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Kumar119/ MAPLD 20041 A GENERIC COMPONENT BASED EXPERT SYSTEM SHELL FOR AIRBORNE EQUIPMENT DESIGN B.Ramesh Kumar 1, J.Shanmugam 1, S.Janarthanan 2 & R.Santhiseela.

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Presentation on theme: "Kumar119/ MAPLD 20041 A GENERIC COMPONENT BASED EXPERT SYSTEM SHELL FOR AIRBORNE EQUIPMENT DESIGN B.Ramesh Kumar 1, J.Shanmugam 1, S.Janarthanan 2 & R.Santhiseela."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kumar119/ MAPLD A GENERIC COMPONENT BASED EXPERT SYSTEM SHELL FOR AIRBORNE EQUIPMENT DESIGN B.Ramesh Kumar 1, J.Shanmugam 1, S.Janarthanan 2 & R.Santhiseela 2 1 Madras Institute of Technology, India 2 Defence R&D Organisation, India

2 Kumar119/ MAPLD Objective Expert System for GAS Expert System to provide Guidelines Architecture Selection Environmental Testing EMI/EMC Reliability Engineering Testability Power Expert System for Auditing - To Provide Testing Procedure for the equipment & component and help the designer with the evaluation process Expert System for Searching

3 Kumar119/ MAPLD Why such a System is needed? Problem 1: Interlinking of various domains The design of airborne equipment requires expertise knowledge in various interdependent domains Thus the simultaneous processing of all domains make the design complex If the airborne equipment is going to be critical in its function, then the design becomes more complex All these burdens the designer Problem 2 : Voluminous of Parameters In the design of airborne equipment lots of parameters have to be considered in detail Due to voluminous of data and parameter, the designer can leave some parameters unnoticed or may skip one or more design steps

4 Kumar119/ MAPLD Expert System The British Computer Society’s specialist group on Expert System produced the following formal definition: “An Expert System is regarded as the embodiment within a computer of a knowledge-based component, from an expert skill, in such a form that the system can offer intelligent advice or decision about a processing function” ACQUISITION QUERIES + EXPLANATION KNOWLEDGEBASE INFERENCE ENGINE HUMAN EXPERT USER KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING

5 Kumar119/ MAPLD How KNOWLEDGE BASE for Airborne Equipment Design is Framed? Block_Name Value_1 Value_2 … Value_n End Architecture_Candidate Processor Buses Topology End Processor Type_Of_Processor Speed Throughput Weight End Generalised Example

6 Kumar119/ MAPLD How INFERENCE ENGINE in Airborne Equipment Design Expert System Works? Buses Bus_Width Bus_Speed Transmission End Architecture_Candidate Processor Buses Topology End Processor Type_Of_Processor Speed Throughput Weight End Using Forward Chaining Method

7 Kumar119/ MAPLD Generic Components Based Expert System Shell Generic Inference Engine Knowledge Base 1 Knowledge Base 2 Knowledge Base 3 Knowledge Base n User Interface......

8 Kumar119/ MAPLD Architecture Selection Process Frame Standard Metrics Determine Physical Constraints Select Architecture Candidates appropriately Architecture Candidates Computation Element Communication Element Configuration

9 Kumar119/ MAPLD User Interface Architecture Guidelines

10 Kumar119/ MAPLD User Interface Reliability Engg.

11 Kumar119/ MAPLD User Interface Environmental Testing

12 Kumar119/ MAPLD User Interface Testability Design Guidelines

13 Kumar119/ MAPLD Testability Design Guidelines Evaluation of Equipment Equipment = Digital Circuits + Analog Circuits + PSU + RF Evaluation of Digital Circuits

14 Kumar119/ MAPLD User Interface Testability Evaluation of Airborne Equipment

15 Kumar119/ MAPLD Testability Evaluation of Equipment Some areas in Design & some sample Questions Design AreasSample Questions Weight (0  Weight  10) Expert 1Expert 2Expert 3 Mechanical Design Is a standard grid layout used on boards to facilitate identification of components? Is enough spacing provided between components to allow for clips and test probes? Partitioning Is each function to be tested placed wholly upon one board? If more than one function is placed on a board, can each be tested independently? Parts Selection Is the number of different part types the minimum possible? Have parts been selected which are well characterised in terms of failure modes? Analog Design Is one test point per discrete active stage brought out to the connector? Is each test point adequately buffered or isolated from the main signal path? Digital Design Does the design contain only synchronous logic? Are all clocks of differing phases and frequencies derived from a single master clock? NA 9898

16 Kumar119/ MAPLD Testability Evaluation of Equipment Statistical Analysis Some Experts’ expertise in particular field like Analog, Digital, PSU etc., So more Weightage is given to the score, given by the Expert of that particular field Analog Expert Analog Design Digital Design PSU BIT More Weightage

17 Kumar119/ MAPLD Testability Evaluation of Digital Circuits Testability, TY = f (Controllability,Observability) Testability Measures - studied –SCOAP (Sandia Controllability Observability Analysis Program) –TMEAS (Testability MEASurement program) –CAMLOT (Computer-Aided Measure for LOgic Testability) CAMLOT was chosen

18 Kumar119/ MAPLD Testability Evaluation of Digital Circuits ATPG - Modified FAN (FANout algorithm) Propagate the fault to Primary Output (PO) Backtrace from PO to all Primary Inputs (PIs) Proceed with forward tracing from PIs to all Pos ATPG Algorithms analysed –D-Algorithm –PODEM –FAN FAN Algorithm is chosen, and modified to suit our need

19 Kumar119/ MAPLD Testability Evaluation of Digital Circuits Working of Modified FAN Algorithm ABCABC Y ABCABC Y ABCABC Y ABCABC Y Y ABCABC X 1. Fixing fault 2. Making Line to be fault 3. Propagate the fault to (PO 4. Backtrace PO value to PI 5. Find all Line values (Test patterns)

20 Kumar119/ MAPLD User Interface Testability Evaluation

21 Kumar119/ MAPLD Electromagnetic Interference/ Compatibility (Applicable to Airborne Equipments Excluding RF)

22 Kumar119/ MAPLD User Interface Electromagnetic Interference/ Compatibility

23 Kumar119/ MAPLD User Interface EMI/ EMC Evaluation 1 2 3

24 Kumar119/ MAPLD User Interface Electric Power Guidelines

25 Kumar119/ MAPLD User Interface Expert System Based Guidelines Search 1.Enter the Question 2.On search, identifies the keywords and searches for them 3.It displays the matches found 4.It asks the user to select the preferred match 5.It displays the guidelines for the selected match

26 Kumar119/ MAPLD Organisation of Knowledge Base for Expert Search Rule Structure Blockname Predecessor end Example B1 B0.1 end B1.1 B1 end B1.3 B1 end B1.3.1 B1.3 end How Inference Engine Works Here? Searching for B1.3.1(end branch of a tree) leads to the identification of B1.3 which in turn identifies B1. Similarly the iteration continues till it finds the root (B0.1)

27 Kumar119/ MAPLD Who can use this System? Fresh Designer (as Study Material and as thumb rules for design) Designer (during Design process) Designer (after Design is complete for Evaluation)

28 Kumar119/ MAPLD References [1] Dutta.S, 1997, Strategies For Implementing Knowledge Based Systems, 20132, IEEE Trans. Engineering Management, pp [2] Santhiseela.R and Janarthanan.S, 2003, An Expert System For Automatic Fault Diagnosis Of A Quadruplex Digital Computer, International Conf on Advances in Aerospace Science, pp [3] Spitzer.R.Cary, 1993, Digital Avionics Systems: Principles And Practices, Ed 2, MGH Inc. [4] James.P.Ignizio, 1991, Introduction To Expert Systems – The Development And Implementation Of Rule Based Expert System, NY, MGH Inc. [5] Spitzer.R.Cary, 2001, The Avionics Handbook, NY, CRC Press. [6] Donald.A.Waterman, 1985, A Guide To Expert Systems, MA, Addison-Wesley Pubs Co. [7] James.N.Siddall, 1990, Expert System For Engineers, NY, Marcel Dekker Inc. [8] Dickman.T.J and Roberts.T.M, 1988, Modular Avionics System Architecture Decision Support System, IEEE 88CH2596-5, Proc. IEEE 1988 NAECON, pp [9] MIL-HDBK-338B, 1998, Electronic Reliability Design Handbook, USA, DOD.

29 Kumar119/ MAPLD References [10] MIL-STD-810F, 2000, Test Method For Environmental Engineering Considerations And Laboratory Tests, USA, DOD. [11] MIL-STD-461D, 1993, Requirements For The Control Of Electromagnetic Interference Emission And Susceptibility, USA, DOD. [12] MIL-HDBK-1857, 1998, Grounding Bonding and Shielding Design Practices, USA, DOD. [13] MIL-STD-2165, 1985, Testability Program For Electronic Systems And Equipment, USA, DOD. [14] Kovijanic.P.G, 1979, Testability Analysis, IEEE Test Conference, Digest Of Papers, pp [15] MIL-STD-704E, 1991, Aircraft Electric Power Characteristics, USA, DOD. [16] Bennetts.R.G, Maunder.C.M and Robinson.G.D, 1981, CAMLOT: A Computer Aided Measure Of Logic Testability, Vol. 2, Proc. IEEE International Conference On Circuit and Computers. [17] Fujiwara.H and Shimono.T, 1983, On The Acceleration Of Test Generation Algorithms, Vol. C-32, IEEE Trans. Computers, pp


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