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CHAPTER 50 AN INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY AND THE BIOSPERE Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Section B1: Factors Affecting.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 50 AN INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY AND THE BIOSPERE Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Section B1: Factors Affecting."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 50 AN INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY AND THE BIOSPERE Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Section B1: Factors Affecting the Distribution of Organisms 1.Species dispersal contributes to the distribution of organisms 2. Behavior and habitat selection contribute to the distribution of organisms 3. Biotic factors affect the distribution of organisms 4. Abiotic factors affect the distribution of organisms

2 Ecologists have long recognized distinct global and regional patterns in the distribution of organisms. Introduction Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 50.4

3 Biogeography is the study of past and present distributions of individual species, which provides a good starting point to understanding what limits geographic distributions. Ecologists ask a series of questions to determine what limits the geographical distribution of any species. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 50.5

4 Species transplants. One way to determine if dispersal is a factor in limiting distribution is to analyze the results when humans have accidentally or intentionally transplanted a species to areas where it was previously absent. 1. Species dispersal contributes to the distribution of organisms Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

5 If the transplant was successful, then the potential range of the species is larger than the actual range. If the transplant was unsuccessful, then distribution is limited by other species or abiotic factors. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 50.6

6 Problems with Introduced Species. Transplanted species often explode to occupy an new area. The African honeybee and Zebra mussel are good examples of this explosion. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 50.7

7 Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 50.8

8 Sometimes organisms do not occupy all of their potential range, but select particular habitats. 2. Behavior and habitat selection contribute to the distribution of organisms Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

9 Predator removal experiments can show how predators limit distribution of prey species. 3. Biotic factors affect the distribution of organisms Fig Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

10 Temperature: some organisms can only tolerate specific ranges of temperature. Water: some organisms can only tolerate either fresh or salt water. Sunlight provides energy that drives nearly all ecosystems. The intensity and quality of light, and photoperiod can be important to the development and behavior of many organisms. 4. Abiotic factors affect the distribution of organisms Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

11 Wind amplifies the effects of temperature by increasing heat and water loss (wind-chill factor). Rocks and soil: the physical structure and mineral composition of soils and rocks limit distribution of plants and the animals that feed upon them. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


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