Presentation on theme: "Sesto Avolio (IVPC Eolica s.r.l. – ANEV). After coming into effect of the Kyoto Protocol it has become more and more evident the inadequacy of the measures."— Presentation transcript:
After coming into effect of the Kyoto Protocol it has become more and more evident the inadequacy of the measures adopted by the Italian governments in order to respect the goals that, as a Country, we have obliged ourselves to reach. In order to do some clarity, we will determine in an independent way how much CO 2 is emitted for each kWh of electric energy produced with the traditional thermoelectric plants; we will do it by utilizing official data, widely available and with a minimum of interpretation. In particular, we will avail of the Specific Emission Coefficients indicated in the National Plan of Assignment (the document prepared by the Italian government in order to comply with the Directive 2003/87/CE of the European Union), e of the Statistical data about electric Energy in Italy 2003 published by GRTN.
The adopted methodology is very simple and thus repeatable: First of all we have identified the quantity of CO 2 emitted for every kWh produced by means of the various types of fuel utilized in the production plants, and the quantity of energy produced with them.
Specific emission coefficients (gr CO 2 /kWh gross). Existing plants minavemax Solids ( 1 ) 913 Natural Gas 396 458 579 Derived Gas ( 2 ) 1 276 2 755 4 801 Oil and derived 726 1 050 1 531 Other gaseous fuels 555 1 172 1 521 Other solid fuels 1 115 1 435 1 577 Font:Directive 2003/87/CE - National Plan of Assignment Integration of 24 february 2005 ( 1 )Solids: coal, lignite ( 2 )Derived Gas: gas from oxygen steelworks, gas from smelting furnace, cokery gas
The level of emission varies with the plant typology. The average has been computed utilizing for each typology the indicated number of operation hours (h*k,2005)
Production of conventional thermoelectric energy in Italy in 2003 (GWh) 2003 quote grossnet (net) Solids38 813.335 456.815.5% Natural Gas117 301.0112 945.049.3% Derived Gas5 303.65 113.32.2% Oil and derived65 771.061 500.826.8% Other gaseous fuels1 115.51 066.10.5% Other solid fuels 13 591.613 118.15.7% Total241 896.0229 200.1100.0% Self consumptions 5.54% Font:Statistical data about electric Energy in Italy 2003 (GRTN)
Emissions of CO2 due to the production of thermoelectric energy A simple multiplication gives the CO 2 quantity overall emitted: gr CO2/kWh grossMton of CO2 Solids 913 35.418.3% Natural Gas 458 53.727.7% Derived Gas 2 755 14.67.5% Oil and derived 1 050 69.135.7% Other gaseous fuels 1 172 1.30.7% Other solid fuels 1 435 19.510.1% Total 193.64100.0%
Dividing this quantity by the number of kWh produced we get the per-unit emissions, grams of carbon dioxide introduced in the atmosphere for every kWh produced in Italy by the thermoelectric plants. To complete the process, we need to introduce two corrections: not all the produced electric energy goes into the network: an important part (more than 5,5%) is in fact utilized by the production plants themselves – the so-called self- consumptions – to allow their operation; 6,5% of the energy given to the network doesn’t arrive to consumers: these are the losses in the transmission and in the distribution of the energy. We omit to consider the energy utilized for the so-called pumping, that we assimilate to a smaller production of hydroelectric energy.
Losses in the transmission and distribution network GWh Request 320 658.4 Network losses 20 869.86.51% Consumptions 299 788.6 Font: Statistical data about electric energy in Italy 2003 (GRTN)
Present emissions of CO 2 800.5gr/kWh gross produced 844.8gr/kWh net produced 903.6gr/kWh to consumer So we get the emissions reported in the side table: 845 grams of CO2 for every kWh introduced into the transmission network, 904 grams for every kWh arriving to the final user.