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CO 2 : valuable source of carbon Coordinator of the Working Group “Carbon Capture and Storage“ Italian Association Chemical Engineering (AIDIC) Ezio Nicola.

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Presentation on theme: "CO 2 : valuable source of carbon Coordinator of the Working Group “Carbon Capture and Storage“ Italian Association Chemical Engineering (AIDIC) Ezio Nicola."— Presentation transcript:

1 CO 2 : valuable source of carbon Coordinator of the Working Group “Carbon Capture and Storage“ Italian Association Chemical Engineering (AIDIC) Ezio Nicola D’Addario April 16th, 2012 Rome – Campus Bio-Medico University SUSTAINABILITY IN CARBON CAPTURE AND UTILIZATION

2 1.Main Options of Carbon Capture and Utilization 2.Direct Use of Solar Energy: photosynthesis, microalgae 3.Sustainability and Life Cycle Analysis 4.Biodiesel from Microalgae, Different LCA Literature Case Studies 5.Concluding Remarks AGENDA 2

3 USES OF CARBON DIOXIDE ESTIMATED EMISSIONS REDUCTION Gt CO 2 /y 1 2°, 3° Generation biofuel 0.4* Building Material1.6** Chemical Feedstocks and Intermediates 0.3 EOR1.4 TOTAL 3,7 *** 1.DNV position paper , * 5% liquid fuel replacement 50% CO2 saving, ** 10 % global building material demand, *** 10 % total annual current emission

4 CCU and RESOURCES REQUIREMENT PROS: Revenues from captured CO 2 CONS: Rather new compared to CCS, CO2 scarcely reactive, energy requirements to be determined DNV position paper

5 DIRECT USE OF SOLAR RADIATION DIFFUSE CO 2 SOURCES Traffic, Residential, SME LARGE CO 2 STATIONARY SOURCES PG, Oil and Heavy Industry ENERGY& CHEMICALSENERGY& CHEMICALS TRANSPORTATION DISTRIBUTION CO 2 CAPTURE TERRESTRIAL, AQUATIC PLANT and MACROALGAE MICROALGAE PHOTOSYNTHESYS Cellulose, Hemicellulose, Lignin Lipids, Carbohydrates, Protein

6 EXAMPLES OF HIGH PRODUCTIVITY BIOMASS M. Tredici. Symposium “ I Biocarburanti di seconda e terza generazione” Roma 14 April 2011 Biomass communityLocation Yield (t d.w. ha -1 y -1 ) Photosynthetic efficiency (%) Hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) (C3) Minnesota Water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) Mississippi11 – 33 (>150) Switch grass (Panicum virgatum) (C4) Texas Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) (C4) Texas-California Coniferous forest England341.8 Maize (Zea mays) (C4) Israel340.8 Tree plantation Congo361.0 Tropical forest West Indies601.6 Algae Different locations Sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) Hawaii-Java Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) Hawaii, Puerto Rico

7 SUSTAINABILITY AND LCA I. Gavilan, BP Sustainability in biofuel, 2008

8 MAIN IMPACT CATEGORIES GLOBAL Soil and groundwater contamination LOCAL Toxic emissions Noise Elettromagnetic pollution REGIONAL Greenhouse Gas Effect Depletion of ozone layer Depletion of no renewable resources Acid rain Water euthrophication Visual pollution Land Use Change Photochemical oxidant formation

9 MAIN LCA INDICATORS CO 2 ; CH 4 ; N 2 0… [grams, g i ] GHG Effect (100 years) [ g CO2 eq] GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL Σ GWP i * g i GAS i GWP 100 g CO 2 eq/g i CO 2 1 CH 4 23 N20N20296 Halon Carbon tetrafluoride 6500

10 Dry extraction: feasible, Wet extraction: to be checked, consumptions proportional to inlet TYPICAL DIAGRAM FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM MICROALGAE L. Lardon et al. Environmental Science & Technology, 43, 17, *100*0.3 m Concrete PVC 0.25 m/s Washing water (each 2 months) Water from dewatering 22.2 Wh/kg CO 2 50 MW Coal Power Station, dehydration and compression 1000 ha ponds

11 L. Lardon et al. Environmental Science & Technology, 43, 17, 2009 CULTIVATION OF Chlorella vulgaris BASIC DATA Lipid content, growth rate and productivity in the range of typical literature sources Protein content much lower in low Nitrogen cultures Lower productivity showed by low N cultures balanced by their higher heating value (photosynthetic efficiency almost the same) Lipid content, growth rate and productivity in the range of typical literature sources Protein content much lower in low Nitrogen cultures Lower productivity showed by low N cultures balanced by their higher heating value (photosynthetic efficiency almost the same)

12 Lower mass downstream efficiency implies higher biomass production for wet cultures which requires higher energy and fertilizer in comparison to dry cultivation All configurations, except low N wet, have high energetic requirements compared to energy in the biofuel (37.8 MJ/kg) Overall balance negative only for normal dry option Lower mass downstream efficiency implies higher biomass production for wet cultures which requires higher energy and fertilizer in comparison to dry cultivation All configurations, except low N wet, have high energetic requirements compared to energy in the biofuel (37.8 MJ/kg) Overall balance negative only for normal dry option CULTIVATION OF Chlorella v. PRELIMINARY INVENTORY Base 1 Kg Biodiesel L. Lardon et al. Environmental Science & Technology, 43, 17, 2009

13 CUMULATIVE ENERGY DEMAND Chlorella v. Base 1 MJ Biodiesel Cumulative Energy Demand: Ecoinvent data base, Electricity produced with the European mix, Heat produced with natural gas, Buildings 30-year lifespan then dismantled and concrete landfilled, steel based materials and plastics recycled, Electrical engines changed every 10 years Low N wet confirms the most favorable option (higher fertilizers and cultivation requirements not compensated by lower drying energy of low N dry) L. Lardon et al. Environmental Science & Technology, 43, 17, 2009

14 POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF BIODIESEL AND PETROLEUM DIESEL Base 1 MJ Fuel Assessment carried out by using the CML method *, Reference fuel: Ecoinvent database, Rapeseed Europe, Palm Oil Malaysia, Soybean USA, Byproducts emissions allocated on the base of energy content Algae show: very low impacts for eutrophication (better control of fertilizers) and land use (higher biomass productivity), worst impacts for GWP (except soybean), mineral resource, ozone depletion, ionizing radiation and photochemical oxidation (higher use of fertilizers and electricity including 30 % nuclear) GHG reduction (58,7 g CO 2 eq / MJ) in line with current EU targets (54.5 g CO 2 eq / MJ), but lower than 2017 EU targets (41. 9 for exiting plants, and 33.5 g CO 2 eq / MJ for new plants) * Guine´e, J. B. Handbook on Life Cycle Assessment Springer: New York, 2002 EU ref value: 83,8 gCO 2 eq / MJ

15 COMPARISON OF LIFE CYCLE ENERGY DEMAND MJ/MJ Biodiesel Lardon, 2009 low N dry case 2.32 MJ H. H. Khoo et al Bioresource Technology 102 (2011) 5800–5807 R. Baliga and Susan E. Powers. Sustainable Algae Biodiesel Production in Cold Climates. International Journal of Chemical Engineering Volume 2010, Article ID Algae biodiesel production in New York State (USA) based on life cycle energy and environmental impact parameters. Upstate NY was chosen as a challenging case for algae biodiesel production due to shorter days and cold temperatures during winter months.

16 RECENT STUDIES Edward D Frank, et al. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions affect the life-cycle analysis of algal biofuels. Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) Article ID Accepted for publication 20 February 2012 Published 13 March 2012 Parameters included in the sensitivity: lipid content: 12, 25, 50 %, Productivity:12.5, 25, 50 g/m2/d, CHP electrical efficiency: 28, 33, 38 %, Mixing Power: 2, 48, 83 kWh/ha/d, …

17 CONCLUDING REMARKS LCA case studies biodiesel production from microalgae confirm that environmental impacts depend on process and technology aspects as well as on energy supply options, location and possible scenarios Helpful inputs for research still going on this subject could derive from preliminary LCA including indicators related to the depletion of non renewable resources and climate change as well as to water eutrophication, land requirements, toxicity (human and marine), etc. These conclusions suggest that environmental aspects should be integrated in any technical economical studies usually carried out to compare different CCU research options LCA appears an useful tools usable at this purpose

18 Thank you for your attention FOR MORE INFORMATION Name Surname: Ezio Nicola D’Addario Job Title: Freelancer Contact:


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