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LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION Initial investigations into Dari dialectology AF-PAK LEARN Omaha May 19, 2010 Corey Miller

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Presentation on theme: "LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION Initial investigations into Dari dialectology AF-PAK LEARN Omaha May 19, 2010 Corey Miller"— Presentation transcript:

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2 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION Initial investigations into Dari dialectology AF-PAK LEARN Omaha May 19, 2010 Corey Miller Najiba Moats

3 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION What is Dari? Variety of Persian spoken in Afghanistan –Can be contrasted with Farsi (Iran), Tajik (Tajikistan) –We are not referring to the following usages: Dialect of Zoroastrians spoken in Yazd and Kerman, Iran and Bombay, India Literary form of Early New Persian (9-12 th centuries) 2

4 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION Southwest Iranian Languages Family Tree 3 Old Persian Middle Persian Early New Persian Farsi Dari Tajik

5 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION What is dialectology? Study of variation in language associated with geography –Macro: national varieties of Persian –Micro: regional varieties within Farsi, Dari, etc. Identification of dialect features associated with different localities –Words, pronunciations, grammatical features –Shibboleths and stereotypes 4

6 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION Benefits to understanding dialectal structure of a language Better understanding of non-standard language Ability to determine a speaker’s provenance (à la Henry Higgins) 5

7 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION How to describe Dari? Contrastive approach –e.g. how does Dari differ from Farsi? Internal approach –What are the popularly recognized dialects? (cf. Perceptual Dialectology, Dennis Preston) –Identify variables What lexical, phonological, syntactic and morphological features characterize the different dialects? 6

8 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION Lexical variables Household items –sugar: بوره /bura/ vs. شکر / ʃakar/ –butter: مسکه /maska/ vs. کره /kare/ Western imports: from French or English? –tie: نکتای /nektay/ vs. کراوات /kr ɑvɑt/ –Japan: جاپان /j ɑpɑn/ vs. ژاپن /ʒɑpon/ Same word different meaning –maternal uncle, midwife: ماما /m ɑmɑ/, دائ /dɑi/ 7

9 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION Phonological variables Dari is generally more “conservative” –Preserves some distinctions (e.g. from Early New Persian) that are lost or merged in Farsi –Vowels –Diphthongs –Consonants 8

10 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION Preservation of “classical” vowel distinctions e ~ i – شیر /ʃer/ vs. /ʃir/ lion, شیر /ʃir/ milk – سیر /ser/ vs. /sir/ full, سیر /sir/ garlic o ~ u –شور /ʃor/ vs. /ʃur/ salty –صور /sur/ trumpet 9 Dariieuo Farsiiu

11 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION Preservation of diphthongs ay ~ e – پیدا /paydɑ/ vs. /pedɑ/ find – سیر /sayr/ vs. /ser/ walking aw ~ o – جلو /jelaw/ vs. /jelo/ front – چلو /čelaw/ vs. /čelo/ cooked rice 10 Dariayaw Farsieo

12 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION National distinctions in domestic flux Example wordKabuliHeratiTehrani شیر lionee/ii پیدا findayay/ee دوست friendoo/uu جلو frontawaw/oo 11 Adapted from Farhadi 1955

13 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION Consonants /q/ ق and / ɣ/ غ Dari maintains distinction – قهر ( قار ) /qɑr/ anger vs. غار /ɣɑr/ hole –Farsi has merged /q/ and / ɣ/ as /ɢ/ with allophones [ɢ] initially and [ʁ] intervocalically Hodge 1957 reports q ~ ɣ distinction in Kerman, Iran –Both Dari and Farsi have allophone [x] in certain contexts: وقت /waxt/, /vaxt/ time 12 Dariq ɣ Farsi ɢ

14 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION Additional consonantal differences Consonantal و – نود ninety /nawad/ vs. /navad/ –آواز sound /ɑwɑz/ vs. /ɑvɑz/ ژ j ~ ʒ –Farsi distinguishes ج /j/ and ژ /ʒ/ –Merged in Dari ژاله /jɑla/ vs. / ʒɑle/ جوان /javɑn/ youth 13

15 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION Additional vocalic difference vowel + “silent” ه –نامه /n ɑma/ vs. /nɑme/ letter – شکسته /ʃekasta/ vs. /ʃekaste/ broken 14

16 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION Syntactic and Morphological Differences Morphology –first person singular verbal suffix: /o m/ vs. /am/ I go: /merom/ vs. /miram/ Syntax –formation of the present progressive: I’m eating خورده میرم /xorda merom/ دارم می خورم /dɑram mixoram/ 15

17 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION Methodology Unlikely that differences in national varieties correspond exactly with political boundaries (cf. Miller 1985) Use reported differences in national varieties to establish isoglosses 16

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20 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION Fieldwork components Sociolinguistic interview Elicitation guides –Phonology: reading wordlists –Lexicon: “What do you put in your tea to make it sweet?” Reading passage –IPA Handbook Farsi adapted for Afghanistan –Observe connected speech processes 19

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22 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION Interviews to-date Herat male Mazari Sharif female (native language Uzbek) Bamian female (Hazaragi) Jalalabad male (native language Pashto) 21

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24 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION Plans going forward Conduct interviews with speakers from additional regions Deepen coverage of individual regions “Standard”: determine existence, description and where it is found Association of variables with localities: isoglosses Determination and description of social dialects 23

25 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION References Farhadi, Abd-ul-Ghafur Le persan parlé en Afghanistan. Paris: Klincksieck Henderson, Michael Magnus Thyne Dari (Kabul Persian) Phonology. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin dissertation. Hodge, Carleton T Some aspects of Persian Style. Language International Phonetic Association Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 24

26 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION References Miller, Corey The United States- Canadian border as a linguistic boundary: The English language in Calais, Maine and St. Stephen, New Brunswick. Cambridge, MA: Harvard College undergraduate thesis. Nawid, Senzil بررسی مختصر گویشهای دری کابل و فارسی تهران. Persian studies in North America: studies in honor of Mohammad Ali Jazayery. Bethesda, MD: Iranbooks. 25

27 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION References Preston, Dennis R., editor Handbook of perceptual dialectology. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Rees, Daniel A Towards proto- Persian: An optimality theoretic historical reconstruction. Washington, DC: Georgetown University dissertation. Sayd, Mustafa Ajan Dari-English Dictionary. Hyattsville, MD: Dunwoody. 26

28 LANGUAGE RESEARCH IN SERVICE TO THE NATION References فهرست واژه های متفاوت در فارسی افغانستان و ایران. %D8%B1%D8%B3%D8%AA_%D9%88%D8 %A7%DA%98%D9%87%E2%80%8C%D9% 87%D8%A7%DB%8C_%D9%85%D8%AA% D9%81%D8%A7%D9%88%D8%AA_%D8% AF%D8%B1_%D9%81%D8%A7%D8%B1% D8%B3%DB%8C_%D8%A7%D9%81%D8% BA%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%B3%D8%AA%D 8%A7%D9%86_%D9%88_%D8%A7%DB%8 C%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%86 27


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