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Overview of Bioenergy RD&D in Korea 2005. 11. 3. Jin-Suk Lee Biomass Center, KIER.

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Presentation on theme: "Overview of Bioenergy RD&D in Korea 2005. 11. 3. Jin-Suk Lee Biomass Center, KIER."— Presentation transcript:

1 Overview of Bioenergy RD&D in Korea 2005. 11. 3. Jin-Suk Lee Biomass Center, KIER

2 Introduction Commercialized Bioenergy R&D on Bioenergy Future R&D Activities on Bioenergy Summary PRESENTATION AGENDA

3 Biomass Resources in Korea Resources Potential (x 10 3 toe/year) Recoverable (x 10 3 toe/ 년 ) Forest residues5,100850 Agricultural residues4,0001,050 Food waste17051 Municipal waste (Waste paper, woods) 1,080320 Animal wastes90030 Sludge3015 Total11,2802,316 Biomass Resources in Korea

4 Current Aspects for Bio-energy R&D in Korea Current status for bioenergy utilization in Korea - 3.6% (84,000TOE) of recoverable biomass resources have been utilized as energy in 2001 - Action plan have been set up to increase the bioenergy utilization to 15% by 2010 Current aspects of Bioenergy R&D - Following priorities were applied for Bioenergy R&D 1. Organic wastes such as food wastes, sludge, MSWs etc 2. Unutilized resources (Forest residues, agricultural residues etc) 3. Foreign biomass - Two bioenergy technologies have been commercialized - Other technologies are still under developement Current Aspects for Bioenergy R&D in Korea

5 2. Activities for Commercialization Korean food waste takes about 30% of total organic wastes (6.6million ton/year). The water content of food waste is about 90%. Because of the characteristics, it is difficult to treat the waste by conventional technologies like land filling or incineration. KIER developed a two-phase anaerobic digestion process in which acidic fermentation and methane formation were done in separate reactors. The technology was found to be quite effective for the treatment of Korean food waste. After a series of test runs, the technology was commercialized. Two full scale commercial plants have been constructed to treat food waste and produce methane. The research for the electricity generation using methane will be started soon. 2-1. Two-phase Anaerobic digestion Activities for Commercialization

6 Food Waste Composting Process Flow Diagram Food waste Composting Process Flow Diagram

7 (2) Paju City Plant (Capacity: 30 ton/day) Paju City Plant (30 tons/day)

8 (3) Summary of Paju Plant Operation Feed, ton/day30 Dry solid content, %22 Biogas, m 3 /day2,140 Methane content, %70 Compost, ton/day910 Expected Electricity, kWh4,500 Solid reduction, %87 Summary of Paju Plant Operation

9 Methane (LFG) 270 land-fill sites are now in Korea Total power generation capacity is 83.2 MW The commercial process for the separation of methane from LFG has been developed The purified gas is used as heating fuel and will be tried as motor fuel

10 Energy Consumption in Korea For Transportation sector (1.4 x 10 7 vehicles) : Gasoline 3.0 x 10 7 ton/year Diesel (5.0 x 10 6 vehicles) 2.8 x 10 7 ton/year All crude oils are imported ! Energy Consumption in Korea

11 Why Biodiesel in Korea? Severe Air pollution over Seoul Metropolitan area. The major portion (over 50%) of air pollutants are from diesel fuelled vehicles. Concerns over global warming Korea needs to follow Kyoto protocol from 2013 Ministry of Environment failed to introduce LNG fuelled buses to replace diesel fuelled bus fleet because of the opposition from the residents nearby the planned gas stations Biodiesel is emerging as a promising solution to above problems

12 2002Feb. Ministry of Environment (MOE) conducted emission tests on pure biodiesel and biodiesel blending fuels 2002May MOE asked to Ministry of energy (MOCIE) to take biodiesel as a renewable fuel (Tax exemption) 2002May MOCIE decided to start demonstration supply of B-20 at the designated areas (Seoul Metropolitan, Chonbuk Province) 2002 Dec. Full-scale commercial plant was constructed (100,000ton/year) 2003 Sep. Preparation new Korean biodiesel standards started 2004May MOCIE extended the demonstration supply to 2005 May 2005May Korean auto makers agreed to give warranty for the cars which use B-5 2006 Jan B-5 will be available nationwide to the public Chronicles for Biodiesel

13 Biodiesel Plant in Korea 1. Feedstock: Crude plant Oil 2. Capacity : 100,000ton/yr 3. Process : - 1 step reaction 4. Yield : Over 99%

14 Map of South Korea Site for Demonstration Supply

15 In 2004 Diesel price is only 70% of gasoline Price of Diesel will be increased to 85% by 2006 Fuel tax is very high in Korea - Gasoline : 71% of total price is Tax - Diesel : 50% “ “ “ “ Tax Prices and Fuel tax in Korea

16 Diesel and Biodiesel Prices DieselBiodiesel 2004200520062004 Diesel untaxed*, $/L0.31 - Total Tax, $/L0.340.410.51- Diesel fully taxed, $/L0.650.720.82- Biodiesel, min, $/L0.60 Biodiesel, max, $/L0.65 * : based on $ 30/bbl crude oil

17 Bio-Diesel Plant (100,000 ton/yr) Demonstration Supply of Biodiesel

18 - As prospect for the biodiesel business looks bright, many people likes to go into the market. - Only biodiesel of good quality are permitted on sale Preparation of Biodiesel standards Extensive test works on real road conditions Establishment of quality systems program Secure supply of feedstock (Plant oils) Challenging problems

19 Two biodiesel plants are under operation (100,000ton/year and 7,500ton/year) For demonstration supply, the temporary standard was prepared but automakers and oil companies refused to accept it All stake holders in the fuel market gathered to prepare Korean biodiesel fuel standard at September 2003 The draft was prepared at September 2004 Basically the standards was close to EN14214 Korean Biodiesel Standards

20 ITEMEN14214 Korean Standard (2004. 10) Kinematic viscosity 3.5 - 5.01.9 - 5.5 CFPPRegional specificNo spec for B-100 Acid Number 0.50.5 or 0.8 Iodine Number≤ 120No spec.

21 Fleet tests have been started to test the validity of new Korean biodiesel standards in September of 2004 Major Korean car, oil companies and biodiesel producers have participated into the project The fleet test will last two years (by August of 2006) After the fleet tests, biodiesel dissemination will be expected to be activated Fleet Tests under Real Conditions

22 Currently biodiesel is directly transported to the filling stations and blended on site (B-20) Quality assurance should be a major issue Further works will be done to make sure that only high quality biodiesel go into the market The Certification center will be established to evaluate the quality of biodiesel products in the market Quality Systems Program

23 Currently all feedstocks (Soybean oil) are imported from USA Various works are under investigation to enhance the security of feedstock ( - Utilization of set-aside land to cultivate rapeseed - Utilization of used frying oil - Test the new feedstock ) Raw Materials Supply

24 (1) Scope of the work for biodiesel from UFO  Introduction The feedstock cost takes about 70% out of total production cost of biodiesel. Used frying oil (UFO) may be a good candidate to lower the production cost of biodiesel. In Korea, about 100,000 tons of used frying oil (UFO) can be recovered. Some impurities like free fatty acids should be removed before the transesterification process.  Objective Development of the bench process for the bioidiesel production from UFO Biodiesel Production from UFO

25 Bench Plant for Bio-diesel from Used Frying Oil Pretreatment (filter, demoisturizing, Pre-esterification) Transesterification (Plug Flow Reactor) Purification (Recovery of methanol)

26 Action Plan for Bio-diesel 20042006200820102012 Biogas4247525863 LFG106212291344397 Biodiesel147184368460552 Total2954437118621,012 X 10 3 toe

27 R&D on Lignocellulosic Biomass Bioethanol District Heating

28 PDU Plant for Bioethanol Production capacity 20L Fuel Alcohol/ day (From 100kg wood) Pretreatment 2 stage (Acid Percolation/ Steam explosion) HydrolysisEnzymatic, 1000L Fermentation S. Cerevisiae Batch Reactor (300L, x2) PurificationDistillation PDU for Bio-ethanol

29 Waste Woods Component Virgin wood (Oak) Waste Oak Cellulose (%) Hemicellulose (%) Lignin (%) Ash (%) 43.3 24.6 19.2 3.4 43.7 25.5 17.5 2.8 New Feedstock for Bio-ethanol

30 Ammonia Percolation Water Percolation reactor Lignin back pressure NH 4 O H Schematic Diagram of Ammonia Percolation Photo of Experimental Apparatus Ammonia Percolation

31 The amount of forest residues is significant Collection and transportation are critical issues Feasibility for utilization of forest residues as district heating fuels will be investigated. Fuels for District Heating

32 4. Future Research Activities National Technology Road Map for Bioenergy has been made 2002 December. The R&D projects have been divided into two categories; short term projects and long term projects The thermochemical conversion process and anaerobic digestion have been chosen as short term projects which can be commercialized by 2006 All other biological conversion processes including ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass and bio-hydrogen were put into long term projects that will take 10 years or longer to commercialize. 1. Outline of Korean NTRM Future Research Activities

33 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Biodiesel Standardization 자원확보 NewBiodiesel Production Technology Anaerobic Digestion Biodiesel Biomass Gasification Core Technologies for Bioethanol Micro - organism Genomics Conversion Cogeneration Technology Commercialization Study Feed Stock Supply Management of Organic Waste Biomass Pretreatment Plant Science (Outsourcing) Feedstock Production (Outsourcing) Energy Crops Waste Sugars 4-2. KOREAN NTRM for Bio-energy Bioethanol Korean NTRM for Bioenergy

34 Summary 1. R&DD activities on bioenergy is getting activated in Korea because of high oil price and concerns over Kyoto protocol. 2. Anaerobic digestion and biodiesel are commercialized because of their own advantages such as the environmental friendliness and necessity for waste treatment 3. Stable supply of the feedstocks are a major concern for bioenergy implementation. Extensive work are underway to secure the stable supply of feedstocks 4. Some feasibility study and basic research works are being carried out to utilize the lignocellulosic biomass

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