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T HE N EXUS OF S OIL, W ATER AND W ASTE Rattan Lal Carbon Management and Sequestration Center The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 USA.

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Presentation on theme: "T HE N EXUS OF S OIL, W ATER AND W ASTE Rattan Lal Carbon Management and Sequestration Center The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 USA."— Presentation transcript:

1 T HE N EXUS OF S OIL, W ATER AND W ASTE Rattan Lal Carbon Management and Sequestration Center The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 USA

2 T HE E ARTH

3 -38 18,000 BC 6,000 BC14,000 BC 10,000 BC 2,000 BCAD 2,000 -42 -40 -36 -34 Warm & Wet Cold & Dry δ18 (0%) 8,000 BC Beginning of Agriculture 1750 Anthropocene E ARTH ’ S H ISTORIC T EMPERATURE AND T HE E VOLUTION OF A GRICULTURE (Fagan, 2004) Time THE LONG SUMMER

4 N EOLITHIC R EVOLUTION : C ENTERS OF O RIGIN OF A GRICULTURE Region1000 Yr BP Crops Domesticated 1.Near East/Fertile Crescent9-14Eincorn, Emmer, Barley, Pea, Vetch, Lentil 2.Northern China9Rice 3.Papua New Guinea6-9Sugarcane, root crops 4.Central Mexico (Aztecs, Mayans) 7-8Maize, squash, gourds, beans, cocoa 5.Indus Valley7.5-11Wheat, Barely, Jujuba 6.West Africa4.5Yam, Cassava 7.Horn of Africa5-7Teff, Coffee, Cucumber tree, Yeheb nut 8.Eastern North America (Cherokees) 4-5Cranberries, Chenopod, Marsh Elder, Maple Sugar, Tobacco, Squash, Sunflower, Knotweed, Little barely, Maygrass 9.Western North America (Pueblo Dwellers) 6Amaranth, Pine Nuts 10.South America (Incas)7Potato, Beans, Coca Region1000 Yr BPCrops Domesticated 1.Near East/Fertile Crescent9-14Eincorn, Emmer, Barley, Pea, Vetch, Lentil 2.Northern China9Rice 3.Papua New Guinea6-9Sugarcane, root crops 4.Central Mexico7-8Maize, squash, gourds, beans, (Aztecs, Mayans)cocoa 5.Indus Valley7.5-11Wheat, Barely, Jujuba 5.West Africa4.5Yam, Cassava 5.Horn of Africa5-7Teff, Coffee, Cucumber tree, Yeheb nut 5.Eastern North America 4-5Cranberries, Chenopod, Marsh (Cherokees)Elder, Maple Sugar, Tobacco, Squash, Sunflower, Knotweed, Little barely, Maygrass 5.Western North America 6Amaranth, Pine Nuts (Pueblo Dwellers) 6.South America (Incas)7Potato, Beans, Coca

5 LAST ICE AGE AND ORIGIN OF AGRICULTURE Two factors responsible for origin of agriculture were: (i)Increase in global temperature, and (ii)Increase in atmospheric concentration of CO 2 from ~180 ppm to 280 ppm. Increase in CO 2 concentration then enhanced: Biomass production of C-3 plants (wheat, barley, potato, sugarbeet) drastically and that of C-4 plants (corn) moderately.Biomass production of C-3 plants (wheat, barley, potato, sugarbeet) drastically and that of C-4 plants (corn) moderately. BNF by legumesBNF by legumes Settled or the intentional agriculture 10-12 millenia ago was the defining moment in human historywas the defining moment in human history

6 1.0 1800 1.3 1850 1.7 1900 1.8 1910 1.9 1920 2.1 1930 2.3 1940 2.5 1950 3.0 1960 3.7 1970 4.4 1980 5.3 1990 6.1 2000 7.0 2011 7.5 2020 8.1 2030 8.6 2040 9.2 2050 10 2100 I = P x A x T I = P x A x T P = Population P = Population A = Affluence A = Affluence T = Technology T = Technology T HE A NTHROPOGENIC D RIVER

7 S OIL, W ATER, W ASTE N EXUS Soil NaturalResources Water Waste Runoff Percolation Soil Water Storage GreenWater GreyWater BlackWater Waste Water Use CompostSludge Crop/Animal/Tree Residues

8 T HE C ENTURY D ROUGHT OF 2012 nj.com Drought decreased production in 2012 by 30-60% in the U.S. + 1°C = 10-17% decline in grain yields in the world Reduction in crop yield in SSA by 8-22%

9 T YPES OF D ROUGHT Meteorological: Long-term deficiency of precipitation Hydrological: Decline of water in rivers, reservoirs, aquifers, etc. Pedological: Reduction in soil water storage Agronomic: Low availability at critical stages of crop growth Ecological: Low water availability because of land use conversion Sociological: Demand of a community exceeding supply due to water deficit

10 O N - SET OF A NTHROPOGENIC E MISSIONS (Ruddiman, 2005) A trend of increase in atmospheric CO 2 concentration began 8000 years ago, and that in CH 4 5000 years ago, corresponding with the dawn of settled agriculture with attendant deforestation, soil cultivation, spread of rice paddies and raising cattle.

11 A NTHROPOGENIC E MISSIONS (Pg) BY C ARBON C IVILIZATION I.Land use (i)Prehistoric :320 (ii)1750-2010 :136 (iii)2010-2030 :30 II. Fossil Fuel combustion (i) 1750-2010 :200 (ii) 2010-2030 :190 (ii) 2010-2030 :190 These emissions have and will affect the ecosystems from which we derive food, feed, fiber, fuel and shelter.

12 II. Oil Consumption 87.4 m bbl/day87.4 m bbl/day 0.6 gallons/day 0.6 gallons/day (3 gallon/day USA) (3 gallon/day USA) III. Gas Use 8.1 b m 3 /day8.1 b m 3 /day T HE C ARBON C IVILIZATION Drinking water need = 0.6 gallon/day Beer consumption in Ohio: 0.1 gallon/day I. Coal Production (Mt/yr) 1860: 132 Mt/yr 1860: 132 Mt/yr 2010: 3731 Mt/yr 2010: 3731 Mt/yr

13 D EGRADED L AND (B AI et al., 2008) CategoryQuantity Degrading Area 3.5 Bha Territory 23.54 (%) GLOBAL SOIL DEGRADATION (10 9 ha) Water Erosion : 1.09 (Oldeman, 1994)Water Erosion : 1.09 (Oldeman, 1994) Wind Erosion : 0.55 (Oldeman, 1994)Wind Erosion : 0.55 (Oldeman, 1994) Salinization : 0.85 (FAO, 2005)Salinization : 0.85 (FAO, 2005)

14 Survival and desperation. Survival and desperation. Purposely overuse of resources (subsidies). Purposely overuse of resources (subsidies). Human greed and corruption, desire to produce and Human greed and corruption, desire to produce and consume in a “world without limit” and expectations: consume in a “world without limit” and expectations: competition, territory and power. competition, territory and power. Ignorance and misunderstanding about functioning of Ignorance and misunderstanding about functioning of soil ecosystems: unsustainable soil use and soil ecosystems: unsustainable soil use and management based on lack of knowledge management based on lack of knowledge (The Groundnut Scheme of Tanganyka in the 1950s) (The Groundnut Scheme of Tanganyka in the 1950s) C AUSES OF S OIL D EGRADATION

15 G LOBAL S OIL E ROSION & D YNAMICS OF S OIL O RGANIC C ARBON 1500x 10 15 C 1.1x 10 10 15 g/ g/yr 5.7x 10 10 15 g/ g/yr C 3.99x 10 10 15 g/ g/yr 0.57x 10 10 15 g/ g/yr decomposition and emission to the atmosphere Stored within the terrestrial ecosystem Displaced due to erosion Transported to the ocean In world soil

16 Desperateness Increase in erosion risks between 1980s and 2090: Africa….+36%World....+14% T HE G ULLIED L AND IN W EST A FRICA

17 Urbanization and Land It takes 40,000 ha to provide accommodation and infrastructure to 1 million peopleIt takes 40,000 ha to provide accommodation and infrastructure to 1 million people Annual increase of 75 million people, takes ~3 Mha of prime land out of productionAnnual increase of 75 million people, takes ~3 Mha of prime land out of production By 2015, 236 cities in the world will be ≥ 10 million peopleBy 2015, 236 cities in the world will be ≥ 10 million people A city of 10 million requires 6000 tones of food/dayA city of 10 million requires 6000 tones of food/day U SING T OP S OIL FOR B RICK M AKING IN A SIA TO A CCOMMODATE R APID U RBANIZATION

18 Feeding 7 billion in 2010 takes cropland area size of South AmericaFeeding 7 billion in 2010 takes cropland area size of South America Feeding 9.2 billion in 2050 would take the land area of South America & BrazilFeeding 9.2 billion in 2050 would take the land area of South America & Brazil Land grabs in 2011 mostly in Africa: 57 MhaLand grabs in 2011 mostly in Africa: 57 Mha (140 million acres) (140 million acres) F UTURE F OOD D EMAND

19 R EQUIRED C EREAL Y IELDS AND P RODUCTION TO M EET F UTURE D EMANDS (WILD, 2003) Year Yield (Mg/ha) Total Production (10 6 M) 2005 2025 2050 3.27 3.27 3.60 3.60 4.30 4.30 2240 2240 2780 2780 3255 3255 (6.00) (4.40) (4553) (3629) (with change to animal-based diet)

20 D ISTRIBUTION OF G LOBAL W ATER (REDRAWN FROM SHIKLOMANOV, 1993) Total Water Salt Water 97.5% Fresh Water 2.5% 68.9% Glaciers and permanent snow cover (24,060,000 km 3 ) 29.9% Fresh ground water (10,530,000 km 3 ) 0.3% Fresh lakes and river flows (93,000 km 3) 0.9% Other: soil moisture, ground ice/permafrost and swamp water (342,000 km 3 ) Distribution of Global Fresh & Salt Water Distribution of Global Fresh Water Only (2.5% Global Water)

21 Blue Green Grey/Black Virtual WaterResources T YPES OF W ATER

22 G LOBAL W ATER U SE (Kondratyev et al., 2003) YearTotalAgriculturalIndustrialUrbanAgriculture as ------------------------10 9 m 3 /yr------------------------% of Total YearTotalAgriculturalIndustrialUrbanAgriculture as ----------------------10 9 m 3 /yr------------------ - % of Total 1900 430350 30 2081.4 1940 870660120 4075.9 19501190860190 6072.3 196019901510310 8075.9 19702630193051012073.4 19753080210063015068.2 198539702400110025060.5 199547502760156032058.1 200060003400190044056.7 Increase14.09.763.322 YearTotalAgriculturalIndustrialUrbanAgriculture as ----------------------10 9 m 3 /yr------------------ - % of Total 1900 430350 30 2081.4 200060003400190044056.7 Increase14.09.763.322 1900 430350 30 2081.4 200060003400190044056.7 Increase14.09.763.322

23 ….. Thenkabail et al. (2010) T OP T EN N ET V IRTUAL W ATER E XPORTERS AND I MPORTERS (Km 3 /yr) CountryAmountCountryAmount Exporters Importers CountryAmountCountryAmount Australia 64Japan92 Canada 60Italy51 USA53U.K.47 Argentina45Germany35 Brazil45South Korea32 Ivory Coast33Mexico29 Thailand28Hong Kong27 India25Iran15 Ghana18Spain14 Ukraine17Saudi Arabia13 64 Australia 60Canada 53USA 45Argentina 45Brazil 33Ivory Coast 28Thailand 25India 18Ghana 17Ukraine 92Japan 51Italy 47U.K. 35Germany 32South Korea 29Mexico 27Hong Kong 15Iran 14Spain 13Saudi Arabia

24 W ASTE W ATER G ENERATED BY S OME W ATER D EFICIT C OUNTRIES ….. Qadin et al. (2007) Country Waste Water (10 6 m 3 /yr) Country Waste Water 10 6 m 3 /year Algeria 600 Egypt10012 Iran3075 Libya546 Morocco650 Saudi Arabia730 Syria825 Turkey2400 UAE881 600 Algeria 10012 Egypt 3075 Iran 546 Libya 650 Morocco 730 Saudi Arabia 825 Syria 2400 Turkey 881 UAE

25 T UBEWELL I RRIGATION IN P UNJAB, I NDIA Rapid depletion of the ground water in the Indo-Gangetic Plains is partly attributed to subsidies and free electricity. No one protects or safeguards an undervalued resource.

26 G LOBAL F ERTILIZER U SE (IFDC, 2004) Year Fertilizer Use (10 6 Mg) Total NPK Year Fertilizer Use (10 6 Mg) Total NPK 1950 <10-- 10 1960 11.610.9 8.7 31.2 1970 31.821.116.4 73.3 1980 60.831.724.2116.7 1990 77.236.324.5138.0 2000 80.932.521.8135.2 2003 84.733.623.2141.6 Year Fertilizer Use (10 6 Mg) Total NPK 1950 <10-- 10 1960 11.610.9 8.7 31.2 2000 80.932.521.8135.2 1950 <10-- 10 1960 11.610.9 8.7 31.2 2000 80.932.521.8135.2

27 Five countries (Morocco, China, SA, USA and Jordan)Five countries (Morocco, China, SA, USA and Jordan) control 90% of the P reserves control 90% of the P reserves High P causes anoxia in coastal ecosystemsHigh P causes anoxia in coastal ecosystems Is there a peak soil? Are there endangered soils? Is there a peak soil? Are there endangered soils? H UBERT C URVE

28 1. Reduce post-harvest losses : 10-40% (Developing countries) 2. Minimize food waste (farm  fork  landfill) : 20-40% (Developed countries) 3. Reduce diversion of food to biofuels : ~1/3 of corn in U.S. 4. Prefer plant-based diet : 6-8 kg grain/kg of meat on grain-fed livestock 5. Per capita grain consumption : India= 170 kg/yr USA = 635 kg/yr Diet S TRATEGIES OF F EEDING 10 B ILLION

29 1.Promote an efficient use of food produced: 2.Adopt climate-resilient sustainable intensification of agriculture More than one-fourth of all the water we use worldwide is taken to grow over one billion tons of food that no one eats (Global Water Week, 2012) W ASTED R ESOURCES

30 W ASTED F OOD G RAINS D UE TO L ACK OF S TORAGE F ACILITIES Wasted Morsels

31 S USTAINABLE S OIL M ANAGEMENT Replace what is removed, Replace what is removed, Respond wisely to what is changed, and Respond wisely to what is changed, and Predict what will happen from anthropogenic Predict what will happen from anthropogenic and natural perturbations and natural perturbations

32 Country/ Region Crop Yield (Mg/ha) PresentPotentialGap IndiaWheat37.54.5 Rice58.83.8 SSAMaize0.74.53.8 Lobell et al. (2009)Lobell et al. (2009) Y IELD G AP OF M AJOR C ROPS

33 RESIDUE REMOVAL FOR COMPETING USES

34 N 36 15 51 N UTRIENTS R EMOVED PER Mg OF C ORN G RAINS AND S TOVER (kg/ha) ….. Calculated from Bundy ( 2012 )….. Calculated from Bundy ( 2012 ) NutrientGrainsStoverTOTAL N361551 P8210 K93746 Ca0.38.79 Mg2.36.38.6 S2.72.14.8 Zn0.030.050.08 B0.0070.030.04 Mn0.020.10.12 Fe0.020.330.35 Cu0.0030.0260.03 TOTAL58.471.8130.2 Nutrient Grains Stover TOTAL 58.4 71.8 130.2 P 8 2 10 K 9 37 46

35 “Soil biota is the bioengine of the Earth” There is no such thing as a free biofuel from crop residues. E CONOMICS OF R ESIDUE R EMOVAL FOR B IOFUEL

36 A LCOHOL OR H UMUS “I am arguing against indiscriminant conversion of biomass and organic wastes to fuels. The humus capital, which is substantial, deserves being maintained because good soils are a national asset”. ……Hans Jenny (1980)

37 ATMOSPHERIC BROWN CLOUD CAUSED BY TRADITIONAL BIOFUELS (NYT 4-16-09)

38 T RADITIONAL B IOFUEL FROM A NIMAL M ANURE More plant nutrients are burnt in dung as household fuel than chemical fertilizers used/yr in India.

39 Crop Yield Increase (Kg/Ha/Mg C) Maize 100 - 300 Soybeans 20 - 50 Wheat 20 - 70 Rice 10 - 50 Sorghum 80 - 140 80 - 140 Millet 30 - 70 Beans 30 - 60 30-50 million tons/yr in developing countries C ROP Y IELD I NCREASE WITH I NCREASE IN SOC BY 1 Mg C/Ha (LAL, 2005)

40 A DAPTATION T O C LIMATE C HANGE It involves any activity that reduces the negative impacts of climate change through anticipatory or reactive strategies take advantage of new and beneficial opportunities take advantage of new and beneficial opportunities that may be presented. that may be presented. and/or

41 N, P, K, Zn, H 2 O T OWARDS C-N EUTRAL A GRICULTURE Nano-enhanced Materials Plants which emit molecular-based signals No-tillFarming

42 NPP 5 x 10 -9 Pg C/ha 12.5 x 10 -12 Pg C/ha/y v v NPP 5 x 10 -9 Pg C/ha/y + 2 ppm CO 2 /y T HE NPP OF A C ORN F IELD IS 400 T IMES THE A NNUAL I NCREASE IN A TMOSPHERIC C P OOL NBP ≅ 3PgC/yr

43 Most cost effective option S OIL AND C LIMATE C HANGE M ITIGATION

44 Sustainable Soil Management 1. Causes of Soil Degradation The biophysical process of soil degradation is driven by economic, social The biophysical process of soil degradation is driven by economic, social and political forces. and political forces. Vulnerability to degradation depends on “how” rather than “what” is grown. Vulnerability to degradation depends on “how” rather than “what” is grown.

45 1. Causes of Soil Degradation 2. Soil Stewardship & Human Sufferin g When people are poverty stricken, desperate and starving, they When people are poverty stricken, desperate and starving, they pass on their sufferings to the land. pass on their sufferings to the land.

46 Sustainable Soil Management 1. Causes of Soil Degradation 2. Soil Stewardship & Human Sufferin g 3. Nutrient, Carbon, & Water Bank 4. Marginality Principle 5. Organic vs. Inorganic Nutrients 6. Soil Carbon & GHG Effect 8. Soil as Sink for Atmospheric CO 2 7. Soil vs. Germplasm 9. Engine of Economic Development 10. Traditional Knowledge & Modern Innovations It is not possible to take more out of a soil than what is put in it It is not possible to take more out of a soil than what is put in it without degrading its quality. without degrading its quality. Only by replacing what is taken can a soil be kept fertile, Only by replacing what is taken can a soil be kept fertile, productive, and responsive to inputs. productive, and responsive to inputs.

47 Sustainable Soil Management 1. Causes of Soil Degradation 2. Soil Stewardship & Human Sufferin g 3. Nutrient, Carbon, & Water Bank 4. Marginality Principle 5. Organic vs. Inorganic Nutrients 6. Soil Carbon & GHG Effect 8. Soil as Sink for Atmospheric CO 2 7. Soil vs. Germplasm 9. Engine of Economic Development 10. Traditional Knowledge & Modern Innovations Marginal soils cultivated with marginal inputs produce Marginal soils cultivated with marginal inputs produce marginal yields and support marginal living. marginal yields and support marginal living. Recycling is a good strategy especially when there is something to recycle.Recycling is a good strategy especially when there is something to recycle.

48 E X NIHILO NIHIL FIT (N OTHING C OMES F ROM N OTHING ) 1. Nothing is appropriated: There are always trade offs (give and take). Law or Concept Implications 2. Nothing is permanent: Everything is in a dynamic equilibrium and a transient state. a transient state. 3. Nothing is absolute: All processes, properties and values are relative to a baseline. relative to a baseline. 4. Nothing is a panacea: There is no silver bullet, there is a multitude/ menu of options. menu of options. 5. Nothing is universal: Soil/site/region specificity is an important consideration which cannot be overlooked. consideration which cannot be overlooked. 6. Nothing tangible is free: Under valuing a commodity leads to “Tragedy of the Commons”. “Tragedy of the Commons”. 7. Nothing is empty (vacuum) in nature: All space is occupied, pores in solid rock contain water or air and injecting solid rock contain water or air and injecting something (liquid CO 2 ), fracking solutions something (liquid CO 2 ), fracking solutions can create shock waves. can create shock waves. 8. Nothing is given or for granted: It is the judicious use and management which produce goods and services. which produce goods and services. 9. Nothing is a waste: Everything in nature has a use. 10. Nothing is nothing: There is no such thing as nothing.

49 I NTEGRATING S CIENCE, P RACTICES AND P OLICY FOR S USTAINABLE S OIL M ANAGEMENT AND R ESTORATION

50 R ELIGIOUS B ELIEFS IN A GRICULTURE AND E NVIRONMENT Judaism:The word “homo” (man) is derived from the Latin word “humus” or the decomposed organic matter in soil, which is the essence of all terrestrial life. The Hebrew phrase “Tikkun Olam” means “repairing/restoring the world”. Gita:“It is important to care for hills and cows and protect the forests”. (10:35; 500-1000 BC) Buddhism:“One should not break even the branch of a tree that has given one shelter”. (Petavatthu II, 9, 3) Christianity:The word “Adam” (man) is derived from the Hebrew word “adama” meaning “earth” or “soil” Greek : The daughter of Earth goddess “Gaea” named Themis (goddess of Law), and her descendent Demeter was the goddess of agriculture and fertility Romans:The Earth goddess (Tellus) was related to the goddess of fertility and harvest (Ceres). Quran:“It is He who produces gardens. With trellises and without, and dates, and cultivated land with produce of all kinds, and olives and pomegranates, similar (in kind) and different (in variety): Eat of these fruits in their season, but render the dues that are proper on the day that the harvest is gathered. But waste not by excess: For God loves not the wasteful”. (Quran 6:141)

51 1. Wealth without work G ANDHI ’ S 7 S INS OF H UMANITY 7. Science without humanity 6. Religion without sacrifice 5. Politics without principle 4. Commerce without morality 3. Knowledge without character 2. Pleasure without conscience

52 T RILEMMA OF OF S OIL D EGRADATION (Rates per Minute) Causes Population increase: 150 people (births 250, deaths 100)Population increase: 150 people (births 250, deaths 100) CO 2 carbon increase: 6150 tonCO 2 carbon increase: 6150 ton Tropical deforestation: 25 haTropical deforestation: 25 ha Urban encroachment: 5.5 haUrban encroachment: 5.5 ha Effects Soil degradation: 10 haSoil degradation: 10 ha Deaths from hunger: 16 people (incl. 12 children)Deaths from hunger: 16 people (incl. 12 children) Consequences 540 Mg municipal waste (USA)540 Mg municipal waste (USA) Political instabilityPolitical instability Civil strifeCivil strife

53 10. Humanity without conscience G ANDHI ’ S S INS OF H UMANITY Continued… Continued… 8. Technology without wisdom 9. Education without relevance


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