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CHAPTER 50 AN INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY AND THE BIOSPERE Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Section B1: Factors Affecting the Distribution of Organisms 1.Species dispersal contributes to the distribution of organisms 2. Behavior and habitat selection contribute to the distribution of organisms 3. Biotic factors affect the distribution of organisms 4. Abiotic factors affect the distribution of organisms
Ecologists have long recognized distinct global and regional patterns in the distribution of organisms. Introduction Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 50.4
Biogeography is the study of past and present distributions of individual species, which provides a good starting point to understanding what limits geographic distributions. Ecologists ask a series of questions to determine what limits the geographical distribution of any species. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 50.5
Species transplants. One way to determine if dispersal is a factor in limiting distribution is to analyze the results when humans have accidentally or intentionally transplanted a species to areas where it was previously absent. 1. Species dispersal contributes to the distribution of organisms Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
If the transplant was successful, then the potential range of the species is larger than the actual range. If the transplant was unsuccessful, then distribution is limited by other species or abiotic factors. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 50.6
Problems with Introduced Species. Transplanted species often explode to occupy an new area. The African honeybee and Zebra mussel are good examples of this explosion. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 50.7
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 50.8
Sometimes organisms do not occupy all of their potential range, but select particular habitats. 2. Behavior and habitat selection contribute to the distribution of organisms Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Predator removal experiments can show how predators limit distribution of prey species. 3. Biotic factors affect the distribution of organisms Fig Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Temperature: some organisms can only tolerate specific ranges of temperature. Water: some organisms can only tolerate either fresh or salt water. Sunlight provides energy that drives nearly all ecosystems. The intensity and quality of light, and photoperiod can be important to the development and behavior of many organisms. 4. Abiotic factors affect the distribution of organisms Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Wind amplifies the effects of temperature by increasing heat and water loss (wind-chill factor). Rocks and soil: the physical structure and mineral composition of soils and rocks limit distribution of plants and the animals that feed upon them. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece.
Chapter 50 An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell.
Ecology The end is near. What is ecology The scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environment Basic ecology provides scientific.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Bellringer – August 30, 2013 Chapter 4 Section 1 Ecosystems: Everything.
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Ecosystems: Everything is Connected “When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe.” – John Mur, American.
Unit 2 – Ecological Organization Important introductory terminology (Levels of Organization): organism organism - An individual living thing, ex: frog,
Life Science Ecology & the Environment. Ecology Study of the interactions that take place among organisms and their environment.
Interactions of Living Things Guided Notes Food Chains, Food Webs, and the Transfer of Energy.
I. Niche Describes what an organism does and how it interacts with the biotic and abiotic factors of its environment. Describes what an organism does.
“Land Biomes of the World” Mrs. Hartge’s Science Class.
Biomes. What is a Biome? Biomes are large regions characterized by a specific type of climate and certain types of plant and animal communities. –Each.
Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Chapter 3. Limiting Factors Any abiotic or biotic actor that restricts the numbers, reproduction, or distribution.
What Shapes an Ecosystem?. Biotic Factors – living/biological influences on organisms within an ecosystem. –Examples? Abiotic Factors – physical/non-living.
Sampling techniques and the measurement of abiotic and biotic factors.
Levels of Organization in Ecology What is the correct level of organization (think back to the card activity from our previous class)? atom molecule.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation TransparenciesStandardized Test Prep Visual.
Biology CST Review PowerPoint in Ecology. ACCORDING TO THE BLUEPRINTS… 6. Stability in an ecosystem is a balance between competing effects. As a basis.
Ecosystems Abiotic Factors & Plants & Animals. Essential Standards 6.L.2 Understand the flow of energy through ecosystems and the responses of populations.
Ch 36 Energy in Ecosystems Ch 36 Energy in Ecosystems 36.1 Food Chains & Food Webs.
Today I will study the components of an ecosystem because I need to understand how living things depend on one another.
By Edward Harrison. This refers to the amount of energy fixed per unit area per unit time in an ecosystem by a particular trophic level. The net productivity.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Understanding Populations Chapter 8 POPULATIONS: How Populations.
Chapter 4! Evolution, Biological Communities, and Species Interactions.
EcologyEcology: the study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment Ecology.
Look at the picture on p. 210 of your text. 1. Would a change in the number of sea lions have an effect on the orcas? 2. Would it make a difference if.
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