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Presented at All India Seminar On Energy Management Through Renewable Sources and Efficient technologies Institution of Engineers, Madhya Pradesh State.

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Presentation on theme: "Presented at All India Seminar On Energy Management Through Renewable Sources and Efficient technologies Institution of Engineers, Madhya Pradesh State."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presented at All India Seminar On Energy Management Through Renewable Sources and Efficient technologies Institution of Engineers, Madhya Pradesh State Centre, Bhopal, 08-09 th Jan, 2011 MICRO –ALGAE AS A SOURCE OF BIO DIESEL: CHALLENGES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS K.Sudhakar Assistant professor, Energy Department, MANIT, Bhopal-462007, MP,India Dr. S. Suresh Assistant Professor, Department of Chemical Engg., MANIT, Bhopal-462007, MP, India Dr. (Mrs) M. Premalatha Associate Professor, CEESAT, NIT Trichi, TN, India

2 ‘Climate change poses a great challenge to our development prospects…....we need global response, a national response and a local response’ ------- Hon. Dr. Manmohan Singh

3 Concerns for Global warming- Current Assessment IPCC Assessment First Report - 1990 Second Report - 1995 Third Report - 2001 Fourth Report - 2007 Average global temperature increase 1906-2005 – 0.74 o C Expected Temperature rise up to the Year 2100 2.4 to 6.4 o C Expected Sea Level rise 18 to 59 cm

4 Major and Minor Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potential Major greenhouse gas concentrations of CO2, NOx, CFCs, Methane have increased 20-30% since pre- industrial era

5 o The Energy generating plants contributes mostly to increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. o CO 2 concentration increased from 280 ppm to 390 ppm in the present o Average global temperature increase by 1.5-5 degree.

6 Coping with Global Warming Air interaction Greenhouse Gases Earth Interactions Global Warming Climate Change Impacts -Adaptation Mitigation Strategy Crop Productivity Frequent Disasters Water Scarcity Vector borne diseases Renewable sources Energy Efficiency Clean Coal Technology CCS EFFECTCAUSE

7 The World’s Energy Resources Are Limited!

8 –High Growth rate –Minimal resource requirement –High Photosynthetic efficiency –Up to 70% of algae biomass is usable oils –does not compete for land and space with other agricultural crops –can survive in water of high salt content Why Micro-algae?

9 Algae Growing Methods : What is needed Sunlight CO 2 Nutrients Storage of Energy Lipids and oils Carbohydrates Other Dependent parameters: Temperature, pH (Physical factors) Pathogen,predation, competition (Biotic factors)

10 Micro algaeOil content (% dry weight) Botryococcus braunii25-75 Chlorella sp28-32 Crpthecodinium cohnii20 Cylindrotheca sp16-37 Dunalielia primolecta23 Isochryais sp25-33 Monallanthus salina>20 Nannochloris sp20-35 Nannochloropsis sp31-68 Neochloris oleoabundans35-54 Nitzschina sp45-47 Schiochytrium sp50-77 Tetraseknus sueica15-23 Algae Species and Typical oil content

11 Algae Open Pond

12 Algae Photo bioreactor

13 Algae cultivation

14 ParameterOpen pondClosed photo bioreactor ConstructionSimpleMore complicated- varies by design CostCheaper to construct, operate More expensive construction, operation Water lossesHighLow Typical biomass concentration Low, 0.1-0.2 g/LHigh: 2-8 g/L Temperature controlDifficultEasily controlled Species controlDifficultSimple ContaminationHigh riskLow risk Light utilizationPoorVery high C02 losses to atmosphereHighAlmost none Typical Growth rate(g/m2- day) Low:10-25Variable:1-500 Area requirementLargeSmall Depth/diameter of water0.3m0.1m Surface: volume ratio~660-400 Open Pond & Photo Bioreactor

15 Power Plant / Energy Source Flue Gases NOx + CO 2 from combustion flue gas emissions Algal Biotechnology Cleaned Gases Photo bioreactor Algal Biotechnology Converts Flue Gases & Sunlight into Biofuels through Photosynthesis “Used” Algae have Multiple Potential Uses Sunlight Co-Firing Fermentation Esterification Drying Green Power Biodiesel Ethanol Protein Meal Overview of micro-algae technology for carbon sequestration and bio-diesel production

16 Fuel Carbon (60%) Day Time Carbon Emissions (50%) Flue Carbon (100 %) Fuel Carbon (100%) Open Cycle Carbon Closed Cycle Carbon Management Closed Cycle Biomass Carbon Management Clean Gases Algae Biomass as Fuel Source (40% Fuel Carbon) Night Time Carbon Emissions (50%)

17 Algae growth and harvesting process

18 INITIAL PLAN OF WORK Laboratory Phase: Techniques presently in use will be tested & optimized in laboratory, and most feasible techniques will be identified for the available conditions Testing Phase: Techniques identified in the lab will be scaled up to the semi-pilot scales, exposed to environmental conditions present and Improvements will be made as required Utilisation Phase: The process identified will be used to produce Bio-Diesel

19 Open pond for algae cultivationSpectrophotometer Magnetic StirrerpH Measurement device

20 Gas chromatographyAlgae Strains Laminar Flow chamber

21 Limits to productivity of Microalgae Physical factors such as light (quality and quantity), temperature, nutrient, pH, O 2 and CO 2 Biotic factors including pathogens, predation and competition by other algae, and Operational factors such as: shear produced by mixing, dilution rate, depth and harvest frequency

22 Physical factors Climate –Cold weather reduces algae oil production –Optimum temperature: 25-29 0 C Nutrients –Nitrogen & phosphorus: 0.8% and 0.6% of volume of pond Light –High pressure sodium & Metal halide lamp CO 2 –Optimum supply of CO 2 during day time

23 Algae harvesting Microfiltration Centrifugation Flocculation Sonochemical Solvent Extraction and others.

24 Table. Theoretical estimation of biodiesel from algae Yield/day (g dry weight/day)60 40% oil content (g/day)24 Oil content can go up if growth conditions optimize Volume of Oil (ml/day)26.6 Density = 0.9g/mL Volume of Biodiesel (ml/day)26.6 Assumed 1:1 ratio between oil content and diesel Volume of Biodiesel (gal/day)0.0075

25 Small scale production of biodiesel Combine 4 g NaOH (Lye) with 250 ml CH 3 OH (Methanol) to form CH 3 O - (Methoxide). Mix until NaOH is completely dissolved in CH 3 OH (approx.1 min). Combine CH 3 O - with warm (60˚C) oil. Thoroughly agitate (roughly 5-10 min) Allow resulting mixture to settle into layers (roughly 8 hours until fully settled)

26 1L of diesel = 2.67 Kg of CO 2 Ref: Biodiesel reduces net emissions of CO 2 by 78.45% Ref:NREL/SR-580-24089 UC Category 1503 1L of Biodiesel will save 2.09 Kg of CO 2 100 Mega L of Biodiesel will save 209 Kt of CO 2 1L of diesel = 2.67 Kg of CO 2 Ref: 1L of Biodiesel = 0.58 Kg of CO 2 Ref: Algae Biodiesel Carbon Credits

27 Summary Micro-algae biodiesel is a newly-emerging field Algae is a very efficient means of producing biodiesel and oil production from algae farms is feasible and scalable By coupling algae production with a CO 2 pollution control process, the economic viability of micro algal based biodiesel is significantly improved Genetic Engineering and advancement in the design of bioreactor can improve the productivity of micro- algae Further research necessary for economic production of biodiesel from algae.


29 A N Y Q U E S T I O N S ?

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