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THE STRUCTURE, STATUS AND EFFICACY OF INITIAL TEACHER TRAINING IN THE POST 16 VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING SECTOR- EUROPEAN COMPARISONS By Katrina.

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Presentation on theme: "THE STRUCTURE, STATUS AND EFFICACY OF INITIAL TEACHER TRAINING IN THE POST 16 VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING SECTOR- EUROPEAN COMPARISONS By Katrina."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE STRUCTURE, STATUS AND EFFICACY OF INITIAL TEACHER TRAINING IN THE POST 16 VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING SECTOR- EUROPEAN COMPARISONS By Katrina Diamond Jun 2013.

2 Why  Why did I chose to do this?  Rationale for the 3 countries

3 The research question  1. But then….

4 Historically  Guilds, journeymen and industrialisation  Universities?

5 England  “….instead of making them good servants in agriculture and other laborious employments to which their rank in society had destined them; instead of teaching them the virtue of subordination… would render them insolent to their superiors…[and ]if this Bill were to pass into law, it would go to burthen the country with a most enormous and incalculable expense..”  (Gillard, 2011)  CEDEFOP

6 Finland  Equality and economy transformation  “At the time of independence in 1917, education was seen as a tool for maintaining national identity, literacy, and political freedom” (Chung, J, 2009)  The Finnish Model from JAMK university of applied sciences.

7 Germany  Unlike England although Germany disbanded the apprenticeship guilds in the early 19th Century, they were reinstated in 1897 due to international competition in industry and also due to a belief that the traditional apprenticeship prepared the trainees well for society. They still exist today. The Wurzburg Experience from the Klara Oppenheimer Berufschule.

8 Historic Perspectives on professions.  Ancient professions  The priesthood, university teaching, law and physicianship;  Medieval Trade Occupations  Surgery, dentistry and architecture;  Industrial era professions  Typified by engineering  Groups emerging in the 20 th Century.  From teacher to accountants and personnel managers. (Lester, 2007)

9 Traits and characteristics of professionalism  Belfall;  An assessment process for entry to the profession  A common body of knowledge  A code of ethics  A professional association  Hoyle and John;  The possession and use of expert or specialist knowledge  The exercise of autonomous thought and judgement  Responsibility to clients and wider society through “voluntaristic commitment to a set of principles.” (Lester, 2007)

10 Concepts of professionalism “Of the main sociological perspectives on professions, structuralist or functionalist approaches study the functions that professions perform, in relation to society, so that for instance they can be seen as means of making expertise available to the public good, and professional ethics as offering safeguards against external pressures such as those of bureaucracy and the market. (Hoyle, 1980) Neo Weberian approaches such as the work of Larson focus on professionalism as a “market project” and its effect in creating market or employment rewards for those who achieve professional status Marxist approaches focus more on professions in relation to power and class relationships within society, while interactionist approaches, typified by the Chicago school, are concerned with the interactions that occur within practice situations and the meanings that these have in terms of wider occupational or societal relationships.” (Lester, 2009) Comments?

11 Professionalism  Autonomy  Agency  Subjectivity  But are we getting hung up on the notion of professionalism –what do we want it to look like and what do we hope it would do for us?

12 Class structure  Germany  Finland  England.

13 Methodology for primary research  England and policy decisions around Initial Teacher training 2007- present day.  Visit to Finland  Visit to Germany.

14 Structure  National  Regional  Local.  How should Vet be structured?

15 Convergence  Should initial teacher training around pedagogy and didactics be any different for secondary and FE?  Thoughts on vocational pedagogy?

16 Finnish VET  VET has many target groups; young people, adults and people in working life who need upskilling or reskilling- VET is lifelong learning  VET is a tool to develop working life and promote employment  VET offers an open pathway to polytechnics and Universities  VET is attractive ( KEY!):44% of basic school leavers continue in IVET ( Now gone up to 51% )  IVET graduates : 68% enter the labour market and 9% continue with higher education  IVET a drop out rate below 8%, a passing rate of approximately 60% (3 years nominal duration)  VET is good quality:  VET providers are licensed by the Ministry of Education and Culture  Funding is partly based on the performance of the VET provider  Learning outcomes are evaluated on a regular basis.

17 VET Teachers in Finland  80% of teacher teach vocational studies  20% of teachers are;  Specialists in core subjects like languages, maths, science, arts and social sciences  Special needs teachers  Guidance counsellors  Requirements for VET teachers are high  Masters/bachelor’s degree (depending on the particular VET field)  Minimum three years work experience in the field  VET teacher education: one year of pedagogical studies(mostly combined with teaching in a VET institution )in a vocational teacher education institution  Approximately 75% of IVET teachers are formally qualified.

18 Challenges of VET  Changing increasing and diversifying skills needs  Matching VET to the skills of the labour market  Ageing population  Engaging the whole youth cohort in education- VET or academic  Skills development of those in working life or who are unemployed  Engagement of employers  Developing incentives for employers to participate in the funding of VET and in training the students  Changing and diversifying group of learners  New Learning methods and environments  Growing expectations and demands on education and training  Quality, skills needs, effectiveness and cost-efficiency.

19 Developing VET teachers professional skills  VET providers are responsible for VET teachers’ competence development  Public funding for VET providers also caters to staff development costs  The government supports the continuing training of VET teachers  Training priorities are established annually according to national VET policy  TVET teachers are actively participating in developing VET  Primarily through the developmental activities of the VET providers  Via a pedagogical learning environment  Skills competition as a tool for developing VET  Work practice programmes for VET teachers  Opportunity for VET teachers to upgrade their professional skills by working in local companies  Work practice programmes are organised by VET providers in cooperation with local companies  Work practice programmes have been financially supported by the European Social Fund.

20 Lessons Learned- Finnish Experience  Professional VET teachers with a strong educational background, working life experience and pedagogical teacher training are essential for high quality VET  VET teachers competence development is the cornerstone of success for  VET institutions, VET teachers themselves, school leadership, public administration, working life  Teachers participation in the development of VET  Motivates- and enables – teachers to combine teaching and development work, which gives teachers the possibility to develop their professional skills and VET in tandem  Helps to increase the appreciation of the VET teachers’ profession  The development of teachers’ professional skills must be done in close cooperation with the world of work  Adequate public funding for the continuing training of VET teachers is important ( Dr Mika Tammilehto Director for Vocational Education and Training Vocational Education Division Department for Education Policy, Finland.)

21 Germany- Historical Development  Educational model is the domain of the federal states (Laender)  Institutionalisation of teacher training for vocational schools is closely connected with the institutionalisation of the vocational schools themselves  First training programmes developed specifically for vocational schools appeared in the mid 19 th Century.  University training followed by a two year second stage of practical training in a “studienseminaren”, culminating with a state exam.  Lateral entry to the preparatory stage is possible for certain skills shortages if the candidates are highly qualified in their area.  Interestingly, students that have a “through infusion” of specialist subject knowledge perform better with the acquisition of didactic skills, as opposed to those trainees whose complete their studies ina teaching- student specific form only.  The creation and curriculum of a vocational education teachers degree was decided upon by the Vocational and Business Pedagogy sections of the German Society for Educational Sciences in 2003. The concept behind this model is that it is multi faceted, and alongside the preparation for teaching, gives students the skills needed to work in the areas of corporate and further education.

22 Main focuses of the Vocational Teaching Degree  Fundamentals of vocational and business pedagogy;  The didactics of vocational education and further education  Conditions and structures of vocational learning  Approaches and methods of quantitative and qualitative vocational education research  Studies of teaching and instructional practices  A total of 30 weekly hours !

23 Challenges for the future  Recurring recruitment problems  Educational courses for teachers at vocational schools exist as a rule, only for professions which are quantitatively important and for which the Universities have corresponding differentiated departments for example, Electrical engineering, Business studies etc- no undergraduate educational courses exist for teachers who teach professions such as bakers, butchers etc  The theory practice problem plays a central role;  Which practice should serve as the central reference; the concrete teaching experience of the teacher or the (future)vocational practice of the students the teachers will be teaching?  Which practical benefits of educational theories are visible to the students, and how far a university education can fulfil the students expectations of receiving proven instruction for their job;  Insufficiently developed subject-specific didactics being taught primarily by practitioners.  Limited co-operation between first and second stage training- either duplicating or contradicting previous study.  Few students enrolled on vocational teaching degrees so separate classes cannot be run- timetable clashes result  A big discussion around the concept of “vocational fields” is ongoing, which some policists believe should govern the education of teachers for vocational schools to broaden their teaching remit around a specifiic field and create specialists occupational practice in all their facets, so not “mechanical” engineering or “electrical” engineering.

24 Emerging themes and conclusions  Structure and government intervention  Funding  Class structures  Status of vocational teachers raises as the efficacy and status of VET raises - if it works and students get jobs then status is raised along with the status of the teachers involved  Mandatory requirements to train and become qualified affect perceptions of professionalism  VET is key and as long as England does not recognise this – teacher training will not be given the recognition it deserves.  What are the challenges?

25 Challenges for England  The meaning of employer engagement is very fluid.  Few countries have achieved strong employer engagement without an equally strong apprenticeship system, which remains elusive in England and Wales.  In spite of the government’s declared intention to have much VET employer- led, the delivery of the Leitch targets will require a very strong lead from government.  Policy structures are both more complex and more unstable than in most other OECD countries, and this inhibits employer engagement.  A demand-driven system may imply more of a market in providers. But attempts to open up the market have been halting and the effects uncertain.  While there is a substantial base of data and analysis, it remains fragmented, with inadequate attention to international experience.  The current sharp economic downturn is imposing a number of pressures on the skills system. Discuss….

26 Recommendations  Priorities for employer engagement should be clearly defined and the rationale for seeking that engagement should be set out by the governments of England and Wales. Evidence on employer engagement should be further developed. Fragmented surveys should so far as possible be consolidated and co-ordinated.  2. Given that complexity and volatility in the VET system hinder employer engagement, the institutions of the VET system should be simplified and stabilised. We welcome and support the proposals of the UK Commission for Employment and Skills (UKCES) in this respect. These proposals need to be sustained and further developed.  3. As a way to engage employers so as to reach the skills targets identified in the Leitch report, governments in England and Wales should explore measures including those designed to reduce the cost of training, the establishment of a stronger evidence base to encourage employer support for training, and, possibly, the use of compulsive measures including training levies.  4. Attempts to foster employer engagement in England and Wales should be closely linked to the development of the apprenticeship system.  5. Governments in England and Wales should take account of previous experience, including international experience, when extending the market in VET provision. In particular users need good information about the quality of different programmes and institutions.  6. England and Wales should take account of international evidence more routinely in its policy-making process. Consider the establishment of a national VET institution to oversee VET research and analysis. OECD Directorate for Education, Education and Training Policy Division October 2009


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