According to legend, cheese has its origins in the middle – east. It was made by accident when sheperd’s carried milk in a pouch made from the lining of the sheep’s stomach. The combination of the heat of the sun and the enzyme rennin present in the lining of the stomach curdled or separated the milk into curds and whey. Defination: Cheese may be defined as the fresh or matured product made by coagulation any or mixture of any of the following substances like milk, cream, skimmed milk, partly skimmed milk reconstituted dried milk or butter milk and then partially or completely draining away the whey resulting from any such coagulation. Importance: Cheese making is very convenient method for converting a considerable part of milk nutrients into a product that is less bulky and will keep well, is of high nutritive value and is palatable and easily digestible. There are over 400 listed varieties of cheese which differ in colour, taste, texture, odor. Classification: Cheese may be classified under one or a combination of the following factors: 1.The country of origin: Danish Roquefort, French Roquefort 2.The method of manufacture : including the type of milk used, this will result in a hard, semi-hard, surface mold or blue veined cheese. 3.General aspects like size, colour, flavour, texture. 4.Moisture content : Soft 40 -75%; hard 20 – 40% 5.On the basis of ‘ripening’ the cheese will have a mild or strong flavour. Ripening: Ripening is a change in physical as well as chemical properties such as flavours, aroma texture, composition which occur between the time of precipitation of the curds and the time when the cheese develops its characteristics.
Compiled by: Chef Reetu Uday Kugaji. Changes during ripening: The following changes take place during ripening: 1.Lactose is converted into lactic acid. 2.Protein are broken down into amino acid. 3.Fats are broken down to fatty acids 4.Gas formation (CO2) takes place. 5.Development of aroma 6.`Changes in colour 7.Changes in texture. Characteristics: The following factors will affect the characteristics of cheese: 1.Type of milk or milk fractions used 2.Temperature :high – hard, low – soft 3.Acidity – putrifactive bacteria, amount of lactice acid produced. 4.Humidity controls the growth of moulds 5. The type of precipitating agent used. 6. Amount of pressure used to remove moisture. 7. Use of salt, it affects the growth of bacteria 8.length of time for ripening 9.The addition of moulds or bacteria 10. The type and the size of the mould. Manfacture/Processing of cheese: 1.Heating of the milk. 2.Addition of curd or latic acid 3.Producing Bacteria 4.Seperating whey 5.Cutting the curd 6.Cooking the curd 7.Piling of curd 8.Milling & salting 9.Pressing the curd 10.Ripening 11.Cutting the cheese 12.Packaging.
Compiled by: Chef Reetu Uday Kugaji. Manufacture: the various stages involved are : 1.Heating of the milk: The milk is first heating. The range of temperature is between 10 degree and 65 degree c, the optimum temperature is 37 degree c, at the temperature of 10 degree c, the resulting cheese will be of a softer variety. At 65 degree C a much harder cheese will form. At in between temperature, we get a semi-hard or semi-soft variety of cheese. Example : york cheese) Coulommiers) soft cheeses Neufchater) Edam) Gouda )Semi hard Brick ) Limburger) Cheddar ) Guryere )Hard Emmential ) Double glochester) 2.Addition of curd or lactice acid producing bacteria: These are added to the heated milk to aid the coagulation process. The mixture is maintained at various temperatures depending on the desired end product. This is called the setting period : 20 – 26 degree c for soft cheese.30 – 32 degree c for hard cheese.The right amount of lactic acid producing bacteria is added to arrive at the correct amount of acidity.Renin will act well in an acidic medium. 3.Addition of rennin: This along with the setting temperature, the amount of acid produced will largely govern the rate at which the curd and the whey separate. 4. Seperating whey: Once the milk has coagulated the milk solids separate from the whey. This whey is then allowed to drain away. The amount of whey that is drained will control the final texture of the cheese. 5.Cutting the curd: This process allows further separation of whey.. The cutting is done mechanically with the help of two cheese knives. These are sets of parallel blades. One horizontal and one vertical. This cuts the curds into cubes and frees the whey held in the curd. 6.Cooking the curd: After cutting the curds are cooked at a temperature which is raised slowly to 43 degrees C and held there for an hour. This process also facilitates further removeal of whey. If the temperature is raised further, the cheese will have a firmer texture.
Compiled by: Chef Reetu Uday Kugaji. 7.Piling of curd: The curd is now cut into blocks, and piled up. This allows the curds to form into a solid mass and further development of the starter culture. At this stage, the curd begins to develop characteristics and properties relating texture and flavour. At this stage other organisms and culture can also be added. This also helps to develop individual flavour as well as the veining of the cheese (blue cheese). 8.Milling and salting: The now dry curd is milled into small fragments and salt is added. Salting influences many factors: flavours, moisture content, texture, it checks latic acid formation by inhibiting acid producing bacteria (this also reduces chances of spoilage and extend the shelf life) at the same time it permits the development of specific ripening micro-organisms. 9.Pressing the curd: This gives the cheese its characteristic shape, size and texture. At this stage the chees4e is known as a green cheese or immatured cheese. 10.Ripening/Maturing: During this stage the green develops the characteristic flavour. Texture is also consolidated. The main constituents of cheese are broken down into simpler substances. Proteins -to amino acids Fats -to fatty acids Lactose -to simple sugars Other by-products are also produced like certain gasses (co2), alcohol, aldehydes, ammonia and sulphur. 11.Curing the cheese: Instead of ripening/maturing the cheese may be cured. The green cheese is placed in well ventilated rooms on racks. The temperature must be maintained at 13 degrees C and at a humidity of 80 to 90%. Then bacteria's, moulds are added to bring about changes in flavour character. The cheese may be smoked to dry out the moisture or covered with wax to prevent moisture loss. 12Packaging: The finished cheese is than packed. Packing also helps identify varieties of cheeses. Straw, cardboard, metal containers and polythene are used for packing cheese prior to sale. PROCESSED CHEESE: It is the process of mixing cheese with cured cheese of the same type of blending different varieties of cheeses. These may then be heat treated and suitable emulsifiers are added, salt, acid, flavouring are also added and heated to temperature of 65 – 85 degrees c we cheese is heated further ripening is prevented. Processed cheese is very mild to taste. A modification of processed cheese is ‘club’ cheese or ‘cold pack’ cheese. There is no heat treatment involved and further ripening will not take place. Processed cheese is very common and popular ingredient as it can be sliced blended and grated and combines well with other Ingredients of the recipe. Processed cheese is a good way of using inferior quality cheese and cheese which for some reason or other is unsealable.
Compiled by: Chef Reetu Uday Kugaji. COOKING OF CHEESE: Cheese is a concentrated form of protein and like all other protein it is toughened by heat. All cheese dishes such as foundues must be cooked at low temperature. While melting softer cheeses, a double boiler is preferable t o direct heat. When cheese melts, it is cooked. Over cooking will produce the same toughening effect as cooking at a high temperature. Cheese can be grated and then diluted with a starchy product such as flour or macaroni or bread crumbs. A pinch of soda-bi-carb is some times added. This prevents stringiness and also makes the cheese more digestible. Moist methods of cooking should be added at the last minute or during reheating to prevent over cooking. SELECTION OF CHEESE: The following points are to be observed while selecting cheese: 1.The rind if any, of the cheese should not be mildewed or have a fungus growth. 2.There should not be any strong smells emanating from cheese should be added at the last minute or during reheating to prevent over cooking. Semi hard, hard and blue veined cheese should not appear dry. Soft and processed cheese should not be watery, but of a delicate creamy consistency. STORAGE OF CHEESE: All cheese should be eaten fresh soon after they are purchased and while still in a prime condition. Maximum flavours, aroma and taste will be there when cheese is fresh. For this cheese must also be stored correctly, so that they reach the customer with full flavour. Soft and unripened cheese have a limited keeping quality, hence should be kept in a covered container and refrigerated. Particular care must be taken of soft cheese as they tend to become overripe and unacceptable. Hard and semi-hard cheese must be stored at a fairly low temperature to avoid deterioration. Cheese must be stored in their original; wrapper, once opened and weighed, they can be wrapped in a moist cloth or aluminium foil/plastic wrap. Grated cheese can be stored at a temperature of 10-15 degree C in a cool dry place. Semi-hard cheese like Brick, Edam are ideal for freezing after they are cut into small pieces and will keep for 1 ½ to 2 months.
Compiled by: Chef Reetu Uday Kugaji. USES OF CHEESE: 1.As the cheese course for lunch or dinner on a cheese board. 2.As a feature on a on a cold buffet. 3.As a cooking ingredient. a) In sauces e.g Mornay b) As a accompaniment to certain soups of Italian pastas c) Sprinkled and gratinated eg, Au gratin. d) In sandwiches, toppings and fillings. e) On its own eg. Fondue, welsh rarebit. ***************************************************************