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2 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Resolution 24/187 of the United Nations General Assembly, defined sustainable Development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”

3 MARKET FAILURE Quantifying sustainable development through social cost/benefit analysis within the neoclassical economic model is a market failure. The national approach does not flow through to the local requirements within a community: Current path to wealth creation is undesirable for marginal decisions. Thresholds and depletion of resource at a faster rate than a substitute can be developed isn’t accounted for. Use of Net Present Value (NPV) doesn’t compensate between generations or irreversible impacts. SOURCE: THE ECONOMICS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, DEFRA 2010.

4 CARBON FUTURES Can Sustainable Development be quantified within a CO2 reduction framework as: Presumption in Favour of Sustainable Development as a golden tread running through plan making and decision taking in the NPPF. Value of CO2 emissions provides an inclusive community benefit for current and future generations.

5 EU POLICY FRAMEWORK EU: 2020 Strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth (2011) – replaces Lisbon Treaty encapsulates: Improving capacity and quality of infrastructure network. Efficient and robust planning. Public/private financing. Built on the bedrock: Renewable Energy Directive (2009) Energy Performance Buildings Directive (2002 & 2010) Construction Products Regulations (2011) Water Framework Directive (2000) Revised Waste Framework Directive (2008) Biodiversity Framework (2012)

6 UK PLANNING POLICY NPPF provides a “Presumption in Favour of Sustainable Development”: Economic Role – development at the right time and in the right place Social Role – good quality environment for current and future generations Environmental role – protecting the environment and moving to a low carbon economy. National Legislation provides checks and balances: Planning and compulsory Purchase Act (2004) Climate Change Act (2008) Floods and Water Management Act (2010) Localism Act (2011) Building Regulations (2010)

7 SUSTAINABLE ECONOMICS How does Sustainable Development perform at the centre of the Economy? Social Sustainability – debate about how to preserve the potential for future generations to enjoy well-being and standards of today. Environmental Sustainability – externality and state of depletion of environmental assets or compensating mechanisms which off-set the impact. Economic Sustainability – economic and social well- being are linked but assessment of environmental and social capital are often opaque.

8 ECONOMIC MODELS Today’s Free Market based “every man for himself” model has failed to prevent Climate Change (Stern Review 2006) as it doesn’t link relationships: Growing world economy with greenhouse gas emissions; Greenhouse gas emissions with increases in temperature; Increases in temperature with climate change; Climate change with environmental impacts; Environmental impacts with socio-economic responses. Current models assume that low-carbon is detrimental to growth and affordability.

9 CO2 REDUCTION FRAMEWORK Value CO2 emissions reductions through sustainable development from: savings beyond Building Regulations (2010) for energy and water; and savings by green infrastructure retained and improved by the development,

10 LOW & ZERO CARBON HOMES UK approach for nearly Zero Energy Buildings by 2020 split 65% through fabric first and on-site features and 35% allowable solutions in the community. Research identified additional CO2 reductions beyond Building Regulations compliance that benefit the community include: Embodied CO2 can be off-set at 11 years (medium weight house) and 21-25 years for heavy weight house over 100 years; Potable water savings beyond Part G Building Regulations. Adaptability through deconstruction and reuse reduces CO2 emissions during life of the dwellings.

11 GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE NPPF states development “must fully consider their obligations to protect and enhance the natural environment”. Green Infrastructure “forms a network which provides additional complementary wildlife habitat, landscape quality and public access and which buffers key habitats from adverse impacts of developed areas and their associated activities” Benefits include: Climate regulation – impacting on the heat island effect. Regulates surface water run-off – SUD’s Regulation of air pollution – absorption of CO2, ozone, particulates and improved air quality. Mitigation and adaptation to climate change – social value of carbon to carbon sequestered by forests and wetlands.

12 CARBON AUDIT VALUES Quantifying Sustainable Development through CO2 reduction framework contributes to the future generations: CO2 savings beyond Part L (SAP model KgCO2/m2/yr) CO2 savings beyond Part G (350l/d at 2.2Kg/CO2/d ) CO2 savings by embodied off-set (7% of operational after 25 yrs). CO2 savings by green infrastructure - Woodland (6tCO2/Ha/yr), Natural open space (18.3tCO2/Ha/yr), Grassland (11.62tCO2/Ha/yr), Wetland/swales & allotments (8.07tCO2/Ha/yr)

13 CARBON AUDIT PROJECTS SUE – Crawley NES – TW & Persimmon – (1900 dwellings) whole site audit. Additional savings 32% beyond Part L SUE – Commonhead – Persimmon – (890 dwellings) whole site audit. Additional savings 20% beyond Part L. Brownfield - Farington – TW – (234 dwellings) Phase 1 audit. Additional savings 15% beyond Part L. Greenfield – Langely Park – TW – (600 dwellings). Whole site audit. Additional savings 35% beyond part L & Part G.

14 PLANNING GAINS The Carbon Audit reduction framework provides significant benefits to both developer and LPA: Measure for both CO2 reductions and sustainable development to prevent onerous conditions and removes application of CSH levels. Provides significant construction costs savings (typically £3k to £6k/dwelling). Future proofing for changes to Building Regulations Part L as demonstrates total CO2 reductions (allowable solutions). Strengthens the Fabric First approach and has been used to challenged and removed conditions that require the application of renewable technologies.

15 FURTHER WORK Increase the audit values to account for: Embodied CO2 savings post 25 years over the dwelling life. (120 years). Detailed valuation of verges, paths and landscape frontage to dwellings. Inclusion of sequestered CO2 within gardens pre- occupation.

16 QUESTIONS? Dr Alana O'Neill MEI Sustainability Director M: 07557 970324 Pegasus Group Pegasus House | Querns Business Centre | Whitworth Road | Cirencester | GL7 1RT T 01285 641717 | F 01285 642348 | DDI 01285 888024 | E


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