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Materials for Clean Energy Production and CO 2 Reduction Gou-Chung Chi Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University.

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Presentation on theme: "Materials for Clean Energy Production and CO 2 Reduction Gou-Chung Chi Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Materials for Clean Energy Production and CO 2 Reduction Gou-Chung Chi Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University

2 Outline 1.Current Status of Taiwan’s Energy & CO 2 Emissions Situation 2.Materials for Energy and the Environment 3.Highlights of Clean Energy R&D in Taiwan 4.Future Prospects

3 General Information of Taiwan Area : 36,000 km 2 Population : millions GDP : US$ billion GDP per capita : US$ 15,223 Exports : US$ billion Imports : US$ billion Taiwan’s industries rank globally  #1 provider of chip foundry services, with 70% of the market worth $9.1 billion  #1 provider of notebook PCs, with 72% of the market worth $24 billion Reference : Ministry of Economic Affairs 2007 (2006 data) Ⅰ. Current Status of Taiwan’s Energy & CO 2 Emissions Situation INER

4 Comparison of Energy Structure Taiwan JapanGermany Reference : 1.Energieversorgung für Deutschland INER, BOE Data, Taiwan 3.APEC Energy Database

5 TaiwanKoreaJapanGermanyOECDWorld Taiwan-World ranking% CO 2 Emission (Mt of CO 2 ) % Population (millions) % GDP per capita (2005 US$) CO 2 Emission per capita (t CO 2 per capita) CO 2 per GDP (kg CO 2 per 2005 US$) CO 2 per GDP PPP (kg CO 2 per 2005 US$) CO 2 per TPES (t CO 2 per toe) Comparison of CO 2 Emission indicators Reference : 1.IEA key world energy Statistics IMF Data and Statistics

6 The Challenges of CO 2 reduction in Taiwan Climate Change  The CO 2 emission ranking of Taiwan is 20 th. Energy and Industry Structure  The trend of energy supply is unfavorable for reducing CO 2 emission due to the “nuclear-free home land” policy.  The dependence on foreign energy supply is very high (98%).

7 100% Renewable /New energy 100% Coal (+ Methane hydrate) (+ CO 2 Capture and sequestration)  IGCC+CO 2 capture and sequestration  Methane hydrate  Marine energy park (Wind + Solar + Biomass)  Deep sea water utilization (OTEC+ Cooling)  Biofuel  Geothermal  100% renewable energy in offshore island (No IGCC+CO 2 capture and sequestration currently) Development of Energy Technology with Low CO 2 Emission

8 Taiwan’s Advantages in Developing Renewable and Hydrogen Energy Technology Ample renewable energy resources Strong manufacturing capabilities for cost-down production of hydrogen energy equipment Strong commitments to renewable and hydrogen energy R&D 2.3~18.984~7873~25Ocean-thermal Gradients >5.7>236>7.5Geothermal Energy 20Bio-energy (bio-waste+bio-ethanol+bio-diesel) 1.3~13.456~56012~120Solar Energy 0.7~6.728~2803~30Wind Power Percentage of Primary Energy (%) Energy Capacity (PJ/y) Estimated Capacity (GW) Energy Type

9 Energy/Environment TechnologyDevice/ProcessAdvanced materials CO 2 capture and sequestrationGas adsorption Nanosized high temperature Ca/Mg based sorbent Hydrogen production & storage Light absorption, Gas adsorption/desorption Photocatalytic splitting of water to generate hydrogen via quantum dot solar cells Hydrogen storage using metal organic framework (MOF) with high surface area Fuel cells Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Electrochemical reaction Improved ceramic components for SOFC Electrocatalysts New electrolyte Photovoltaic solar cellEfficient solar harvesting Ⅲ - Ⅴ semiconductor with multiple junctions Silicon quantum dot Biomass Cellulose ethanol Pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and ethanol recovery Development of genetically engineered bacteria and yeast Growth of marine plants Wind power Land-base & off-shore Marine energy park Blades, wind turbine, generators, transformers, power distributors Advanced composite materials for blades of improved strength-mass ratio Ⅱ. Materials for Energy and the Environment

10 Primary Energy Electricity SIGCC MOCVD MOF Hydrolysis Fermentation Genetic Engineering Nanosized Ceramic Powder Atmospheric Plasma Spray Core Technology System Application Solar Energy Fossil Fuel < 100W System Transportation Hydrogen Production/ Storage High Efficiency Solar Cell Quantum Dot Solar Cell Community kW~GW System 3C Building Materials Hydrogen Storage System for FCV kW~GW System kW System Bio Energy Application of Clean Energy and Environmental Technology Water Splitting SOFC Biothanol PECVD Thin Film Solar Cell

11 Solar Water Splitting – USD/kg 20 USD/kgN/A COST 15%10%5% Chemical conversion process efficiency :EC Multiple junctions a-Si / pc-Si thin film PEC device Single-junction pc-silicon thin film PEC device C-silicon bulk PEC device Photochemical: PEC 1. Pt Size < 10nm 2. Pt Density 3. Macroporous surface 4. Surface oxidation (SiO 2 ) 5. Higher shottkey barrier (Solar Cell structure) V oc I sc Efficiency Solar Water Splitting Voc > 1.23 eV Syntheses of Pt nanoparticles by physical or wet chemical methods Si thin film electrode Commercialization at cost of 0.2 USD/Kg H 2 Ⅲ. Highlights of Clean Energy R&D in Taiwan

12 Current Status of MOF Research for Hydrogen Storage MOF (metal organic framework) has large pore volume, high specific surface area and a network of pore channels with well-defined hydrogen occupation sites ;and is promising for hydrogen storage. Bridge-building enhances hydrogen adsorption through spillover. The maximum hydrogen adsorption capacity at room temperature and 6.9 MPa can reach 4.7 wt%. 3-D network of pore channelSEM image of MOF cubic crystals Bridge-building reducing energy barrier for spillover Comparison of hydrogen uptake for MOFs with and without bridge- building. Hydrogen storage cartridge for bridged-MOFs

13 Development of Advanced Ceramic Components of SOFC I-V-P performance of porous nickel metal supported YSZ/Ni-LSGM-LSC Atmospheric plasma spraying system LSCF(20~40  m) LSGM(45~65  m) Nanostructured YSZ+Ni Anode (15~25  m ) Ni Substrate (1.0~1.2mm) Nano YSZ (8~20nm) and Ni(20~40nm) LSGM Ni Substrate SEM cross sectional view of porous nickel metal supported YSZ/Ni-LSGM-LSCF Plasma sprayed SOFC MEA

14 The efficiency of self-designed solar cell has achieved 31% in Ⅲ - Ⅴ Solar Cell Technology Development Layer structure Self-designed triple junction solar cell Cell Pattern Wafer diced into cells and expanded on the blue tape 5.8 cm Self-designed Ⅲ - Ⅴ solar cell has an efficiency of 31% under 72 suns. 14 Tested by INER Designed by INER

15 Cellulosic Ethanol Ferment- able Sugars Pre- treatment Process Enzyme Process Cellulose Cellulosic Biomass Fermen- tation Process Cellulosic Ethanol Development  PROCESS  FEEDSTOCK  TARGET rice straw bagasse miscanthus algae Lab scale Bench scale (400g/batch) Mini-scale plant (10kg/batch) Pilot plant (1 tons/day) Year

16 A Conceptual Marine Energy Park Land accretion along the seashore to create a new energy industry zone Off-shore anti-typhoon design wind turbines with new blade materials of improved strength-mass ratio and with lighter components High-concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) power-generation systems at park and solar energy panels with new thin-film materials mounted at wind turbine monopole Connecting innovative design of wind turbines foundations to form an underwater pasture for algae, fishes, or shellfishes (see next page) Cellulose-to-ethanol transformation plants using feedstock from on-site algae and electricity from on-site green power

17 A Conceptual Underwater Pasture Combined with Wind and Solar Power Applications Large size algae cultivation using high strength fiber cordage Thin-film solar panels High density polyethylene (HDPE) cultivation net cage

18 1. Taiwan is willing to share responsibility in addressing the problem of global climate change under the principle of fairness and justice. 2. Using advanced materials and clean energy technologies to ensure Taiwan’s energy security and to reduce the impact on the environment. 3. Any GHG emission reduction approach should consider the global competitiveness of Taiwan’s industries. Reference : Conclusion from Executive Yuan Energy Policy and S&T Development Steering Committee Ⅳ. Future Prospects

19 Long-term Target of CO 2 Reduction -Reduce to 2005 Level

20 Thank You for Your Attention


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