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CO 2 Sequestration Catherine Peters Princeton University Deep Carbon Cycle Workshop May 15-17, 2008 Carnegie Institution Geophysical Laboratory.

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Presentation on theme: "CO 2 Sequestration Catherine Peters Princeton University Deep Carbon Cycle Workshop May 15-17, 2008 Carnegie Institution Geophysical Laboratory."— Presentation transcript:

1 CO 2 Sequestration Catherine Peters Princeton University Deep Carbon Cycle Workshop May 15-17, 2008 Carnegie Institution Geophysical Laboratory

2 Fuels Processes Storage options INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) CO 2 Capture and Storage (CCS)

3 Geological storage options INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

4 CO 2 phase diagram Data from Span and Wagner 1996 Deeper than 3000 m, CO 2 Is denser than sea water. Density: 500 kg/m 3

5 Geographical relationship between sources and storage opportunities Global distribution of large stationary sources of CO 2 (Based on a compilation of publicly available information on global emission sources, IEA GHG 2002) INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

6 Storage prospectivity Highly prospective sedimentary basins Prospective sedimentary basins Non-prospective sedimentary basins, metamorphic and igneous rock Data quality and availability vary among regions Prospective areas in sedimentary basins where suitable saline formations, oil or gas fields, or coal beds may be found. Locations for storage in coal beds are only partly included. Prospectivity is a qualitative assessment of the likelihood that a suitable storage location is present in a given area based on the available information. This figure should be taken as a guide only, because it is based on partial data, the quality of which may vary from region to region, and which may change over time and with new information (Courtesy of Geoscience Australia). Geographical relationship between sources and storage opportunities INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

7 North American CO 2 Sources

8 Oil and gas reservoirs

9 Unmineable coal seams

10 Deep saline aquifers

11 Basalt formations

12 Planned and current locations of geological storage projects INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

13 Potential for Leakage INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

14 Leakage through abandoned wells

15 Trapping Mechanisms INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

16 Natural Analogues Basins with high CO 2 content. (Baines and Worden, 2004)

17 “MM&V” Measurement, Monitoring and Verification Example: EU’s CO2SINK project in Ketzin, Germany Example: Seismic monitoring at Sleipner

18 Peters’ research related to CO 2 sequestration Crandell, L.E., B. R. Ellis, J. Cheung, C. A. Peters. “Injection of CO2 and co-contaminant gases: Are separation costs justifiable?”, Seventh Annual Conference on Carbon Capture & Sequestration, Pittsburgh, PA. May Peters, C. A “Accessibilities of reactive minerals in consolidated sedimentary rock: A BSE imaging study of three sandstones.” Chemical Geology, submitted. Ellis, B. R., Peters, C. A., Buschkuehle, M “Formation Buffering Potential Pertaining to Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide”, EOS Trans. AGU, 88(52) Fall Meet. Suppl. Abstract U43C Li, L.; C. A. Peters; M. A. Celia "Applicability of Averaged Concentrations in Determining Geochemical Reaction Rates in Heterogeneous Porous Media", American Journal of Science. In Press. B.R. Ellis; K.M. Bowman; C.A. Peters; M. Buschkuehle "Consideration of formation buffering potential and reactive mineral availability pertaining to geological storage of carbon dioxide" Goldschmidt Cologne Germany. Download PDF of posterDownload PDF of poster D. Kavetski; C.A. Peters; M.A. Celia; B. Lindquist "Upscaling reaction rate laws in geochemical reactive transport using pore-scale network models" Goldschmidt Cologne Germany. Download PDF of posterDownload PDF of poster Li, L.; C. A. Peters; M. A. Celia "Effects of mineral spatial distribution on reaction rates in porous media" Water Resources Research 43, W01419, doi: /2005WR Download reprint. Download reprint Li, L.; C. A. Peters; M. A. Celia "Reply to 'Comment on upscaling geochemical reaction rates using pore-scale network modeling' by Peter C. Lichtner and Qinjun Kang", Advances in Water Resources, 30: Li, L.; C. A. Peters; M. A. Celia "Upscaling Geochemical Reaction Rates Using Pore- Scale Network Modeling." Advances in Water Resources, 29: Download reprintDownload reprint Giammar, D. E.; R. G. Bruant, Jr.; and C. A. Peters "Forsterite Dissolution and Magnesite Precipitation at Conditions Relevant for Deep Saline Aquifer Storage and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide", Chemical Geology: 217: Bruant, R. G. Jr.; Guswa, A. J.; Celia, M. A.; Peters, C. A. "Safe Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Deep Saline Aquifers", Feature article in Environmental Science and Technology. 36(11):240A-245A, Download Reprint.Download Reprint. Research funding from U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER15636.

19 Research phase Demonstration phase Economically feasible under specific conditions Mature market Maturity of component technologies Ocean storage Mineral carbonation Industrial utilization Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Saline formations Gas and oil fields Enhanced Oil Recovery Transport Post-combustion Pre-combustion Oxyfuel combustion Industrial separation INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

20 Thank you!

21 Backup slides

22 Ocean storage INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

23 M (II) CO 3 CO 3 2- M (II) Al x Si y O z M (II) CO 3 M 2+ H+H+ H+H+ CaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 (s) Ca 2+ Mg 5 Al 2 Si 3 O 10 (OH) 8 (s) Mg 2+ CaCO 3 (s) Ca 2+ Mg 2+ + CO 3 = MgCO 3 (s)

24 Changes in porosity and permeability Source: J. W. Johnson et al. 2004

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