# Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)

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Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)
How Do You Measure ENERGY EXPENDITURE?

Metabolic Rate in Various Conditions
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Minimum energy required to sustain life (Measured when Waking State with No Food & No Movement) Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) Combination of… Basal Metabolism (waking state) Sleeping Metabolism Arousal Metabolism Exercise Metabolic Rate Metabolism during Exercise + RMR

How Do You Measure Metabolic Rate?
Substrate (CHO or Fat) + O2 + Energy (ATP)    CO2 + H2O + Energy (ATP) + Heat Method #2 INDIRECT CALORIMETRY Method #1 DIRECT CALORIMETRY

Method #1 DIRECT CALORIMETRY
Total Energy from Metabolism... ~40%  ATP ~60%  Heat So… if you measure your body’s heat production, you can estimate energy production!

DIRECT CALORIMETRY How Does It Work?
Insulated Chamber Heat Exchanger Water flow in the heat exchanger The difference in the temperature of water entering and leaving the chamber reflects the person’s heat production.

DIRECT CALORIMETRY Problems
Expensive Not applicable in most activities Highly impractical for large-scale studies Very few pieces of equipment in nation So…Method #2 

Method #2 INDIRECT CALORIMETRY
Complete Combustion of Food IS Achieved at the Expense of O2 Molecules. So… if you measure your oxygen uptake, you can estimate energy production!

INDIRECT CALORIMETRY How Does It Work?
Oxygen Uptake = (VO2 IN) – (VO2 OUT) O2 Inspired O2 Expired

INDIRECT CALORIMETRY Haldane Transformation
Assumptions Ambient Air FIO2 = 20.93% = FIN2 = 79.04% = FICO2 = 0.03% ~ 0 (ignore it) FIN2 + FIO2 = 1 FEN2 + FEO2 + FECO2 = 1 VI*FIN2 = VE*FEN2 (N2 is inert gas)

INDIRECT CALORIMETRY Haldane Transformation
VO2 = (VI*FIO2) – (VE*FEO2) VI*FIN2 = VE*FEN2 VE*FEN2 FIN2 VE* [1 – (FECO2 + FEO2)] 1 – (FECO2 + FEO2) 0.7904 VI = VI = VO2 = VE X – FEO2

Respiratory Quotient (RQ)
CO2 produced O2 consumed Each substrate has its own RQ value. (carbohydrates (1.0) vs fatty acids (0.7)?) RQ = At the CELL

RQ for CHO and FAT Carbohydrate (Glucose): Fat (Palmitic Acid):
C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy RQ = 6CO2 / 6O2 = 1.00 Fat (Palmitic Acid): C16H32O2 + 23O2  16CO2 + 16H2O + Energy RQ = 16CO2 / 23O2 = 0.70

What about Protein? Protein is metabolized as either fat or carbohydrate and is therefore difficult to separate from the other two Protein consumption is a small percentage of total metabolism during normal conditions and can be ignored

Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER)
CO2 produced O2 consumed Actual gas exchange (RER) at the lungs can be greater or less than the RQ at the cell. It can range from slightly below 0.7 all the way to around 1.5 (lots of non-metabolic CO2) (hyperventilation vs hypoventilation?) RER = At the LUNGS

How Do You Use RQ or RER? Assuming RQ = RER, you can estimate
the energy produced per liter of O2. e.g. RQ = 0.85  4.86 kcal/LO2 (Utilizing 50.7% CHO & 49.3% Fat)  Table 4.4

Comparing RMR Absolute Oxygen Uptake (in LO2/min)
more muscle mass  higher absolute VO2 Not able to compare 300 lbs football player and 130 lbs X-country runner Relative Oxygen Uptake (in mlO2/kg/min) Eliminates some of the differences in muscle mass by using body mass (body composition is unaccounted for)

Metabolic Equivalent (MET)
A MET is defined as a multiple of the Resting Metabolic Rate. e.g. If RMR (1 MET) = 3.6 mlO2/kg/min, Work requires 7.2 mlO2/kg/min of O2 uptake = 2 METS (# of METS in different activities?)

STPD Correction Factor
Volume of Gas expressed under Standard Conditions of Temperature (273K or 0°C) Pressure (760 mmHg or 1 atm) Dry (no water vapor) 273K PBAR – PH2O 273K + TA (in °C) mmHg (hot, wet condition vs cold, dry condition?) STPDCF = X