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US Commercial Service - Japan Market Update & Business Opportunities: Japan’s Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Market U.S. Commercial Service – Tokyo Takahiko Suzuki.

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Presentation on theme: "US Commercial Service - Japan Market Update & Business Opportunities: Japan’s Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Market U.S. Commercial Service – Tokyo Takahiko Suzuki."— Presentation transcript:

1 US Commercial Service - Japan Market Update & Business Opportunities: Japan’s Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Market U.S. Commercial Service – Tokyo Takahiko Suzuki – Senior Commercial Specialist

2 US Commercial Service - Japan Japan’s Strategic Road Map For Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Council for Strategy for Hydrogen & Fuel Cells established by METI Expanding the scope of FC technology (2014 – 2025) 1.Full-fledged introduction of hydrogen power generation 1.Establishing a large-scale hydrogen supply system Establishing a CO2-free hydrogen supply system Phase 1: now Phase 2: mid-2020s Phase 3: by 2040 Source: Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), Government Of Japan (GOJ) What we cover today: Residential Fuel Cell (Ene-Farm), Industrial Fuel Cell (SOFC), Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV), Hydrogen Refueling Station, Production & Transportation of Hydrogen

3 US Commercial Service - Japan Why Fuel Cells in Japan? Fuel Cells have good environmental characteristics Fuel Cells are utilized as distributed power generation Fuel Cells have power to pave the way to a “hydrogen energy society”

4 US Commercial Service - Japan LNG 42.5% Coal 26.7% Oil 18.3% Hydro 8.4% Nuclear 1.7% Renewable 1.6% Composition of How Electricity is Generated (FY 2012)

5 US Commercial Service - Japan History of FC Development (Japan)  1960Companies conducted individual research on FC (-1965)  1978 Sunshine Project: GOJ’s first national R&D FC project  1981Moonlight Project: GOJ launched systematic FC research  1983TEPCO succeeded in generating 4,500 kW PAFC plant  1987Moonlight Project: GOJ generated 2 X 1,000 kW PAFC plant  1991TEPCO demonstrated 11,000 kW PAFC plant  1992R&D on PEFC for FCV began (Sunshine Project)  1993NEDO undertook the above R&D (New Sunshine Project)  1994NEDO generated 2 large PAFC power plants  2000NEDO conducted “FC Infrastructure Millennium Project” (-2004)  2002Verification study of residential FC (-2004)  2002JHFC Project (-2005)  2005Large-scale demonstration tests of residential FC (-2008)  2006JHFC2 Project (-2010)  2009Residential FC co-generation system “Ene-Farm” began its sales  2011JHFC3 Project (-2015)  2013NEDO project: SOFC field test for commercial use  2013NEDO project: Hydrogen Utilization Technology Development (-2014)  2013NEDO project: Technology R&D for PEFC Commercialization (-2014)  2013NEDO project: Technology R&D for SOFC Commercialization (-2014)  2013“Ene-Farm Partners” established (105 member companies)

6 US Commercial Service - Japan Japan’s New Basic Energy Plan (April, 2014) Source: GOJ Japan aims to materialize a “Hydrogen Society” Japan is committed to construct the whole supply-chain of hydrogen 1. Expansion of residential “Ene-Farm” 2. Laying out infrastructure to promote FCV 3. New technology development (e.g. hydrogen power generation) 4. Promotion of manufacture, storage, and transportation of hydrogen 5. Japan will draw up “Roadmap to Hydrogen Society (by 2030)”

7 US Commercial Service - Japan Types of Fuel Cells Fuel Cell Type アルカリ形燃料電池りん酸形燃料電池固体高分子形燃料電池溶融炭酸塩形燃料電池固体酸化物形燃料電池 Alkaline Fuel Cell Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Polymer Electrolyte Fuel CellMolten Carbonate Fuel CellSolid Oxide Fuel Cell (AFC)(PAFC)(PEFC)(MCFC)(SOFC) Common Electrolyte (電解質) Aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide soaked in a matrix Phosphoric acid soaked in a matrix Perfluoro sulfonic acid Solution of lithium, sodium, and/or potassium carbonates, soaked in a matrix Yttria stabilized zirconia 水酸化カリウム (KOH) 水溶液りん酸 (H3PO4) 水溶液 高分子膜(パーフルオ ロスルフォン酸膜) 溶融炭酸塩 (Li2CO3 + Na2CO3) 安定化ジルコニア (ZrO2 ・ Y2O3) Type of Ion that moves through Electrolyte (Moving Direction) 電解質の中を移動するイオ ン(移動の方向) Hydroxide Ion (OH-)Hydrogen Ion (H+) Carbonate (CO3 2-)Oxide Ion (O2-) (Air Electrode → Fuel Electrode) (Fuel Electrode → Air Electrode) (Air Electrode → Fuel Electrode) Operating Temperature 60 ℃~ 90 ℃ Approx. 200 ℃ 70 ℃~ 90 ℃ 650 ℃~ 700 ℃ 800 ℃~ 1000 ℃ Fuel (燃料) Pure HydrogenHydrogen Hydrogen; Carbon Monoxide Usable Original Fuel (Raw Material) 使用可能な原燃料 By-Product Hydrogen by electrolysis industry; Hydrogen obtained by electrolysis Natural Gas; LPG; Methanol; Naphta; Kerosene Natural Gas; LPG; Methanol Natural Gas; LPG; Methanol; Naphta; Kerosene; Gasficiated Coal Output (results in Japan) 1-10kW (in 1960s); 1kW (Moonlight Project in 1984) 50kW, 100kW, 200kW, 500kW, 1,000kW1kW - 100kW 1,000 kW Plant 200kW; 300kW; 750kW (Stack Modules)1kW; 5kW; 15kW; 25kW Generation Efficiency (LHV) 50-60% (Pure Hydrogen / Pure Oxigen)35-45%30-40%45-60%50-65% Applications Space, Military, MarineCHP; Distributed Power Automobile; Transportation; CHP; Distributed Power Thermal Power Plant; Large-Scale Distributed Power; Offices; Factories Residential CHP; Distributed Power

8 US Commercial Service - Japan Japan’s Fuel Cell Market Projection Source: Marketing Data Bank (2011) Unit: US$ million Japan’s “3 Arrows” in FC growth: 1. “Ene-Farm” 2. FCV 3. Hydrogen Supply Chain

9 Hydrogen Global Market Projection Source: Nikkei BP Clean Tech Laboratory US Commercial Service - Japan FCV and Residential FC are driving forces (Billion US$) $ 71 billion $ 51 billion $ 225 billion Total: $ 370 billion

10 US Commercial Service - Japan Japan’s Fuel Cell Market Projection Source: Marketing Data Bank (2011)

11 US Commercial Service - Japan Fuel Cell Market by Application o Residential Fuel Cell o Portable Fuel Cell o Fuel Cell Vehicle o Industrial Fuel Cell

12 US Commercial Service - Japan Fuel Cell Market by Application Source: Marketing Data Bank (2011)

13 US Commercial Service - Japan Ene-Farm: Residential Fuel Cell Manufacturer AisinJX EnergyPanasonicToshiba Type of Fuel CellSOFC PEFC Sales CompanyToho GasJX EnergyTokyo GasOsaka Gas Rated Output700W 750W700W Water Capacity90 ℓ 147 ℓ200 ℓ Water-Supply Temperature 70 ℃ 60 ℃ Efficiency Rated Power Generation (LHV)46.5%45.0%39.0%38.5% Overall Rated (LHV)90.0%87.0%95.0%94.0% Durability 10 Years (90,000 hours, continuous) (60,000 hours, DSS)(80,000 hours, SS)

14 US Commercial Service - Japan Residential FC: Market Projection Number of Unit (Accumulated) Source: Nomura Research Institute (2014) Japan plans to install 1.4 million units by 2020

15 US Commercial Service - Japan Residential FC: Unit Price Projection Source: METI, Nomura Research Institute (2014) (US$) Large Scale Validation Market Creation with GOJ Policy Support Establishment of Self-Reliant Market GOJ Subsidy begins GOJ Subsidy ends

16 US Commercial Service - Japan Portable FC Source: Fuji Economic Institute (2014) Market expected to emerge: $164 million (2020)

17 US Commercial Service - Japan Advantages of Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCV) Vehicle ModelEVFCVFC Bus Power Supply Time to Gymnasium 5 hours (16-24 kWh) 1 day (120 kWh) 4-5 days (460 kWh) Source: Toyota Motors, GOJ EV HV, PHV FCV

18 US Commercial Service - Japan FCV Manufacturers (Alliance & Plans) ~ Source: Nikkei

19 US Commercial Service - Japan Hydrogen Refueling Stations (Current) 17 locations 10 locations 15 locations 13 locations Source: METI, GOJ Additional 14 locations have been selected (June 23, GOJ)

20 US Commercial Service - Japan Hydrogen Refueling Stations (Development Plans) 100 locations ( ) 100 locations by locations by locations by 2015 Source: METI, GOJ Installed on highways 4 major urban areas

21 US Commercial Service - Japan System Flow Chart of Hydrogen Supply Hydrogen Reforming Unit Compressor Accumulator Compressor Accumulator Hydrogen Dispenser Pre-Cooling Hydrogen Refueling Station City Gas Source: HySUT

22 US Commercial Service - Japan 2 Types of Hydrogen Stations [ Off Site Hydrogen Refueling Station ] [ On Site Hydrogen Refueling Station ] Hydrogen Reforming Refining Compress Accumulate Charge High Pressure Transport Trailer Storage Compressor Hydrogen Refueling Station Natural Gas Naphtha Methanol Hydrogen Shipping Plant Transportation Accumulator Dispenser Hydrogen Reforming Source: HySUT Raw Fuel Production (Oil Refinery)

23 US Commercial Service - Japan GOJ: Deregulation & Subsidies Material Restrictions Location Restrictions Operation Restrictions Transportation Restrictions Travel Distance Restrictions Other Restrictions Need to develop safety inspection criteria Relaxation of “Design Count” More materials to be allowed (e.g. piping) Compound vessel to be allowed for accumulators Need to develop criteria for 70 MPa stands Need to develop criteria for urban-restricted area Abolish upper limit of volume of hydrogen Need to develop criteria for liquid hyd stations Study on self-service filling Relaxation of restrictions on charging pressure (Full filling) Relaxation of vessel pressure; new safety valve Need to develop criteria for public filling Need to establish inter-equipment distance where CNG stands coexist Gasoline dispenser needs to be installed along with hydrogen dispenser Needs to build explosion-proof standards around dispensers Source: METI

24 US Commercial Service - Japan Cost Structure of Hydrogen Refueling Stations Source: METI Current Cost: US $ million Hydrogen Vessel Valve Hydrogen Manufacturing Device Compressor Pre-cooling equipment Japan aims at halving the cost

25 US Commercial Service - Japan FCV: Forklifts & Buses Demonstration Project in Kitakyushu City Kansai International Airport (KIX) Project 3 demonstration projects completed in 2012 Source: Toyota, HySUT

26 US Commercial Service - Japan Industrial FC: Commercialization (SOFC) in 2017 Source: Fuji Electric, Bloom Energy, NTT DoCoMo

27 US Commercial Service - Japan Hydrogen Production Stage of UtilizationStabilityCO2 EmissionsEconomy Byproduct Hydrogen CommercializedDepending on the original product Emits CO2 but bears no additional environmental load Good economic value because of the byproduct Fossil Fuels Reforming CommercializedGoodEmits CO2, unless CCS is used Relatively low production cost Water Electrolysis (Thermal Electric) CommercializedGoodEmits CO2 when generating power, unless CCS is used Higher than Fossil Fuels Reforming, yet relatively low cost Water Electrolysis (Renewable Energy) Technologically established, yet high cost of renewables Output fluctuations depending on the power source No CO2 emissionsHigh cost because of the use of renewables BiomassTechnologically established, yet high cost Supply locations are dispersed Almost no CO2 emissions Currently high cost Thermal Decomposition Research & developmentGoodDepending from where it gets heat n/a Photo catalystBasic research (current conversion rate: 0.5%) Depending on the weather conditions No CO2 emissionsn/a Source: METI, GOJ

28 US Commercial Service - Japan Hydrogen Storage & Transportation Overseas Fossil Fuel (Oil Field Gas, Brown Coal) Renewable Energy Organic Hydride Liquid Hydrogen LNG Terminal Oil Factories Byproduct Hydrogen City Gas, LPG Pipelines Compressed Hydrogen Liquid Hydrogen Organic Hydride Hydrogen Station FCV Distributed Power Supply Hydrogen Power Generation Source: METI

29 US Commercial Service - Japan Hydrogen Storage & Transportation High Pressure Gas Liquid Hydrogen PipelineOrganic Hydride Hydrogen Absorbing Alloy MethodCompress into cylinders Liquefy & store at minus 253 ℃ Transport in gaseous form in pipes Convert into methylcyclohexane through reaction with toluene Use a hydrogen atom absorbing alloy StatusCommercialized and distributed in Japan Commercialized and distributed in Japan (e.g. rocket fuels) Not yet commercialized. It is possible to transport a large volume of hydrogen. Not yet commercialized. It is possible to store and transport hydrogen at normal temperature and pressure. Not yet fully commercialized. It is possible to store and transport more hydrogen per volume. Merits & Challenges R&D is still required to further cost reduction of compressors and storage cylinders. High storage density. A large amount of energy is required for liquefaction. Japan has limitation to apply pipelines. A large infrastructure investment is required. Technology has been established. It is possible to use conventional chemical tankers and transport ships. Heavy weight of alloy. Applications are limited to submarines and submersible vessels. CompaniesTaiyo Nippon Sanso Kawasaki Heavy Industries; Iwatani Corporation Nippon Steel & Sumikin Kikoh Company Chiyoda Corporation; Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha The Japan Steel Works Source: METI

30 US Commercial Service - Japan City Projects Kitakyushu Hydrogen Town Kawasaki Energy Frontier: Kawasaki City, Chiyoda Cooperation Source: METI KIX (Kansai International Airport) Hydrogen Grid (Osaka)

31 US Commercial Service - Japan Market Update & Business Opportunities: Japan’s Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Market U.S. Commercial Service – Tokyo Koji Sudo – Senior Commercial Specialist Misa Shimizu – Commercial Specialist


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