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Energy Alternatives (A) Diesel (B) Combined Diesel/Hydro Dam (C) Medium Hydro Dam (D) Large Hydro Dam

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2 Diesel Load Forecast Fuel Required (4 kwhrs/L) CO2 emission (2.871kg/L) Maintenance and amortization (20%) Cost of fuel (a) $1.50/l (b) $2.00/l)

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3 Diesel Expected cost for the period Average fuel cost $1.50 per liter NPV =$555M Average cost per kwhr =45 cents CO2 emission = 1,904,196 tons Average fuel cost $2.00 per liter NPV = $740M Average cost per kwhr = 60 cents CO2 emission = 1,904,196 tons

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4 Combined Hydro/Diesel Load Forecast Fuel Required (4 kwhrs/L) CO2 emission (2.871kg/l) Maintenance and amortization for diesel (20%) Cost of fuel (a) $1.50/l (b) $2.00/l) Capital cost of Hydro Dam and Transmission Line $150M. Capital cost is amortized at 6% over 25 years. An additional 3% of the capital cost is added per year for maintenance of the Hydro Dam and transmission line Annual mean production from Hydro 38,000,000 kwhrs

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5 Combined Hydro/Diesel Expected Cost for the period Average fuel cost $1.50 per liter NPV = $491M Average cost per kwhr = 40 cents CO 2 emission = 1,222,334 tons Average fuel cost $2.00 per liter NPV = $603M Average cost per kwhr = 49 cents Co 2 emission = 1,222,334 tons

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6 Medium Hydro Dam Load Forecast Fuel Required CO2 Emission Maintenance and Amortization(20% of the cost of fuel) Cost of fuel (a) $1.50/L (b) $2.00/L Capital cost of Hydro Dam and Transmission Line $250M The capital cost is amortized at 6% over 25 years. An additional cost of 3% per year is added for maintenance of the Hydro Dam and the Transmission Line Annual mean production of the Hydro Dam is 100,000,000 kwhrs. In 2022 the diesel is required to start up based on the load forecast.

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7 Medium Hydro Dam Expected cost for the period Fuel cost = $2.00/L NPV = $326M Average cost per kwhr = 27cents CO2 emission = 254,111 tons Fuel Cost = $1.50 NPV = $307M Average cost per kwhr = 25 cents CO2 emission = 254,111

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8 Large Hydro Dam Load Forecast Fuel Required CO2 Emission Maintenance and Amortization(20% of the cost of fuel) Cost of fuel (a) $1.50/L (b) $2.00/L Capital cost of Hydro Dam and Transmission Line $350M The capital cost is amortized at 6% over 25 years. An additional cost of 3% per year is added for maintenance of the Hydro Dam and the Transmission Line Annual mean production of the Hydro Dam is 150,000,000 kwhrs.

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9 Large Hydro Dam Expected cost for the period The diesel is not required to operate during the study period. NPV = $360M Average cost per kwhr = 28 cents CO2 emission = 0

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10 Comparison of KWhr cost Cents per Kwhr

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11 Comparison of NPV Millions

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12 Comparison of CO 2 Emission

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Summary Hydro Power is an old well proven Technology. Hydro has good long term advantages. A large dam is the alternative with highest economic ranking. The break even point between a combined hydro/diesel and a large hydro dam is 64 cents per liter. The study looks at our load forecast and the 13

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And the best solution to supply our load forecast. Utilize surplus power to operate our residual heating system and displace heating fuels. A Hydro Dam has many benefits, reduction in Greenhouse Gas emissions, deferral of any expansion to our Tank Farms, Mining etc Risk: (a) Cost of fuel, oil at $200 or $30/barrel (b) Financing the Hydro, interest 14

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Rates at 3% 0r 18% 15

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Summary 16

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