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THE ENGINE AND THE ATMOSPHERE. OUTLINE To show the direct relationship between engine emissions and carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere----

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Presentation on theme: "THE ENGINE AND THE ATMOSPHERE. OUTLINE To show the direct relationship between engine emissions and carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere----"— Presentation transcript:

1 THE ENGINE AND THE ATMOSPHERE

2 OUTLINE To show the direct relationship between engine emissions and carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere---- and global warming. To relate the science to the society To provide courses of action.

3 The Planet The Engine

4 winter summer CO2 Level Season Happy Planet ! REGULAR BREATHING

5 The real planet we live on

6 GASOLINE OR COAL OR NATURAL GAS ALWAYS PRODUCES CARBON DIOXIDE AND WATER WHEN BURNED IN AIR Other products too in very small amounts. What are they?

7 Burning hydrocarbon fuels MUST produce carbon dioxide and water

8 Thus, 1 gallon of gasoline produces 18 lbs of carbon dioxide RULE OF THUMB: 1 MILE~ 1 POUND OF CO2. It stays in the atmosphere for about 100years.

9 800 MILLION VEHICLES IN THE WORLD BURN 2 GALLONS EACH PER DAY That is about 5 billion tons (5,000,000,000,000 Kg) of carbon dioxide per year into the atmosphere!!

10 Our Atmosphere is very Thin

11 The Atmosphere The atmosphere of the earth is mainly Nitrogen (78%) and Oxygen (21%) by volume. Carbon dioxide (a green house gas) is only around 0.038%.

12 Mass of the Atmosphere is 5.2 thousand trillion tons

13 The vehicles added 5 billion tons of carbon dioxide per year. The mass of the atmosphere is 5.2 thousand trillion tons

14 i.e. one part of Carbon Dioxide per million parts of atmospheric mass per year. (in volume units it is nearly 0.7 ppmv/yr) This is for vehicles only (add power plants etc. and it comes to around 2 ppmv/yr)

15 CO2 YEAR

16 Greenhouse

17 IPCC 2007

18 To understand the what is happening we need: Observation Theory Experiment Computation

19 UNDERSTANDING CLOUD FORMATION

20

21

22 Artists provide insight too Studies of these and other paintings show that cloud cover was greater in the 19th century than it it is today

23 Zellman Warhaft:Zellman Warhaft: Zellman Warhaft:Zellman Warhaft: GLOBAL SURFACE TEMPERATURE CHANGE

24 temperature Carbon dioxide Easy to understand Much harder to understand

25 Kilimanjaro

26 floods….

27 ……and famine

28 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX VS. ENERGY USE From A Pasternack LLNL Rep. No. UCLR-ID (Oct. 2000)

29 Carbon dioxide Information center CDIAC.ORNL.GOV INDIA CO2 EMISSIONS

30 INDIA CO2/capita

31 US CO2/capita Carbon dioxide Information Center cdiac.ornl.gov

32 US CO2 emissions Carbon dioxide Information Center cdiac.ornl.gov

33 Carbon emissions are related to: Population (N) amount of carbon to make a unit of energy (C/E) energy usage per unit of GDP (E/GDP) GDP/capita (GDP/N)

34 Kaya Identity N = population GDP = Gross Domestic Product E = energy usage C=carbon into the atmosphere

35 Population(N) GDP/N E/GDP C/E Projections for Kaya Hoffert et al “Nature” V Oct. 1998

36 CO2 and global warming are due to: Population increase (demography, geography,economics,sociology,psychology,history….) Increase in standard of living (development,sociology,economics,business,engineering,government………… ) The amount of carbon we use to produce the energy (engineering, chemistry,physics,materials science…….) The energy usage per unit of GDP (business, economics,engineering,operations research……..)

37 ACTION 1.Internalization 2.Education/Research 3.Outreach 4.Involvement with policy 5. Examine Tradition

38 temperature Carbon dioxide Easy to understand Much harder to understand

39

40

41 The Planet The Engine

42 China CO2 emissions Carbon dioxide Information Center cdiac.ornl.gov

43 China CO2/capita Carbon dioxide Information Center cdiac.ornl.gov

44 Italy CO2 emissions Carbon dioxide Information Center cdiac.ornl.gov

45 Italy CO2/capita Carbon dioxide Information Center cdiac.ornl.gov

46 France CO2 emissions Carbon dioxide Information Center cdiac.ornl.gov

47 France CO2/capita Carbon dioxide Information Center cdiac.ornl.gov

48 billion tons of C added billion tons of C added. To cut to 2 billion tons (the 1955 value) by 2100 with the anticipated rate of GDP/capita and power /GDP decline the carbon/power will have to be 10% of today’s value.

49 winter summer CO2 Level Season Happy Planet ! summer REGULAR BREATHING

50 THE ENGINE AND THE ATMOSPHERE


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