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Carbon and Climate A talk by Dr. Bob Field, Research Scholar in Residence and adjunct physics professor This talk will explore the abundance and flows.

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Presentation on theme: "Carbon and Climate A talk by Dr. Bob Field, Research Scholar in Residence and adjunct physics professor This talk will explore the abundance and flows."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carbon and Climate A talk by Dr. Bob Field, Research Scholar in Residence and adjunct physics professor This talk will explore the abundance and flows of carbon in the solid Earth, oceans, atmosphere, and biosphere and the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Carbon forms the backbone of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and even DNA. Carbon also plays a central role in biogeochemical processes, trapping vital heat as it cycles through the atmosphere.

2 DR. BOB FIELD Adjunct Physics Professor Research Scholar in Residence I develop and supervise natural science projects for students in physics, physical science, chemistry, biology, math, K-16 and environmental education. My number one interest is Global Evolution Studies. I also develop natural history programs primarily for the local state parks and the Morro Bay State Park Museum of Natural History. I have a brief biographical sketch. Contact me at science projectsGlobal Evolution Studiesnatural history programsbiographical sketch Click for my upcoming science walks and talks My extensive website has three parts: NATURAL SCIENCE GLOBAL EVOLUTIONGLOBAL EVOLUTION NATURAL HISTORY drbobfield bobfield64 The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance (Socrates) Return to Physics Department Home Page Carbon in the Geobiosphere.htm Thermalstructure.htm

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4 typical textbook values

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6 Recent Pre-industrial Global Carbon Cycle with major land flows based on F.T. Mackenzie & A. Lerman, Geobiology Vol 25: Carbon in the Geobiosphere – Earth’s Outer Shell major carbon fluxes into and out of the atmosphere, soil, and land biota atmosphere 600 land biota 700 land and soil 3000 decay 60.6 NPP 60.6 CO2 from organics 60 CO2 weatheri ng 0.2 GPP ~ 110 respiration ~ 50

7 atmosphere 600 ocean biota 3 ocean 40,000 CO2 evasion warm ocean 90.5 NPP 50 CO2 dissolut ion cold ocean 90 decay 50 Recent Pre-industrial Global Carbon Cycle with major ocean flows based on F.T. Mackenzie & A. Lerman, Geobiology Vol 25: Carbon in the Geobiosphere – Earth’s Outer Shell major carbon fluxes into and out of the atmosphere, ocean, and ocean biota GPP ~ 93 respiration ~ 43

8 atmosphere 600 land biota 700 ocean biota 3 ocean 40,000 land and soil 3000 NPP 50 decay 60.6 NPP 60.6 decay 50 Animated Recent Pre-industrial Global Carbon Cycle with nominal flows based on F.T. Mackenzie & A. Lerman, Geobiology Vol 25: Carbon in the Geobiosphere – Earth’s Outer Shell major carbon fluxes into and out of the atmosphere, ocean, soil, and biota CO2 evasion warm ocean 90.5 CO2 dissol ution cold ocean 90 CO2 from organics 60 CO2 weath ering 0.2 crust 3,500,000 upper mantle 132,000,000 lower mantle 400,000,000 CO2 volcanism and metamorph ism 0.2 CO2 from organics 0.1 subduction 0.2 sediments 80,000,000 uplift 0.4 carbonate sediment 0.6 river erosion 1.2 organic sediment 0.1

9 120 ppm atmosphere 600 GT 340,000 ppm land biota 700 GT 100,000 ppm ocean biota 3 GT 26 ppm ocean 40,000 GT 116 ppm land and soil 3000 GT Global Carbon Mass Concentrations based on F.T. Mackenzie & A. Lerman, Geobiology Vol 25: Carbon in the Geobiosphere – Earth’s Outer Shell 400 ppm crust 3,500,000 GT 140 ppm upper mantle 132,000,000 GT 140 ppm lower mantle 400,000,000 GT 400 ppm sediments 80,000,000 GT

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11 absorption by ozone, water, and CO 2 scattering by N 2, O 2 and aerosols Wavelength Intensity visible window UV VisibleInfrared sun is directly overhead no clouds direct beam only Spectrum of Sunlight observed on Earth

12 f Clouds 50% Soil 20% Water 8% Sand 40% Plants 15% Snow 60% Average Visible Reflectances of common substances Sun

13 ocean 10 km sea level Troposphere has 75% of air density and temperature decrease with altitude temperature vs. altitude Sun warm 60F After Tarbuck altitude temperature cool -70F

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15 288K Earth's surface Greenhouse Gases Absorb Blackbody Radiation Wavelength (microns) Intensity O3O3 CO 2 H2OH2O 255K atmosphere 273K water freezes

16 Average Global Energy Budget (%) incident sunlight absorb scattered sunlight absorb sea + land atmosphere Sun etc Let’s ignore greenhouse gases Where does the go?

17 Average Global Energy Budget (%) incident sunlight absorb scattered sunlight absorb sea + land atmosphere Sun etc. Where does the really go?

18 Average Global Energy Budget (%) incident sunlight absorb scattered sunlight absorb sea + land atmosphere Sun 30 evap condense absorb radiate radiate absorb radiated heat LWIR

19 absorb and scatter SW absorb and emit LW convect moist air absorb and scatter SW absorb and emit LW convect moist air incoming SW outgoing LW absorb and scatter SW absorb and emit LW condense water absorb and scatter SW absorb and emit LW evaporate water conduct heat incoming LW outgoing SW troposphere diagram SWLWLH convection latent heat conduction energy flow in the atmosphere convection physics senior project: simplified Microsoft Excel model of feedback between atmosphere, oceans, and land

20 tropo

21 tropo without latent heat without latent heat

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28 Carbon and Climate The long term persistence of liquid oceans on Earth is essential to climate and to life. Carbon has influenced global climate and the water cycle for billions of years. Fortunately, as the Sun has grown brighter, carbon’s abundance has decreased sharply. Comprising only 150 parts per million in the atmosphere, oceans, and solid Earth, carbon is now concentrated in land and ocean biota and in soils and sediments.


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