5Capture ready plants Not well defined! Place & performance! Post-combustion most suitable for future “capture ready” plantsLarge steam extractions needed for regenerationMinimum pre-investment for steam turbine
7Amine Scrubbing Advantages Proven technology Known chemical process Ability to predict performance and solvent consumptionLimitationsHigh energy consumption for solvent regenerationHigh rate of process equipment corrosionHigh solvent losses due to fast evaporationHigh degradation in presence of oxygen
11Status No full scale plants in operation yet More research and development neededScaleable, flexible pilot plants for validation & verification
12Chilled Ammonia (1.6 C) Advantages Lower regeneration energy with HP regenerationLow-temp. CO2 absorption min. NH3 emissions.High CO2 absorption efficiency in bubbler absorber.Applicable for new plants and for retrofitCarbonates are stable over a wide range of temperatures & do not degrade during absorption-regenerationThe process uses low-grade waste heatPotential to capture 90% of CO2 emissions
13Chilled Ammonia Limitations Ammonia volatility can be an issue. The pH of the ammonia solvent does not allow for much carbonate formation.Slower absorption rate than MEA. Requires three times more packing to achieve the same CO2 removal performance. A number of absorber vessels are required, increasing capital cost and affecting plant layout.
14Status2 MWe field pilot to be operated at the Pleasant Prairie Power Plant, Wisconsin, USPilot plant under construction at Karlshamnsverket, Sweden
15Oxy-fuelAdvantagesExhaust gases consist of CO2 & H2O. Separation by condensation.Very low NOx emissionsEfficient O2 separation reduces efficiency penalty (AZEP, membrane)LimitationsExpensive air separation process with high energy demand (Cryogenic)New development of gas turbines neededCO2 recirculation for temp. controlCondensation process needs new equipment
16Status High oil prices provide a market for EOR An old GT (TIT 780C) will be modified (CO2 Global, Carl W. Hustad)Experiences to be transferred to modern GTsKMB-project in Stavanger (UiS & IRIS)