Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

CO2 capture and geological storage - state of the art, ongoing projects EC FP6 EU GEOCAPACITY CO2 EAST and prospects for the Baltic region.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "CO2 capture and geological storage - state of the art, ongoing projects EC FP6 EU GEOCAPACITY CO2 EAST and prospects for the Baltic region."— Presentation transcript:

1 CO2 capture and geological storage - state of the art, ongoing projects EC FP6 EU GEOCAPACITY CO2 EAST and prospects for the Baltic region

2 INTRODUCTION  CO2 capture and storage is a pioneer for Estonia research and applied area started by Institute of Geology, TUT in 2006 by two projects funded by 6th Framework Programme of European Comission  1) Assessing European Capacity for Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide ( ), 26 participants from 23 countries (EUGEOCAPACITY)  2) CO2 capture and storage networking extension to new member states ( ), 8 countries (CO2EAST)

3  Both projects were organised by ENeRG, the European Network for Research in Geo- energy, established in 1993 and represented by 24 countries 

4 Assessing European Capacity for Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide ( ), Euroopas süsinikdioksiidi geoloogilise ladustamisvõime hindamine ( )  1Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) – Co-ordinatorDenmark Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS)DenmarkGeological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS)Denmark  2Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski" (US)Bulgaria Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski" (US)BulgariaSofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski" (US)Bulgaria  3University of Zagreb - Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering (RGN)Croatia University of Zagreb - Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering (RGN)CroatiaUniversity of Zagreb - Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering (RGN)Croatia  4Czech Geological Survey (CGS)Czech Republic Czech Geological Survey (CGS)Czech RepublicCzech Geological Survey (CGS)Czech Republic  5Institute of Geology at Tallinn University of Technology (IGTUT)Estonia Institute of Geology at Tallinn University of Technology (IGTUT)EstoniaInstitute of Geology at Tallinn University of Technology (IGTUT)Estonia  6Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Miniéres (BRGM)France Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Miniéres (BRGM)FranceBureau de Recherches Géologiques et Miniéres (BRGM)France  7Institute Francais du Petrole (IFP)France Institute Francais du Petrole (IFP)FranceInstitute Francais du Petrole (IFP)France  8Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR)Germany Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR)GermanyBundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR)Germany  9Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration (IGME)Greece Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration (IGME)GreeceInstitute of Geology and Mineral Exploration (IGME)Greece  10Eötvös Loránd Geophysical Institute of Hungary (ELGI)Hungary Eötvös Loránd Geophysical Institute of Hungary (ELGI)HungaryEötvös Loránd Geophysical Institute of Hungary (ELGI)Hungary  11Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS)Italy Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS)ItalyIstituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS)Italy  12Latvian Environment, Geology & Meteorology Agency (LEGMA)Latvia Latvian Environment, Geology & Meteorology Agency (LEGMA)LatviaLatvian Environment, Geology & Meteorology Agency (LEGMA)Latvia  13Institute of Geology & Geography (IGG)Lithuania Institute of Geology & Geography (IGG)LithuaniaInstitute of Geology & Geography (IGG)Lithuania  14Geological Survey of the Netherlands (TNO-NITG)Netherlands Geological Survey of the Netherlands (TNO-NITG)NetherlandsGeological Survey of the Netherlands (TNO-NITG)Netherlands  15EcofysNetherlands EcofysNetherlandsEcofysNetherlands  16Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute - Polish Academy of Sciences (MEERI)Poland Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute - Polish Academy of Sciences (MEERI)PolandMineral and Energy Economy Research Institute - Polish Academy of Sciences (MEERI)Poland  17Geophysical Exploration Company (PBG)Poland Geophysical Exploration Company (PBG)PolandGeophysical Exploration Company (PBG)Poland  18National Institute of Marine Geology and Geo-ecology (GeoEcoMar)Romania National Institute of Marine Geology and Geo-ecology (GeoEcoMar)RomaniaNational Institute of Marine Geology and Geo-ecology (GeoEcoMar)Romania  19Dionýz Štúr State Geological Institute (SGUDS)Slovakia Dionýz Štúr State Geological Institute (SGUDS)SlovakiaDionýz Štúr State Geological Institute (SGUDS)Slovakia  20GEOINŽENIRING d.o.o. (GEO-INZ)Slovenia GEOINŽENIRING d.o.o. (GEO-INZ)SloveniaGEOINŽENIRING d.o.o. (GEO-INZ)Slovenia  21Instituto Geológico y Minero de Espana (IGME)Spain Instituto Geológico y Minero de Espana (IGME)SpainInstituto Geológico y Minero de Espana (IGME)Spain  22British Geological Survey (BGS)United Kíngdom  22British Geological Survey (BGS)United Kíngdom British Geological Survey (BGS)United KíngdomBritish Geological Survey (BGS)United Kíngdom  23EniTecnologie (Industry Partner)Italy EniTecnologieItalyEniTecnologieItaly  24Endesa Generación (Industry Partner)Spain Endesa GeneraciónSpainEndesa GeneraciónSpain  25Vattenfall AB (Industry Partner)Sweden/Poland  25Vattenfall AB (Industry Partner)Sweden/Poland Vattenfall ABSweden/PolandVattenfall ABSweden/Poland  26Tsinghua University (TU)P.R. China Tsinghua University (TU)P.R. ChinaTsinghua University (TU)P.R. China 

5 The objectives of the project To make an inventory and mapping of major CO2 emission point sources in 13 European countries (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain), and review of 4 neighbouring states: Albania, Macedonia (FYROM), Bosnia- Herzegovina, Luxemburg) as well as updates for 5 other countries (Germany, Denmark, UK, France, Greece) To make an inventory and mapping of major CO2 emission point sources in 13 European countries (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain), and review of 4 neighbouring states: Albania, Macedonia (FYROM), Bosnia- Herzegovina, Luxemburg) as well as updates for 5 other countries (Germany, Denmark, UK, France, Greece) conduct assessment of regional and local potential for geological storage of CO2 for each of the involved countries conduct assessment of regional and local potential for geological storage of CO2 for each of the involved countries carry out analyses of source-transport-sink scenarios and conduct economical evaluations of these scenarios carry out analyses of source-transport-sink scenarios and conduct economical evaluations of these scenarios provide consistent and clear guidelines for assessment of geological capacity in Europe and elsewhere provide consistent and clear guidelines for assessment of geological capacity in Europe and elsewhere further develop mapping and analysis methodologies (i.e. GIS and Decision Support System) further develop mapping and analysis methodologies (i.e. GIS and Decision Support System) develop technical site selection criteria develop technical site selection criteria initiate international collaborative activities with the P.R. China, a CSLF member, with a view to further and closer joint activities initiate international collaborative activities with the P.R. China, a CSLF member, with a view to further and closer joint activities

6 CO2 capture and storage networking extension to new member states ( ) CO2 hoidlate võrgu laiendamine uutele liikmesriikidele No.Participant organisation nameCountry 1Czech Geological Survey (CGS)Czech Republic 2University of Zagreb - Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering (RGN) Croatia 3Eötvös Loránd Geophysical Institute of Hungary (ELGI)Hungary 4Dionýz Štúr State Geological Institute (SGUDS)Slovakia 5Institute of Geology, Tallinn University of Technology (IGTUT) Estonia 6Geophysical Exploration Company (PBG)Poland 7National Institute for Marine Geology and Geoecology (GeoEcoMar) Romania 8StatoilNorway

7 The detailed objectives of the project are:  Provide membership support to new CO2NET member organisations from EU new Member States and Associated Candidate Countries by covering their annual membership fees and travel costs to the CO2NET Annual Seminars and enable them active participation in networking activities  Co-organise one of the CO2NET Annual Seminars and organise 2 regional workshops in new Member States and/or Associated Candidate Countries  Disseminate knowledge and increase awareness of CO2 capture and storage technologies in new Member States and Associated Candidate Countries  Establish links among CCS stakeholders in new Member States and Associated Candidate Countries and between them and their partners in other EU countries using the existing networks like CO2NET and ENeRG (European Network for Research in Geo- Energy) as well as links with the newly established Technology Platform for Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Plants

8  Participants from Institute of Geogy, TUT  A. Shogenova (coordination, data presentation, publication and reporting)  K. Shogenov  J. Ivask (WEB-master)  R.Vaher, A. Teedumäe (interpreters)  A. Raukas – information dissemination in government and mass-media

9 CO2NET Lectures on Carbon Capture and Storage 1.Climate Change, Sustainability and CCS 2.CO 2 sources and capture 3.Storage, risk assessment and monitoring 4.Economics 5.Legal aspects and public acceptance Prepared by Utrecht Centre for Energy research

10 Sustainable development  People (Social dimension)  Profit (Economic dimension)  Planet (Ecological dimension) “a development that fulfills the needs of the present generation without endangering the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (“Our Common Future”, 1987) Dimensions of ‘sustainable development’

11 source: IPCC, Working Group I “There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities.”

12 Rule of thumb Warming rate 1°C / century corresponds to:  ± 20 cm sea level rise  ± 100 km shift of climate zone / century  ± 150 m upward shift alpine climate zone/century

13 Alpine glacier in 1900 Same place present

14 International agreements preventing "dangerous" human interference with the climate system. (UNFCCC, 1992) First step Kyoto: binding targets for industrialised world. (EU -8%, VS -7%, Japan -6% in compared to 1990)

15 Origin of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions World annual emissions: 8 Gt C / year, or 30 Gt CO 2 / year 6,3 Gt C /an (ou 23 Gt CO2 /an) 1,6 Gt C /an Land use (deforestation,...) Energy (fossil fuels) 1,6 Gt C / year 6,3 Gt C / year (or 23 Gt CO 2 / year) Prepared by Utrecht Centre for Energy research

16 CO 2 fluxes between Earth and atmosphere (in billion tons of carbon per year)

17 Options that can meet demands 1.Energy conservation, energy efficiency 2.Renewable sources –Wind –Solar –Biomass –Tidal/wave –Geothermal 3.(New) fossil fuels with CCS 4.Nuclear

18 Why CO 2 Capture and Storage?  Third option for CO 2 emission reduction.  Enables continued use of fossil fuel resources  Potential for large CO 2 storage/disposal capacity.  Technology is available.  Costs CCS are significant, but can be reduced.  Environmental impact can be limited; further research required.

19 Conclusion CCS is the third choice

20 CO2NET Lectures on Carbon Capture and Storage 1.Climate Change, Sustainability and CCS 2.CO 2 sources and capture 3.Storage, risk assessment and monitoring 4.Economics 5.Legal aspects and public acceptance Prepared by Utrecht Centre for Energy research

21 Contents lecture 2: CO 2 sources and capture  CO 2 sources  CO 2 capture/decarbonisation routes  Separation principles  CO 2 capture technologies in power cycles + consequences on the power cycle  Comparison of different CO 2 capture technologies  CO 2 transport

22 CO 2 emissions industry and power Source: IEA GHG 2002a Total: Gt/y in 2000.

23 CO 2 emissions by region Source: IEA GHG 2002a

24 CO 2 source distribution Source: IEA GHG 2002b

25 CO 2 sources and capture  CO 2 capture targets: large, stationary plants.  Power production –Large sources, representing large share total emissions  Industrial processes –Large sources, some emitting pure CO 2  Synthetic fuel production (Fischer-Trops gasoline/diesel, Dimethyl ether (DME), methanol, ethanol) –Target sources in future?

26 Power plants  Pulverised coal plants (PC)  Natural gas combined cycle (NGCC)  Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC)  Boilers fuelled with natural gas, oil, biomass and lignite  Future: fuel cells

27 CO 2 capture routes: summary  Post-combustion capture: separation CO 2 -N 2  Pre-combustion capture: separation CO 2 -H 2  Oxyfuel combustion: separation O 2 -N 2 Post- comb. (flue gas) Pre-comb. (shifted syngas) Oxyfuel comb. (exhaust) p (bar) ~1 bar [CO 2 ] (%) 3-15%20-40%75-95%

28 Separation principles  Absorption: fluid dissolves or permeates into a liquid or solid.  Adsorption: attachment of fluid to a surface (solid or liquid).  Cryogenic (low-temperature distillation): separation based on the difference in boiling points  Membranes: separation which makes use of difference physical/chemical interaction with membrane (molecular weight, solubility)

29 Absorption versus adsorption Chemical versus physical

30 Physical adsorption  Van der Waals forces  Can be performed at high temperature  Adsorbents: zeolites, activated carbon and alumina  Regeneration (cyclic process): –Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) –Temperature Swing Adsorption (TSA) –Electrical Swing Adsorption (ESA) –Hybrids (PTSA)

31 Chemical adsorption  Covalent bonds  Adsorbents: metal oxides, hydrotalcites  Example: carbonation (>600°C) - calcination (1000°C) reaction CaO + CO 2  CaCO 3  Regeneration (cyclic process): –Pressure Swing Adsorption –Temperature Swing Adsorption

32 Cryogenic separation: principles (1)  Distillation at low temperatures. Applied to separate CO 2 from natural gas or O 2 from N 2 and Ar in air. substance Boiling point 0 ) Triple point (°C, bar) CO 2 NA (sublimation) -57, 5.18 CH , 0.12 O2O2O2O , N2N2N2N , Ar , 0.69

33 Membrane absorption Source: Feron, TNO-MEP

34 Combining capture routes and technologies: CO 2 capture matrix Source: Feron, TNO-MEP

35 Summary: Post-combustion capture  Chemical absorption is currently most feasible technology  Technology is commercially available, although on a smaller scale than envisioned for power plants with CO 2 capture (>500 MW e )  Energy penalty and additional costs are high with current solvents. R&D focus on process integration and solvent improvement.  CO 2 capture between 80-90%  Power cycle itself is not strongly affected (heat integration, CO 2 recycling)  Retrofit possibility

36 Summary: Pre-combustion capture  Chemical/physical absorption is currently most feasible technology  Experience in chemical industry (refineries, ammonia)  Energy penalty and additional costs physical absorption are lower in comparison to chemical absorption  CO 2 capture between 80-90%  Need to develop turbines using hydrogen (rich) fuel  No retrofit possibility  Advanced concepts to decrease energy penalty/costs: –sorption enhanced WGS/reforming –membrane WGS/reforming

37 Oxyfuel combustion: Chemical looping combustion

38 Summary: Oxyfuel combustion (1)  Cryogenic air separation is currently most feasible technology  Experience in steel, aluminum and glass industry  Energy penalty and additional costs are comparable to post-combustion capture  Allows for 100% CO 2 capture  NO x formation can be reduced  FGD in PC plants might be omitted provided that SO 2 can be transported and co-stored with CO 2

39 Summary: Oxyfuel combustion (2)  Boilers require adaptations (retrofit possible). R&D issues: combustion behaviour, heat transfer, fouling, slagging and corrosion.  Application in NGCC: new turbines need to be developed with CO 2 as working fluid (no retrofit)  R&D focus on development of new oxygen separation technologies. Advanced concepts to decrease energy penalty/costs: –AZEP (separate combustion deploying oxygen membranes) –Chemical looping combustion (separate combustion deploying oxygen carriers).

40 Contents  CO 2 sources  CO 2 capture/decarbonisation routes  Separation principles  CO 2 capture technologies in power cycles + consequences on the power cycle  Comparison of different CO 2 capture technologies  CO 2 transport

41 CO 2 transport  Pipelines are most feasible for large-scale CO 2 transport –Transport conditions: high-pressure ( bar) to guarantee CO2 is in dense phase  Alternative: Tankers (similar to LNG/LPG) –Transport conditions: liquid (14 to 17 bar, -25 to -30°C) –Advantage: flexibility, avoidance of large investments –Disadvantage: high costs for liquefaction and need for buffer storage. This makes ships more attractive for larger distances.

42 Pipeline versus ship transport Source: IEA GHG, 2004

43 Pipeline optimisation  Small diameter: large pressure drop, increasing booster station costs (capital + electricity)  Large diameter: large pipeline investments  Optimum: minimise annual costs (sum of pipeline and booster station capital and O&M costs plus electricity costs for pumping).  Offshore: pipelines diameters and pressures are generally higher as booster stations are expensive

44 CO 2 quality specifications  USA: > 95 mol% CO 2  Water content should be reduced to very low concentrations due to formation of carbonic acid causing corrosion  Concentration of H 2 S, O 2 must be reduced to ppm level  N 2 is allowed up to a few %

45 CO 2 transport costs Source: Damen, UU

46 Risks pipeline transport  Major risk: pipeline rupture. CO 2 leakage can be reduced by decreasing distance between safety valves.  CO 2 is not explosive or inflammable like natural gas  In contrast to natural gas, which is dispersed quickly into the air, CO 2 is denser than air and might accumulate in depressions or cellars  High concentrations CO 2 might have negative impacts on humans (asphyxiation) and ecosystems. Above concentrations of 25-30%, CO 2 is lethal.

47 Safety record pipelines  Industrial experience in USA: 3100 km CO 2 pipelines (for enhanced oil recovery) with capacity of 45 Mt/yr  Accident record for CO 2 pipelines in the USA shows 10 accidents between 1990 and 2001 without any injuries or fatalities. This corresponds to incidents per km*year  Incident frequency of pipelines transmitting natural gas and hazardous liquids in this period is and , respectively, with 94 fatalities and 466 injuries Conclusion: CO2 transport is relatively safe.

48 CO2NET Lectures on Carbon Capture and Storage 1.Climate Change, Sustainability and CCS 2.CO 2 sources and capture 3.Storage, risk assessment and monitoring 4.Economics 5.Legal aspects and public acceptance Prepared by Utrecht Centre for Energy research

49 Examples of storage projects  Sleipner, North Sea (saline reservoir)  In-Salah, Algeria (gas reservoir)  K12B, North Sea (gas reservoir)  Weyburn, Canada (oil reservoir)  Enhanced Coal Bed Methane projects –Alisson (New Mexico) –Recopol (Poland) 2. Storage: examples

50 Geological storage for CO 2

51 Examples of geological storage of Carbon dioxide

52 ZERO EMISSION CONCEPT (by N.P. Chistensen, GEUS, Denmark )

53 Reservoir and seals In general a reservoir consist of:  Porous and permeable rocks that can contain (a mixture of) gas and liquid  Rocks with pores of typically 5- 30% of volume of the rock (with diameters of nm-mm)  A sealing by a non permeable rock layer  Typical Reservoir size is km^3 Map of porosity distribution at cm- scale (right) and corresponding sandstone thin section (left) 1. Geology: reservoirs

54 Naturally occurring reservoirs  Fresh water aquifer  Saline aquifer  Oil reservoir  Natural gas reservoir  CO 2 reservoir 1. Geology: reservoirs

55 Natural CO 2 fields Exploited carbogaseous waters (mineral water, spa) Natural CO 2 occurrences in France

56 Properties of geo-fluids  All rocks in the crust contain fluids (water, oil, natural gas, CO 2 )  Transport of fluids depends on: 1.Density 2.Viscosity 3.Solvability 4.Miscibility 1. Geology: CO 2 transport properties

57 Desired fluid properties for CO 2 storage  High density  High viscosity  High solvability  High miscibility So: low temperature and high pressure 1. Geology: CO 2 transport properties

58 Immobilization and trapping options: Physical  Physical blocking by –structural traps (anticlines, unconformities or faults) –stratigraphic traps (change in type of rock layer)  Hydrodynamic trapping by extremely slow migration rates of reservoir brine  Residual gas trapping by capillary forces in pore spaces  Negative buoyancy in case C O 2 is denser than its host rock

59 Immobilization and trapping options: Chemical  Adsorption onto coal or organic-rich shales: permanently reduced mobility  Mineralization into carbonate mineral phases: permanently reduced mobility  Solubility trapping: C O 2 dissolved in formation waters forming one single phase: greatly reduced mobility 1. Geology: trapping mechanisms

60 Site selection criteria High storage capacity High porosity High storage capacity Large reservoir Efficient injectivity High permeability Safe and secure storage Low geoth. gradient & high pressure Safe and secure storage Adequate sealing Safe and secure storage Geological & hydrodynamic stability Low costs Good accessibility, infrastructure Low costs Source close to storage reservoir 1. Geology: site selection

61 Advantages and disadvantages of storage sites IEA, GHG, Geology: site selection

62 2. Storage  Examples  Storage in coal seams: ECBM  Potential storage capacity  Ocean storage

63 Locations of CO 2 storage activities Source: IPCC 2. Storage: examples

64 Simplified diagram of the Sleipner CO 2 storage project Source: IPCC 2. Storage: examples

65 Characteristics Sleipner  C O 2 injection since 1996 (first commercial project)  Storage of CO 2 in (shallower) saline aquifer together with production of natural gas  Aquifer consists of unconsolidated sandstone and thin (horizontal) shale layers that spreads C O 2 laterally  Seal consists of an extensive and thick shale layer  ~1Mt C O 2 removed from gas plant annually  Estimate of total stored C O 2 over entire lifetime: 20 MtCO2 Source: IPCC/IPIECA 2. Storage: examples

66 Location of In Salah CO 2 storage project 2. Storage: examples

67 In Salah CO 2 storage project  First large scale C O 2 storage in a gas reservoir  1 Mt C O 2 stored into the Krechba (sandstone) reservoir annually starting in April 2004  C O 2 injected into water filled parts of gas reservoir (1.5 km)  Seal consists of thick layer of mudstones (shales)  4 production and 3 injection wells  Use of long-reach horizontal wells  Produced natural gas contains up to 10% C O 2  Estimate of total stored C O 2 over entire lifetime: 17 Mt C O 2 Source: IPCC 2. Storage: examples

68 Cross section In Salah gas reservoir Source: IPCC 2. Storage: examples

69 Offshore location K12-B project Source: TNO/CATO 2. Storage: examples

70 Characteristics K12-B storage project  Nearly empty gas reservoir at 4 km depth  Reservoir rocks: Aeolian and fluvial sediments, with relatively low permeability  Tests for enhanced gas recovery: high miscibility of gas and CO 2 results in mixing instead of a migrating front  Annual injection of 20 ktonne of CO 2 to be up- scaled to 480 ktonne CO 2 /yr Source: TNO 2. Storage: examples

71 Weyburn storage project, Canada  Sedimentary Williston Basin of Mississippian carbonate oil reservoir  Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)  C O 2 source is a coal gasification company, producing 95% pure C O 2  C O 2 injection since 2000  Estimate of total stored C O 2 over entire lifetime: 20 Mt C O 2  Seal consists of anhydrite and shale Source: IPCC 2. Storage: examples

72 Location of storage site and gasification plant and scheme for EOR through C O 2 storage Source: IPCC Source: IPIECA 2. Storage: examples

73 Storage in coal seams 2. Storage: ECBM

74 CO 2 storage in Coal CO 2 storage in Coal  Coal contains micro-pores (r = 0.4 – 1 nm) suitable for adsorption of gases, such as CO 2 (r = ca. 0.3 nm)  Higher affinity to adsorb CO 2 than CH 4  One methane molecule can be replaced by at least two molecules of CO 2 : Enhanced Coal Bed Methane recovery (ECBM) of up to 95% extra gas recovery  Ratio CO 2 /CH 4 depends on the maturity and type of coal  Coal plastization and swelling can occur due to the presence of CO 2 and this reduces permeability Sources: Siemens Tudelft and IPCC 2. Storage: ECBM

75 Influencing factors on coal adsorption Coal rankCoal rank –Peat  lignite  bituminous coal  anthracite –Pore structure and size –Moist content (rank dependent) Coal compositionCoal composition –Presence of different macerals and minerals Moisture contentMoisture content –Water molecules block adsorption sites of pore system pH changepH change TemperatureTemperature –decreasing adsorption rates with increasing T Source: Siemens TUDelft 2. Storage: ECBM

76 CO 2 acts as a solvent that destroys bonds of the coal macro molecules  relaxation of the coal structure Under constrained reservoir conditions swelling causes a reduction of porosity and permeability (see figure) Problems related to CO 2 injection Harpalani & Schaufnagel 1990 Swelling Source Siemens Tudelft 2. Storage: ECBM

77 Example: Recopol European ECBM project  EU co-funded research & demonstration project  Silesian Coal Basin of Poland  CO 2 is pumped in coal seam at a depth of ~1km  Simultaneous production of methane  Injection and production started in 2004  Stimulation required because coal seam permeability reduces in time, presumably due to swelling from contact with the CO 2 2. Storage: ECBM

78 Location of Recopol ECBM project 2. Storage: ECBM

79 Potential storage capacity Reservoir typeLower estimate of storage capacity (GtCO 2 ) Upper estimate of storage capacity (GtCO 2 ) Oil and gas fields675 a 900 a Unminable coal seams (ECBM) Deep saline formations 1,000Uncertain, but possibly 10 4 a These numbers would increase by 25% if “undiscovered” oil and gas fields were included in this assessment. Source: IPCC Special Report on Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage. Compare worldwide CO 2 emissions: 25 GtCO 2 /yr 2. Storage: potential capacity

80 Ocean storage principles  Ocean storage is injection of CO 2 into the deep ocean water. At a dept of 2700 CO2 has a negative buoyancy. 2. Storage: ocean Depth (m) phasedensity <500gas Less than water liquid >2700 Crystalline hydrate Higher than water

81 Physical properties of CO 2 in water Depth (m) phasedensity <500gas Less than water liquid >2700 Crystalline hydrate Higher than water 2. Storage: ocean

82  CO 2 and/or CH 4 leakage from the reservoir to the atmosphere  Micro-seismicity due to pressure and stress changes in the reservoir, causing small earth quakes and faults  Ground movement, subsidence or uplift due to pressure changes in the reservoir  Displacement of brine from an open reservoir to other formations, possibly containing fresh water Source: Damen et al Risks associated with CO 2 storage in geological reservoirs 3. Risks and monitoring

83 CO 2 and CH 4 leakage Depends on thickness of overlying formations and trapping mechanisms and occurs when:  Inability of cap rock to prevent upward migration, due to:  too high permeability (possibility for diffusion of CO 2 )  dissolving of cap rock by reaction with CO 2  cap rock failure (fracturing and faulting due to over pressuring of the reservoir)  Escape through (old) wells through:  Improper plugging  Diffusion through cement or steel casing  Dissolving of CO 2 in fluid that flows laterally Source: Damen et al 3. Risks and monitoring

84 Local and global effect of CO 2 leakage  Local: Health effects at elevated CO 2 concentration (accumulation of CO 2 can occur in confined areas)  Local: Decrease of pH of soils and water, causing:  Calcium dissolution  Increase in hardness of the water  Release of trace metals  Global: leakage reduces the CO 2 mitigation option, effect depends on stabilization of greenhouse gas concentration  Stabilization targets  Extend and timing of CO 2 storage (simulation models) Source: Damen et al 3. Risks and monitoring

85 Purpose of monitoring  To ensure public health and safety of local environment  To verify the amount of CO 2 storage  To track migration of stored CO 2 (simulation models)  To confirm reliability of trapping mechanisms  To provide early warning of storage failure 3. Risks and monitoring

86 Examples of monitoring techniques Monitoring group Monitoring technologies Compartment Engineering Pressure, temperature, well tests Wells Geophysical Seismics (3D), micro seismicity, gravimetry, electro-magnetic, self- potential, physical well logging Reservoir and back - ground system, wells Geochemical Production water & gas analysis, tracers, overburden fluids, direct measurements Reservoir and surface system Geodetic Geodetic, tilt measurements, satellite interferometry, airborne sensing Surface system Biological Microbial, vegetation changes Surface and background system Measurements are repeated in time or applied continuously Source: Wildenborg, TNO 3. Risks and monitoring

87 Conclusions  There is a high worldwide storage capacity potential  Different types of reservoirs occur naturally  CO 2 will be stored for a very long time (10000 yr)  There is a possibility for enhanced recovery of fuel from certain reservoirs  High pressure and low temperature are preferable for effective CO 2 storage  Several storage projects have already started  Leakage and other risk should be monitored carefully 5. Conclusion

88 CO2NET Lectures on Carbon Capture and Storage 1.Climate Change, Sustainability and CCS 2.CO 2 sources and capture 3.Storage, risk assessment and monitoring 4.Economics 5.Legal aspects and public acceptance Prepared by Utrecht Centre for Energy research

89 Performance new power plants (current technology) New NGCC New PC New IGCC Cap. Costs, no capt. (US$/kW) ~ 570 ~ 1290 ~ 1330 Cap. Costs, with capt. (US$/kW) ~ 1000 ~ 2100 ~ 1830 Plant efficiency, with capt % % % COE, no capt. (US$/kWh) COE, with capt. (US$/kWh) Increase COE % % % Cost of net CO 2 capt. (US$/tCO 2 ) *) Gas prices: US$/GJ; Coal prices: US$/GJ Source: IPCC SR-CCS, 2005 Cost of CCS

90 Total production costs of electricity Power plant system Natural Gas Combined Cycle (US$/kWh) Pulverized Coal (US$/kWh) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (US$/kWh) Without capture (reference plant) With capture and geological storage With capture and EOR *) Gas prices: US$/GJ; Coal prices: US$/GJ Source: IPCC SR-CCS, 2005 Cost of CCS

91 CO 2 transportation costs Source: IPCC, SR-CCS, 2005 Transportation costs: 1-8 US$ / tC O 2 / 250 km (per 250 km, onshore and offshore) Cost of CCS

92 Cost CO 2 storage CCS system components: Cost range (US$/tCO 2 avoided) - Geological storage Geological storage: monitoring and verification monitoring and verification Ocean Storage Mineral carbonization Source: IPCC, SR-CCS, 2005 Cost of CCS

93 Cost of electricity ( €ct/kWh) Kay Damen, Utrecht University Cost of CCS

94 CO2 benefits for EOR In Texas CO2 is commercially bought for Enhanced Oil Recovery. The price paid for the CO 2 is in this case depended on the price of oil:  11.7 US$/tCO2 (at 18 US$ per barrel of oil)  16.3 US$/tCO2 (at 25 US$ per barrel of oil)  32.7 US$/tCO2 (at 50 US$ per barrel of oil)

95 Conclusion economics of CCS  The cost of CCS depends strongly on the source, location and technology (from slightly negative up to 100 €/ton)  In some cases CCS only needs few or no incentives  CCS can play significant role when CO 2 prices become 25–30 US$/tCO 2 (IPCC)  Capture (and capital) cost are in general the biggest  The costs can be reduced in the future

96 CO2NET Lectures on Carbon Capture and Storage 1.Climate Change, sustainability and CCS 2.CO 2 sources and capture 3.Storage, risk assessment and monitoring 4.Economics 5.Legal aspects and public acceptance Prepared by Utrecht Centre for Energy research

97 International treaties on waste Protection of the seas: –London convention (1972) –London protocol (1996) –OSPAR (1992) Habitat protection –Convention on biological diversity (1992) –Habitat directive

98 Conclusion CO2 storage & law  In deep sea: –Not allowed (unless via land-based pipe)  Under seabed –possibilities but also restrictions (storage method, origin of CO2 and contamination CO 2 ) –Legal issues still under debate  Under land –Depends on national law, but probably allowed For a smooth large scale implementation of CCS adoptions of the treaties have to be made.

99 Liability Liability questions not solved yet:  Who does own the stored CO 2 ?  Who pays for the monitoring?  Who is responsible for long term leakages  ….

100 Conclusion lecture To maintain public support:  Fair and open communication  (international) Legal frame work needs adaptations  Proper monitoring and risk management  CCS as a third option  The cost of CCS should be paid by the emitter on longer term

101 CO2 emissions from Trade Union members, 2005 (tons/%) B A L T I C S T A T E S Sector Estonia Latvia Lithuania tons% % % Energy , ,2 Oil refineries ,2 Steel/Iron ,05 Cement , , ,8 Glass324760, , ,1 Ceramic , , ,5 Plants Paper511150,462940,15- - Total (veryfied) , ,1 Allocation

102 CO2 sources > tons in the Baltic States

103 CO2 sources > tons by Trade union members in Estonia

104

105 Prospects for the Baltic States

106 Properties of Cambrian reservoir in the Baltic states (GEOBALTICA project, S.Šliaupa) 1 - drinking water (salinity >1g/l, depth 40°C) and balneological water (salinity >100g/l, Br>600mg/l); 5 - geothermal anomaly (temperature >75°C, porosity ~5%, water salinity >170g/l, Br > 600 mg/l) 6 - oil prospects; 7 - ongoing oil exploitation

107 GEOBALTICA project data

108

109

110 Next event of CO2EAST project  Carbon Capture and Storage – Response to Climate Change  Regional Workshop for CE and EE Countries February 2007 in Zagreb, Croatia Organised by: University of Zagreb Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering Pierottijeva 6, HR Zagreb, Croatia  Workshop web-site: (after 20 Dec. 2006)


Download ppt "CO2 capture and geological storage - state of the art, ongoing projects EC FP6 EU GEOCAPACITY CO2 EAST and prospects for the Baltic region."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google