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Slide: 1Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Vilnius, 14 September 2004 Nitrates Directive: requirements and experiences of implementation Liliana.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide: 1Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Vilnius, 14 September 2004 Nitrates Directive: requirements and experiences of implementation Liliana."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide: 1Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Vilnius, 14 September 2004 Nitrates Directive: requirements and experiences of implementation Liliana Cortellini European Commission, ENV B1 Soil and Agriculture This presentation does not necessarily represent the view of the European Commission or its Services

2 Slide: 2Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Outline  Directive requirements  Implementation experiences  Water monitoring  Designation of nitrate vulnerable zones  Design and implementation of the action programmes  Conclusions

3 Slide: 3Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Nitrate concentration in rivers, Source EEA, 2004

4 Slide: 4Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Nitrate concentration in rivers in relation to land use Source EEA, 2004

5 Slide: 5Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Nitrate concentration in groundwaters Source EEA, 2004

6 Slide: 6Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 The Nitrates Directive Objectives Directive 91/676/EEC concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources  Reducing water pollution caused or induced by nitrates from agricultural sources  Preventing further such pollution

7 Slide: 7Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 The Nitrates Directive Obligations for Member States (1)  Water monitoring  Identification of polluted waters, identification of waters which could be affected by pollution if measures are not taken  Nitrates Vulnerable Zones (NVZs) designation, revision every four years  Designation of NVZs not required if an action programme is implemented on the whole territory

8 Slide: 8Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 The Nitrates Directive Obligations for Member States (2)  Establish a code or codes of good agricultural practice, to be implemented by farmers on a voluntary basis  Design and implement action programmes in NVZs  Assess effectiveness of action programmes  Report on the implementation to the Commission

9 Slide: 9Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B Revision NVZs 3rd Action Programme Years: Water Monitoring Revision NVZs 2nd Action Programme Revision NVZs 1st Action Programme kg N170 kg N Art. 10 Member States Reports Elaboration Action Programme Transposition Designation of vulnerable zones (NVZs) Code of good practices Adoption of Directive 12/12/91 The Nitrates Directive Implementation calendar

10 Slide: 10Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 In advance of accession  establish a complete monitoring system (surface and ground waters)  detect and designate waters affected by pollution  designate the Nitrates Vulnerable Zones (at least one year before accession) By accession  establish a Code of Good Agricultural Practices  establish action programmes The Nitrates Directive Commitments of the new Member States

11 Slide: 11Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Water monitoring and identification of polluted waters (1) Nitrate concentration in Freshwaters where  sampling stations Directive 75/440/EEC  other sampling stations representative of surface waters when  at least one year every four years  monthly and more frequently during flood periods

12 Slide: 12Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Monitoring and identification of polluted waters (2) Nitrate concentration in Ground waters where  sampling stations representative of groundwater aquifers when  At regular intervals

13 Slide: 13Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Water monitoring and identification of polluted waters (3) Eutrophic Status  Fresh surface waters  Estuarial and coastal waters Definition of Eutrophication  Enrichment of water by nitrogen compounds causing an accelerated growth of algae and higher forms of plant life to produce an undesirable disturbance to the balance of organisms present in the water and to the quality of water concerned

14 Slide: 14Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Criteria for identification of polluted waters (Annex I)  Nitrate concentration equal or higher than 50 mg/L in groundwaters and surface waters  Upwards trends so that 50 mg/L nitrate concentration could be reached if actions are not taken  Eutrophic status of freshwaters, estuaries and coastal waters  Trend towards eutrophication if actions are not taken

15 Slide: 15Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Towards the standardisation of the monitoring procedures under Nitrates Directive (1) Monitoring guidelines prepared by EC  Procedures for monitoring of surface waters (sampling frequency, sampling site selection, timing)  Procedures for monitoring of groundwaters (frequency, site selection, timing)  Procedures for monitoring of estuarine, coastal and marine waters

16 Slide: 16Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Towards the standardisation of the monitoring procedures under Nitrates Directive (2) Monitoring guidelines prepared by EC  Indicators of eutrophic status of freshwaters, estuaries and coastal waters  Monitoring in NVZs for the assessment of action programme effectiveness  Monitoring procedures for Member States which apply the action programme to the whole territory

17 Slide: 17Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Designation of Nitrates Vulnerable Zones Two possible approaches  Designation of specific zones  No designation and implementation of the action programme in the whole territory

18 Slide: 18Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3. Whole territory approach Implementation of the action programme on the whole territory  Germany  Austria  The Netherlands  Luxemburg  Denmark  Finland  Ireland  Malta  Slovenia  Lithuania

19 Slide: 19Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Designation of Nitrates Vulnerable Zones (1) CountryNVZs % territory* Belgium27 Greece11 Spain6,5 French44 Italy7,8 Portugal1,1 Sweden14 United Kingdom33 * June 2004, provisional data

20 Slide: 20Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3. Designation of Nitrates Vulnerable Zones (2) CountryNVZs % territory* Cyprus23 Czech Republic36 Estonia10 Hungary48 Latvia15 Poland2,5 Slovakia30 * June 2004

21 Slide: 21Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3

22 Slide: 22Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Percentage of water samples exceeding 50 mg/l NO3 Source IEEP, 2002

23 Slide: 23Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Fertiliser consumption

24 Slide: 24Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Trends in livestock number Source: FAOSTAT, 2002

25 Slide: 25Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Change in the Nitrogen Balance Source OECD, 2001

26 Slide: 26Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 The Nitrates Directive Action programmes (1)  Measures to be included in the Action Programmes: Annex III and Annex II of the Directive  Member States may establish different Action Programmes for different vulnerable zones or part of zones (art.5.2)  Member States could identify additional and reinforced actions (art. 5.5) in NVZs

27 Slide: 27Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 The Nitrates Directive Action programmes (2) Examples of measures to be included in the Action Programmes  Minimum storage capacity  Prohibition periods of fertiliser application  Maximum Nitrogen amount applied with livestock manure: 170 kg/hectare  Fertilization according to a nitrogen balance  Fertilisation procedures near water courses, on slopes, on frozen, water logged, snow covered soils  Vegetation cover in winter periods

28 Slide: 28Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Action programmes Manure storage capacity Result of the study carried on by the Commission Climatic ZoneSuggested minimum storage capacity Boreal9-10 months Atlantic6-8 months Central European l alpine l plains and valleys 7-8 months 6-7 months Mediterranean area4 -5 months

29 Slide: 29Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Storage capacity Current situation  Requirements of storage capacity ≥ 6 months in several MS (e.g. Denmark, Austria, Finland, Belgium (Wallonia) individual regions in Italy, France, Germany  Funding storage vessels in EU 15: Rural Development and State Aids

30 Slide: 30Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Action programmes, implementation in EU 15 Some of the area requiring improvement (Report year 2000):  Storage capacity  170 kgN/ha from organic manure  Prohibition periods in fertiliser application  Provisions on fertiliser spreading near water course and slopes

31 Slide: 31Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Action programmes Derogation  The procedure to obtain a derogation  Denmark derogation (Commission Decision 915/2002)  Cattle farms with at least 70% grassland: 230 kg/hectare N from livestock manure  Farms and arable land encompassed by derogation: 4%  Livestock units encompassed by derogation :11%

32 Slide: 32Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 An example of Action programme The Danish case (1)  Storage capacity: 9 months, construction standards  N application with livestock manure: 170 kg/ha (cattle), 140 kg/ha (pig and poultry)  N in livestock manure: tables of reference values for all livestock categories and housing systems (eg: kgN/head dairy cattle, large breed)

33 Slide: 33Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 An example of Action programme The Danish case (2)  Total Nitrogen application standards for all main crops (updated yearly on the basis of data on experimental and pilot farms)  Minimum manure nitrogen efficiency:  Pig slurry:75%  Cattle slurry: 70%  Deep litter: 45%  Other livestock manure: 65%

34 Slide: 34Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 An example of Action programme The Danish case (3)  Minimum winter cover  Prohibition period for manure application: from harvest to February (slurry)

35 Slide: 35Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 An example of Action programme The Danish case (4)  Fertiliser plans  To be prepared by all farmers every year  Fertiliser account  to be provided to the competent Authorities at the end of each year  Checking of compliance:  evaluation of fertiliser plans+on site inspections

36 Slide: 36Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Conclusions (1)  Nitrogen losses from agriculture represent a main contribution to pollution of water  Nitrates Directive has been implemented slowly but  Significant progress has been made in the recent years

37 Slide: 37Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 Conclusions  Further progress are required in Nitrates Vulnerable Zone Designation and Action Programme implementation (EU 15)  Implementation of the Nitrates Directive is essential in the New Members States to reduce pollution and avoid extensive pollution problems over the coming years

38 Slide: 38Presentation: Liliana Cortellini DG ENV/B3 More information water-nitrates/index_en.html  Report on the implementation of the Nitrates Directive year 2000  Monitoring guidelines  Reporting guidelines


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