Presentation on theme: "Presented at All India Seminar On Energy Management Through Renewable Sources and Efficient technologies Institution of Engineers, Madhya Pradesh State."— Presentation transcript:
Presented at All India Seminar On Energy Management Through Renewable Sources and Efficient technologies Institution of Engineers, Madhya Pradesh State Centre, Bhopal, 08-09 th Jan, 2011 MICRO –ALGAE AS A SOURCE OF BIO DIESEL: CHALLENGES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS K.Sudhakar Assistant professor, Energy Department, MANIT, Bhopal-462007, MP,India Dr. S. Suresh Assistant Professor, Department of Chemical Engg., MANIT, Bhopal-462007, MP, India Dr. (Mrs) M. Premalatha Associate Professor, CEESAT, NIT Trichi, TN, India
‘Climate change poses a great challenge to our development prospects…....we need global response, a national response and a local response’ ------- Hon. Dr. Manmohan Singh
Concerns for Global warming- Current Assessment IPCC Assessment First Report - 1990 Second Report - 1995 Third Report - 2001 Fourth Report - 2007 Average global temperature increase 1906-2005 – 0.74 o C Expected Temperature rise up to the Year 2100 2.4 to 6.4 o C Expected Sea Level rise 18 to 59 cm
Major and Minor Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potential Major greenhouse gas concentrations of CO2, NOx, CFCs, Methane have increased 20-30% since pre- industrial era
o The Energy generating plants contributes mostly to increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. o CO 2 concentration increased from 280 ppm to 390 ppm in the present o Average global temperature increase by 1.5-5 degree.
Coping with Global Warming Air interaction Greenhouse Gases Earth Interactions Global Warming Climate Change Impacts -Adaptation Mitigation Strategy Crop Productivity Frequent Disasters Water Scarcity Vector borne diseases Renewable sources Energy Efficiency Clean Coal Technology CCS EFFECTCAUSE
–High Growth rate –Minimal resource requirement –High Photosynthetic efficiency –Up to 70% of algae biomass is usable oils –does not compete for land and space with other agricultural crops –can survive in water of high salt content Why Micro-algae?
Algae Growing Methods : What is needed Sunlight CO 2 Nutrients Storage of Energy Lipids and oils Carbohydrates Other Dependent parameters: Temperature, pH (Physical factors) Pathogen,predation, competition (Biotic factors)
ParameterOpen pondClosed photo bioreactor ConstructionSimpleMore complicated- varies by design CostCheaper to construct, operate More expensive construction, operation Water lossesHighLow Typical biomass concentration Low, 0.1-0.2 g/LHigh: 2-8 g/L Temperature controlDifficultEasily controlled Species controlDifficultSimple ContaminationHigh riskLow risk Light utilizationPoorVery high C02 losses to atmosphereHighAlmost none Typical Growth rate(g/m2- day) Low:10-25Variable:1-500 Area requirementLargeSmall Depth/diameter of water0.3m0.1m Surface: volume ratio~660-400 Open Pond & Photo Bioreactor
Power Plant / Energy Source Flue Gases NOx + CO 2 from combustion flue gas emissions Algal Biotechnology Cleaned Gases Photo bioreactor Algal Biotechnology Converts Flue Gases & Sunlight into Biofuels through Photosynthesis “Used” Algae have Multiple Potential Uses Sunlight Co-Firing Fermentation Esterification Drying Green Power Biodiesel Ethanol Protein Meal Overview of micro-algae technology for carbon sequestration and bio-diesel production
Fuel Carbon (60%) Day Time Carbon Emissions (50%) Flue Carbon (100 %) Fuel Carbon (100%) Open Cycle Carbon Closed Cycle Carbon Management Closed Cycle Biomass Carbon Management Clean Gases Algae Biomass as Fuel Source (40% Fuel Carbon) Night Time Carbon Emissions (50%)
INITIAL PLAN OF WORK Laboratory Phase: Techniques presently in use will be tested & optimized in laboratory, and most feasible techniques will be identified for the available conditions Testing Phase: Techniques identified in the lab will be scaled up to the semi-pilot scales, exposed to environmental conditions present and Improvements will be made as required Utilisation Phase: The process identified will be used to produce Bio-Diesel
Open pond for algae cultivationSpectrophotometer Magnetic StirrerpH Measurement device
Gas chromatographyAlgae Strains Laminar Flow chamber
Limits to productivity of Microalgae Physical factors such as light (quality and quantity), temperature, nutrient, pH, O 2 and CO 2 Biotic factors including pathogens, predation and competition by other algae, and Operational factors such as: shear produced by mixing, dilution rate, depth and harvest frequency
Physical factors Climate –Cold weather reduces algae oil production –Optimum temperature: 25-29 0 C Nutrients –Nitrogen & phosphorus: 0.8% and 0.6% of volume of pond Light –High pressure sodium & Metal halide lamp CO 2 –Optimum supply of CO 2 during day time
Table. Theoretical estimation of biodiesel from algae Yield/day (g dry weight/day)60 40% oil content (g/day)24 Oil content can go up if growth conditions optimize Volume of Oil (ml/day)26.6 Density = 0.9g/mL Volume of Biodiesel (ml/day)26.6 Assumed 1:1 ratio between oil content and diesel Volume of Biodiesel (gal/day)0.0075
Small scale production of biodiesel Combine 4 g NaOH (Lye) with 250 ml CH 3 OH (Methanol) to form CH 3 O - (Methoxide). Mix until NaOH is completely dissolved in CH 3 OH (approx.1 min). Combine CH 3 O - with warm (60˚C) oil. Thoroughly agitate (roughly 5-10 min) Allow resulting mixture to settle into layers (roughly 8 hours until fully settled)
1L of diesel = 2.67 Kg of CO 2 Ref: http://www.epa.gov/otaq/climate/420f05001.htmhttp://www.epa.gov/otaq/climate/420f05001.htm Biodiesel reduces net emissions of CO 2 by 78.45% Ref:NREL/SR-580-24089 UC Category 1503 1L of Biodiesel will save 2.09 Kg of CO 2 100 Mega L of Biodiesel will save 209 Kt of CO 2 1L of diesel = 2.67 Kg of CO 2 Ref: http://www.epa.gov/otaq/climate/420f05001.htm 1L of Biodiesel = 0.58 Kg of CO 2 Ref: http://www.epa.gov/otaq/climate/420f05001.htm Algae Biodiesel Carbon Credits
Summary Micro-algae biodiesel is a newly-emerging field Algae is a very efficient means of producing biodiesel and oil production from algae farms is feasible and scalable By coupling algae production with a CO 2 pollution control process, the economic viability of micro algal based biodiesel is significantly improved Genetic Engineering and advancement in the design of bioreactor can improve the productivity of micro- algae Further research necessary for economic production of biodiesel from algae.