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SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE TOWARDS A 90% CO 2 REDUCTION IN.

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Presentation on theme: "SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE TOWARDS A 90% CO 2 REDUCTION IN."— Presentation transcript:

1 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE TOWARDS A 90% CO 2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS EUROHEAT & POWER CONFERENCE BRUSSELS - 5 JUNE 2008 JOAN SABATÉ / CHRISTOPH PETERS

2 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Increase of CO 2 -emissions in Spain Crisis what crisis ?

3 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Resources: Materials – Energy - Water Density Multi-functionality Transport Energy Demand, Generation & Distribution

4 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS 1.Use of low environmental impact materials with minimum embodied energy for their production, reuse, recycling or disposal. 2.Reduction of the building’s energy demand by means of architectural design and special attention to the composition of the building’s envelope. 3.Use of energy efficient systems for HVAC and lighting and introduction of a Building Management System Sustainable building design criteria Primary 3,8% Industry 34,9% Transport 38,1% Residential 12,8% Service 14,2% final energy consumption in 2003 in Catalonia: 15,2 millions tep 4.Use of natural resources, including rainwater harvesting and grey water reuse, RES.

5 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Police Station, Tarragona Micro-trigeneration

6 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Catalan Blood and Tissue Bank, Barcelona Aquifer ground water cooling – open loop

7 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS 60 social housing apartments, Tossa de Mar Geothermal heat pump – closed loop

8 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS 96 social housing apartments, Barcelona District energy

9 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS 96 social housing apartments, Barcelona Urban solid waste incineration, (vapour 30 t/h) Gas boiler backup (vapour 30 t/h) Vapour/water heat exchangers (4x 5,000kW) Absorption chillers (4x 4,500 kW) Sea water heat exchangers (4x 12,000 kW) Compression chillers (3x 4,000 kW) Cold water storage tank (5,000 m 3 )

10 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Installation scheme, District energy network Barcelona

11 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Absorption chiller, District energy network Barcelona

12 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS District energy network Barcelona

13 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS District energy network Barcelona, installed capacity

14 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Reduction in energy consumption compared to conventional individual solutions: 51% Heat, 2010 Cold, 2010

15 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Study of the possibilities of reduction of CO 2 -emissions and its application to a 60 apartment social housing project at Tossa de Mar, Costa Brava, Catalonia

16 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Study of the possibilities of reduction of CO 2 -emissions and its application to a 60 apartment social housing project at Tossa de Mar, Costa Brava, Catalonia

17 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Sabaté AssociatsBalmes 439 1r 1ªT Arquitectura i sostenibilitat08022 BarcelonaF web:

18 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS

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21 Methodology: analysis of the overall energy consumption and associated emissions over an expected 50 year building’s lifecycle Reference building that fulfils minimum requirements of the actual Spanish and Catalan building regulations (CTE / DEE) Project building with reduced CO 2 emissions respecting two premises: to focus on building technologies well known regionally not to exceed the overall construction costs by more than 5% compared to a conventional new building in Catalonia

22 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Methodology: Evaluation of the overall performance of the buildings during a life-cycle of 50 years: Production and transport of materials Construction process Operation of the building Deconstruction process Reuse and recycling Source image: Sieglinde Fuller National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), USA

23 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Sabaté AssociatsBalmes 439 1r 1ªT Arquitectura i sostenibilitat08022 BarcelonaF web: Example façades - Cost, weight, embodied energy, associated emissions

24 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Example roofs - Analysis of 8 alternative systems: Cost, weight, embodied energy, associated emissions For each kind of roof the necessary isolation was used to achieve similar thermal transmittances (U-value between 0,23 and 0,30 W/m 2 ·K).

25 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Embodied energy in the materials: Savings of 143 kg CO 2 /m 2 gross floor area, equivalent to 26 % of the emissions of the reference building Use of recycled sands and gravel in foundations and roofs Prefabricated concrete structure Insulation of mineral wool Wooden window frames and solar protections Wooden pathway for apartment access Linoleum flooring

26 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS For any further CO 2 -reduction concerning the building materials, special attention must be given to reducing underground built volume (parking areas) and using light weight structures. The four materials with major impact (steel, concrete, cement and laminated steel) represent almost half of the CO 2 – emissions. Project building

27 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Reduction of 34 % of the energy demand by design Optimization of block’s orientation and shape Fixed solar protections - balconies Increase of insulation and use of wooden carpentry Use of thermal inertia of roof slabs and ceilings ECOTECT, LIDER, TRNSYS

28 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Highly efficient energy systems Reduction of 72% of energy consumption for HVAC and DHW Centralized production and storage of heat and cold. Solar thermal installation (SF DHW 50%) Geothermal heat pumps (70% of the peak power, meeting 90% of the demand) Auxiliary gas boilers

29 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Reduction of CO 2 emissions during the building’s lifecycle: 40 % !

30 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS “El primer pas” – “The first step” Pavilion on Sustainability – Construmat 2007 Departament de Medi Ambient i Habitatge Generalitat de Catalunya PAuS – Plataforma Arquitectura i Sostenibilitat

31 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS

32 CO 2 emissions: 58,90 kg CO 2 / m 2 Lack of insulation Heat bridges Lack of solar protection Reduced efficiency of HVAC, DHW, and lighting systems Reduction %: 0 % Actual housing stock

33 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Actual housing stock 0.75 W/m 2 K \ transmittance Kg/m 2 \ weight kg CO2/m 2 \ emissions €/m 2 \ cost 1.13 W/m 2 K \ transmittance Kg/m 2 \ weight kg CO2/m 2 \ emissions €/m 2 \ cost

34 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Actual housing stock 0.78 W/m 2 K \ transmittance Kg/m 2 \ weight kg CO2/m 2 \ emissions €/m 2 \ cost

35 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS CO 2 emissions: 52,70 kg CO 2 / m 2 Increase of thermal insulation Incorporation of thermal inertia Improved solar control Improvement of the energy efficiency of the HVAC installations Solar thermal installation for DHW Energy efficiency lighting Water saving measures Reduction %: 11% Housing according to recent legislation, CTE / DEE

36 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Housing according to recent legislation, CTE / DEE 0.51 W/m 2 K \ transmittance Kg/m 2 \ weight kg CO2/m 2 \ emissions €/m 2 \ cost 0.55 W/m 2 K \ transmittance Kg/m 2 \ weight kg CO2/m 2 \ emissions €/m 2 \ cost

37 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS CO 2 emissions: 32,20 kg CO 2 / m 2 Reduction %: 45 % 30% energy demand reduction compared to actual building code CTE by bioclimatic design and reduction of thermal transmittance Highly energy efficient HVAC systems with COP > 4 or equivalent emissions Rainwater harvesting and/or reuse of greywater Energy efficient housing

38 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Energy efficient housing 0.36 W/m 2 K \ transmittance Kg/m 2 \ weight kg CO2/m 2 \ emissions €/m 2 \ cost 0.26 W/m 2 K \ transmittance Kg/m 2 \ weight kg CO2/m 2 \ emissions €/m 2 \ cost

39 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS CO 2 emissions: 15,30 kg CO 2 / m 2 Very energy efficient housing with low embodied energy Reduction %: 74 % Use of low environmental impact materials with preference to recycled or of organic origin: wood, etc. Elimination of underground parking Reduction of thermal transmittance: Façades, roofs U < 0,3 W/m 2 K, windows U < 1,7 W/m 2 K

40 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Very energy efficient housing with low embodied energy 0.37 W/m 2 K \ transmittance Kg/m 2 \ weight kg CO 2 /m 2 \ emissions €/m 2 \ cost 0.30 W/m 2 K \ transmittance Kg/m 2 \ weight kg CO 2 /m 2 \ emissions €/m 2 \ cost

41 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS 0.22 W/m 2 K \ transmittance Kg/m 2 \ weight -39,76 kg CO 2 /m 2 \ emissions €/m 2 \ cost Very energy efficient housing with low embodied energy

42 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS CO 2 emissions: 5,90 kg CO 2 / m 2 Factor 10 Reduction %: 90 % Increase of renewable energy sources: solar photovoltaic, solar thermal, biomass, biogas, etc. Very highly efficient energy systems

43 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS 0.25 W/m 2 K \ transmittance Kg/m 2 \ weight kg CO2/m 2 \ emissions €/m 2 \ cost Factor 10

44 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS CO 2 emissions: 15,30 kg CO 2 / m 2 High energy efficient retrofitting Reduction %: 74 % Reduction of thermal transmittance, façades and roofs U < 0,3 W/m 2 K, windows U < 1,7 W/m 2 K Reduction of heat bridges Improvement of solar protection Incorporation of RES: photovoltaic, biomass, biogas, etc. Highly energy efficient HVAC systems

45 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS

46 Conclusions A 50% reduction of CO 2 -emissions in social housing is absolutely feasible, using in Catalonia well established technology and with an additional cost of less than 5% The life-cycle analysis is a necessary methodology to check the overall emissions of buildings as the embodied energy and CO 2 -emissions of materials are of significant importance Any further effort for reduction of CO 2 -emissions in buildings must therefore consider lighter constructions and materials of less environmental impact. 90% reduction of CO 2 -emissions incorporating high efficiency equipment and use of renewable energies for thermal demand and electricity generation To advance in this direction and increase sustainability in the housing sector it is necessary to widen existing building design concepts, technologies and administrative and legal approaches.

47 SUSTAINABLE URBAN ARCHITECTURE - TOWARDS A 90% CO2 REDUCTION IN MEDITERRANEAN BUILDINGS Balmes 439, 1r 1a E Barcelona T F Federico Pesl and Neus Ayza Christoph Peters Ana Moreno Miquel Angel Sala, BOMA Oriol Vidal Susana Kamiya architects in charge responsible research budget control structures installations landscape SaAS Joan Sabaté and Horacio Espeche 60 apartment social housing project authors SaAS, SO Joan Sabaté, Albert Cuchí Jordina Vidal, Sergi Cantos, Fabian López and M. Á. Pascual Albert Sagrera and Ana Moreno study on reduction of CO 2 emissions directors energy demand and consumption embodied energy


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