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CO 2 Capture and Storage (CCS). Contents The Need for CO 2 Capture and Storage 4 Reliance on Fossil Fuels 5 Largest CO 2 Emitters 7 Addressing the Challenge.

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Presentation on theme: "CO 2 Capture and Storage (CCS). Contents The Need for CO 2 Capture and Storage 4 Reliance on Fossil Fuels 5 Largest CO 2 Emitters 7 Addressing the Challenge."— Presentation transcript:

1 CO 2 Capture and Storage (CCS)

2 Contents The Need for CO 2 Capture and Storage 4 Reliance on Fossil Fuels 5 Largest CO 2 Emitters 7 Addressing the Challenge 10 Inside CCS 12 CO 2 Capture 13 CO 2 Transport 17 Safely and Permanently Storing CO 2 18 Monitoring Storage Sites 21 Rapid & Widespread Deployment 22 A Solution to Climate Change 24 2

3 “CCS is an essential part of the portfolio of technologies needed to achieve substantial global emissions reductions.” International Energy Agency 3

4 Why do we Need CO 2 Capture and Storage? By 2050, global population will rise from 7 to 9 billion people World energy demand is expected to increase by 50% over the next 20 years billion people

5 We Still Rely on Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels (coal, gas and oil) represent 80% of the global energy mix Renewables only account for 13% of our total energy supply 5 Source: IEA, Key World Energy Statistics, 2009 Fossil Fuels 81.1% Renewables 13% Nuclear 5.9% World total primary energy supply (2007) Today

6 … and will Continue to do so for Decades to Come Renewables could make up 30% of the global energy mix* 6 30% Estimated share of renewables by 2030 But fossil fuels will remain our main source of energy for decades to come By 2030 *Average taken across multiple estimates: IEA WEO 2008; European Commission baseline scenario; German Ministry of Environment, EUROPROG

7 Fossil Fuels Power the Largest Emitters of 7 Fossil fuels power plants, heavy industry and refineries account for 52% of the world’s current CO 2 emissions (15 billion tonnes CO 2 emissions/year) CO 2

8 … which in turn, produces climate change Unless the rise in average global temperature is kept below 2°C, devastating and irreversible climate changes will occur …and too Much CO 2 Leads to Global Warming 8

9 We need to cut CO 2 emissions fast… 9 … as energy consumption continues to rise

10 How do we Meet this Challenge? By using a portfolio of solutions: 10

11 CCS alone will provide up to 20% of the CO 2 emission reductions we need to make by Here’s how it works... 11

12 Inside CCS 12 We can capture at least 90% of emissions from fixed emitters We have been transporting CO 2 for decades CO 2 can be stored safely and permanently using natural trapping mechanisms

13 CO 2 Capture Pre-combustion: Where CO 2 is captured before fuel is burned Oxy-fuel: Where CO 2 is captured during fuel combustion Post-combustion: Where CO 2 is captured after fuel has been burned (This technology can also be retrofitted to existing power and industrial plants) There are 3 technologies to capture CO 2 : 13

14 Pre-combustion 14 CO 2 is captured before fuel is burned

15 Oxy-fuel 15 CO 2 is captured during fuel combustion

16 Post-combustion 16 CO 2 is captured after fuel has been burned

17 CO 2 Transport Once captured, the CO 2 is compressed into a liquid state and dehydrated for transport and storage CO 2 is preferably transported by pipeline …or by ships when a storage site is too far from the CCS capture plant 17

18 Safely Storing CO 2 We use a natural mechanism that has trapped CO 2, gas and oil for millions of years Liquid CO 2 is pumped deep underground into one of two types of reservoirs: deep saline aquifers (700m-3,000m) depleted gas and oil fields (up to 5,000m) Both types of reservoirs have a layer of porous rock to absorb the CO 2 and an impermeable layer of cap rock to seal the porous layer 18

19 Safely Storing CO 2 19 The liquid CO 2 is pumped deep underground into one of two types of CO 2 storage reservoir (porous rock) Cap rock Deep saline aquifer 700m - 3,000m up to 5,000m Depleted oil and gas fields

20 The Safety of Stored CO 2 Increases Over Time 20 Mineral trapping CO 2 -rich water sinks to the bottom of the reservoir and reacts to form minerals Dissolution trapping CO 2 dissolves into surrounding salt water Residual trapping CO 2 is trapped in tiny rock pores and cannot move... due to 3 natural mechanisms

21 Monitoring CO 2 Storage Sites To ensure that a CO 2 storage site functions as it should, a rigorous monitoring process begins at the reservoir selection stage and continues for as long as required Monitoring continues even after a CO 2 injection well is closed and EU legislation requires that stored CO 2 is kept safely and permanently underground 21

22 Rapid & Widespread Deployment of CCS 22 We need to move from the successful small-scale CCS projects in operation today to building 3,400 commercial-scale projects worldwide by 2050 if CCS is to provide 20% of the CO 2 reductions needed* *IEA –Technology Roadmap, Carbon capture and storage 3,400

23 There is an urgent need to dramatically increase public understanding and awareness of the technology through CCS demonstration programmes Commercially Viable by Enabling CCS to be commercially viable by 2020 means validating the technology through large-scale demonstration programmes that require: sufficient and flexible funding clear knowledge-sharing principles to maximise learnings appropriate and comprehensive legislation accelerated permitting processes

24 A Portfolio of Solutions Alongside more renewables and greater energy efficiency, CO 2 Capture and Storage will help us get to the sustainable energy systems of the future Our climate depends on it 24

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