irrigation Optimal yield and quality due to preventing eventual water stress, overwatering, salinity stress and non-optimal irrigation schedule. Saving irrigation water Regulated deficit irrigation Optimal application of water deficit for better quality due to precise continuous control of plant water status and trend. Prevention of excess water stress. Plant growthMaximal growthMaximization of fruit size and yield due to directly controllable production Optimal GrowthHigher quality standard due to optimal size of fruits and timely harvesting

34 Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL How to get a benefit from it? Object of monitoring Growing strategy Effect Plant water status and trend (dendrometers plus environment) Non-stress irrigation Optimal yield and quality due to preventing eventual water stress, overwatering, salinity stress and non-optimal irrigation schedule. Saving irrigation water Regulated deficit irrigation Optimal application of water deficit for better quality due to precise continuous control of plant water status and trend. Prevention of excess water stress. Plant growthMaximal growthMaximization of fruit size and yield due to directly controllable production Optimal GrowthHigher quality standard due to optimal size of fruits and timely harvesting CO2 exchange, transpiration, water status, growth, and environment Optimal inputs and productivity of plants Optimization of all controllable factors due to overall monitoring of all major factors of plant productivity. Improving production, saving water and fertilizers, saving energy for heating etc.

35 Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL CASE STUDIES Table Grapes Vines of three varieties were examined since 2002 in Lachish area of Israel: Superior (3 vineyards), Thompson (8 vineyards) and Zani (2 vineyards). The study is carried out in cooperation with Extension Service The main purpose was to develop phytomonitoring- based decision-making procedures for the following technological tasks:  When to begin irrigation season,  Determination of proper irrigation rate,  Determination of proper irrigation interval,  Determination of better time for watering,  Timely revealing eventual plants physiological disorder  Evaluation of plant response to trial changes of irrigation regime in process of decision-making.

36 Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL CASE STUDIES Table Grapes Three formal application protocols have been developed for realizing a non-stress strategy during three characteristic periods of vine development: Period 2 – control based on trunk diameter growth rate Period 3 – control based on fruit growth rate Period 4 – control based on maximum daily shrinkage of trunk

37 Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL CASE STUDIES Table Grapes Illustration to the Protocol #1: The trunk diameter growth rate declined during June Since June 13, the irrigation rate was increased by 20% and followed by increased growth rate of trunk.

38 Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL CASE STUDIES Table Grapes Illustration to the Protocol #2: The fruit diameter growth rate declined during July Since July 13, the irrigation rate was increased by 20% and followed by increased growth rate of the fruit.

39 Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL CASE STUDIES Table Grapes Illustration to the Protocol #3: The maximum daily shrinkage exceeded the threshold of 0.1 mm on July 24. Since July 25, the irrigation rate was increased by 20% with positive results.

40 Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL CASE STUDIES Onion Mild air conditions, good irrigation Air dryness at night caused developing soil water deficit Onion daily growth vs. irrigation and VPD Beit Shean valley, 2004

41 Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL CASE STUDIES Onion  - Daytime growth rate - Nighttime growth rate Onion daily growth : day and night Beit Shean valley, 2004  The bulb growth rate is changing during the day. Usually, the growth rate is higher at nighttime.  At nighttime, the growth rate is significantly affected by VPD rather than by irrigation interval.  At daytime, the growth rate depends, to a greater extent, on irrigation interval.  Thus, the growth rate is more controllable at daytime by irrigation scheduling.

42 Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL CASE STUDIES Citrus: Pomelit TRUNKFRUIT SOIL MOISTURE VPDVPD Both trunk and fruit of Citrus trees are very sensitive to water deficit. Developing water deficit was detected since June 12 by retardation of both trunk and fruit growth. Irrigation of June 15 (indicated by blue arrow) brought a considerable relief to the plants

43 Kibbutz Gat Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL CASE STUDIES Citrus: Pomelit Substantial inhibition of fruit growth rate, caused by temporary shortage of irrigation water source Acceleration of the fruit growth rate due to resuming normal irrigation rate Due to adjustment of irrigation regime made on the basis of phytomonitoring records, the yield increased from 5.5 t/ha in 2001 to 6.2 t/ha in 2002 and to 7 t/ha in 2003.

44 Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL CASE STUDIES Wine Grapes – RDI Post-veraison RDI

45 Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL CASE STUDIES Wine Grapes – RDI

46 Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL CASE STUDIES Wine Grapes – RDI Plot ID Midday SWP Predaw n SWP VPD day VPD night Day after irrigation Chardonnay, Odem, Merlot, Ionatan, XXXX YYYY Chardonnay, Odem Merlot XXXX

47 Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL CASE STUDIES Other case studies with registered practical results POMELIT Kibbuz Gat, Contact: Dani ( ) Significant growth of yield from 55 t/ha 2001 to 70 t/ha 2003 due to adjustment of irrigation regime made with the use of phytomonitoring. POMELIT Kibbuz Yad Mordrchai, Contact: Miha ( ) Improved quality of fruits due to control of fruit size for picking at certain date PERSIMMON Mor Perot Hasharon, Tel-Mond Contact: Timna Shoer, agronomist ( ) Water saving (10-15%) due to adjustment of irrigation regime according to the phytomonitoring evaluation of plant water status. COTTON Gadash Shikma, Kibbuz Mishmar-Hanegev Contact: Igal Flesh, extension service specialist ( ) Development of phytomonitoring-based techniques alternative to manual control techniques used by the growers. POTATO Gadash Shikma, Kibbuz Yad Mordechai Contact: Ionatan, grower ( ) Improvement of quality due to proper irrigation regime before harvesting according to the desired soil temperature.

48 Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL CASE STUDIES Other case studies with registered practical results AVOCADO and MANGO Zemah Avocado, Kineret Contact: Ami Keinan, agronomist ( ) Optimization of plant water status and fruit growth due to controllability provided by phytomonitoring. WINE GRAPES Burge Binyamina, Binyamina Contact: Avi Goldshtein, grower ( ) Improved quality and stable good yield due to optimization of irrigation regime made with the use of phytomonitoring. BELL PEPPER Since 2002 Paran, Arava Contact: Aviv Shapiro, grower ( ) and Israel Zer, grower ( ) Optimization of irrigation in drought conditions and lack of water supply. ROSES Nir Banim Contact: Inon Strashnov ( ) Improved quality and stable yield. Due to phytomonitoring, the grower was able to instigate effect of thermal screen of plant state and growth and, then, to invest in those facilities.

49 Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL CASE STUDIES Other case studies with registered practical results Jordan Valley – app. 40 Users for Avocado. Cover 6,000 Dunam of plantation. Cost using PhyTech and involving consultant app. 250$ per ha. Yield increase in 2004 – app. 35% (resp. to other locations) – app. 6000$ per ha. As a result of using the system and continuing agronomic support – -potential net revenue from increased yield – app. 6000$/ha. - improvement of quality (for export).

50 Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL Current Model Application Projects Carrying out in cooperation with the Extension Service  Avocado (Israel, over 40 growers)  Mango (Israel, over 20 growers)  Litchi (Israel, over 20 growers)  Persimmon (Israel)  Table grapes (Lachish area)  Wine grapes (6 vineyards in cooperation with Golan Height Winery)  Cotton, olives, citrus, vegetables, etc. (multiple fields in Israel Valley, in cooperation with the local agricultural community)  Greenhouse vegetables (The Netherlands, over 70 growers)  Avocado (Chile, in cooperation with the Santiago Catholic University)  Etc.

51 Phytech Ltd. – PHYTOMONITORING in CROP GROWTH CONTROL Summary  State-of-the-art technology.  Commercially existing products.  First class scientific team and consulting.  Profitable uses.


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