Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Time-Lapse Monitoring of CO2 Injection with Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP) at the Frio Project T.M. Daley, L.R. Myer*, G.M. Hoversten and E.L. Majer all.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Time-Lapse Monitoring of CO2 Injection with Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP) at the Frio Project T.M. Daley, L.R. Myer*, G.M. Hoversten and E.L. Majer all."— Presentation transcript:

1 Time-Lapse Monitoring of CO2 Injection with Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP) at the Frio Project T.M. Daley, L.R. Myer*, G.M. Hoversten and E.L. Majer all at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. *Presenting 2005 Conference on Carbon Sequestration May 3, 2005

2 Outline VSP Background Survey Design and Data Acquisition Data Analysis — Reflection processing — Time-lapse reflection analysis — Plume extent analysis Conclusions

3 VSP Design and Acquisition Parameters ● VSP designed for spatial monitoring of CO2 plume (100 m offsets) and site geologic structural information (500 – 1500 m offsets – not presented in this talk) ● Explosive source for highest frequency (resolution) and off-road access. ● Source: 3 lb. dynamite in 60 ft shothole, 4 to 10 shots per shot point site Number of shot points recorded: 8 Maximum Well to Source Offset recorded about 1500 m Receiver array depth: 0 ft – 5,500 ft, variable spacing 5 – 25 ft Geophones: 3-component, clamped to casing, unique 80-level string provided with partial support from Paulsson Geophysics

4 VSP and Crosswell Site

5 VSP Explosive Source: Shot Hole Drill

6 VSP Shot Points: Analysis Focused on Site 1,2,4 – 100 m offset up dip Wells 500 m N

7 VSP allows separation of downgoing (direct) wave and upgoing (reflected) wave Direct P-Wave Denser spacing in reservoir interval Reflection Initial Ray Modeling Raw Data Site 1 Depth

8 Reflection Section Site 1 Entire VSP Reflection Section Frio Analysis Window Enhanced Reflection Frio

9 Processing for Time-Lapse Change For time-lapse change: normalize reflection amplitude using a shallower reflector above the frio. This removes changes not associated with injection. For example: changes in shallow ground water level and changes in explosive shot energy. Plot pre and post injection normalized reflection sections and calculate change in reflection amplitude. Will show sites 1 (N), 2(NE) and 4(NW)

10 Site 1 (North, Up Dip) Reflection Section Pre Injection Post Injection Frio Reflection Control Reflection Two-way travel time

11 Site 2 (NE) Reflection Section Pre Injection Post Injection Frio Reflection Control Reflection Two-way travel time

12 Site 4 (NW) Reflection Section Pre Injection Post Injection Frio Reflection Control Reflection Two-way travel time

13 Estimate Plume Edge Calculate change in reflection strength for each recording depth. Estimate reflection point offset for each recording depth. This estimate is straighforward for horizontal layers. However, the Frio site has strong dip and fault blocks. Intial estimate uses constant 15 degree dip ray tracing results. Future work will include improved reflection point imaging leading to more accurate estimate of plume edge.

14 Site 1 Reflection Change (Post – Pre) Two-way travel time Frio Reflection Major change in Frio due to CO2 injection. Smaller change below Frio probably due to transmission through Frio. Sensor Depth (m)

15 Time-Lapse Analysis To estimate extent of CO2 plume, need to map sensor depth of recording to reflection point. We use ray path modeling for initial estimate.

16 Mapping of sensor depth to reflection point using raypaths: Source sites 1,2,4 (100 m offset) Sensor Depth (m) Reflection point – 30 m from injection well Distance (m) Injection Well Monitor Well Ray arrives at sensor depth 1480 m = 4860 ft.

17 Site 1 (North): Estimated Plume Size Range of CO2 induced reflection amplitude change. Amplitude Change (Post - Pre)/Pre About 70% increase in peak reflection amplitude. This is a strong response. What is cut-off point For plume edge? Choose 60% Estimated Plume Edge = 85 m Estimated Reflection Offset (m) not linear

18 Site 2 (NE): Estimated Plume Size Range of CO2 induced reflection amplitude change. Amplitude Change (Post - Pre)/Pre About 110% increase in peak reflection amplitude. This is a strong response. What is cut-off point For plume edge? Choose 60% Estimated Plume Edge = 45 m Estimated Offset (m) not linear

19 Site 4 (NW): Estimated Plume Size Range of CO2 induced reflection amplitude change. Amplitude Change (Post - Pre)/Pre About 80% increase in peak reflection amplitude. What is cut-off point For plume edge? Choose 60% Estimated Plume Edge = 85 m Estimated Offset (m) not linear

20 Current Estimate of Plume Extent survey of Nov 30, 2004 Wells 500 m Approximate Plume Extent from injection well (85 m N and NW, 45 m NE)

21 Conclusions The VSP method is able to ‘see’ the relatively small amount (~1600 tons) of CO2 injected in a thin reservoir at depths of 1500 m. Time-lapse analysis allows estimate of the spatial extent of the CO2 plume; if the sources are placed correctly and the reflections can be correctly mapped. At Frio, a strong increase in reflection amplitude is observed. Is this result to be expected for all saline aquifers? The updip component of the plume is estimated to extend about 85 m, as of Nov 30, 2004.

22 Time-Lapse Monitoring of CO2 Injection using Cross Well Seismic Data at the Frio Project

23 Seismic Crosswell: Orbital Vibrator and P/GSI 80 level array 6-Component O.V. Receiver Gather at 4992' In-Line (left) -> P and SV; Cross-Line (right) -> SH P-waveS-Wave In-Line Cross-Line

24 Seismic Crosswell Difference Tomography (P and S) Depth (ft) Injection Well Monitor Well Depth (ft) Injection Well Monitor Well

25 Seismic P-wave and Pulsed Neutron Logs Distance (ft) CO 2 Plume G.L. Depth (ft) Top of ‘C’ Sand ‘B’ Sand Injection Well Monitor Well

26 End of Presentation


Download ppt "Time-Lapse Monitoring of CO2 Injection with Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP) at the Frio Project T.M. Daley, L.R. Myer*, G.M. Hoversten and E.L. Majer all."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google