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4/17/20151 Improving Memory Bank-Level Parallelism in the Presence of Prefetching Chang Joo Lee Veynu Narasiman Onur Mutlu* Yale N. Patt Electrical and.

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Presentation on theme: "4/17/20151 Improving Memory Bank-Level Parallelism in the Presence of Prefetching Chang Joo Lee Veynu Narasiman Onur Mutlu* Yale N. Patt Electrical and."— Presentation transcript:

1 4/17/20151 Improving Memory Bank-Level Parallelism in the Presence of Prefetching Chang Joo Lee Veynu Narasiman Onur Mutlu* Yale N. Patt Electrical and Computer Engineering The University of Texas at Austin * Electrical and Computer Engineering Carnegie Mellon University

2 4/17/20152 Main Memory System Crucial to high performance computing Made of DRAM chips Multiple banks → Each bank can be accessed independently

3 4/17/20153 Memory Bank-Level Parallelism (BLP) Req B0 Req B1 bank 0 bank 1 DRAM system DRAM controller DRAM DRAM request buffer Req B1 Bank 0 Bank 1 Time Overlapped time Req B0 Data bus Data for Req B0 Data for Req B1 Older DRAM throughput increased

4 4/17/20154 Memory Latency-Tolerance Mechanisms Out-of-order execution, prefetching, runahead etc. Increase outstanding memory requests on the chip –Memory-Level Parallelism (MLP) [Glew’98] Hope many requests will be serviced in parallel in the memory system Higher performance can be achieved when BLP is exposed to the DRAM controller

5 4/17/20155 Problems On-chip buffers e.g., Miss Status Holding Registers (MSHRs) are limited in size –Limit the BLP exposed to the DRAM controller –E.g., requests to the same bank fill up MSHRs In CMPs, memory requests from different cores are mixed together in DRAM request buffers –Destroy the BLP of each application running on CMPs Request Issue policies are critical to BLP exploited by DRAM controller

6 4/17/20156 Goals 1. Maximize the BLP exposed from each core to the DRAM controller → Increase DRAM throughput for useful requests 2. Preserve the BLP of each application in CMPs → Increase system performance BLP-Aware Prefetch Issue (BAPI): Decides the order in which prefetches are sent from prefetcher to MSHRs BLP-Preserving Multi-core Request Issue (BPMRI): Decides the order in which memory requests are sent from each core to DRAM request buffers Goals and Proposal

7 4/17/20157 DRAM BLP-Aware Request Issue Policies BLP-Aware Prefetch Issue (BAPI)BLP-Aware Prefetch Issue (BAPI) BLP-Preserving Multi-core Request Issue (BPMRI)

8 4/17/20158 What Can Limit DRAM BLP? Miss Status Holding Registers (MSHRs) are NOT large enough to handle many memory requests [Tuck, MICRO’06] –MSHRs keep track of all outstanding misses for a core → Total number of demand/prefetch requests ≤ total number of MSHR entries –Complex, latency-critical, and power-hungry → Not scalable Request issue policy to MSHRs affects the level of BLP exploited by DRAM controller

9 4/17/20159 What Can Limit DRAM BLP? Prefetch request buffer MSHRs Dem B0 β:β: α To DRAM Core Pref B0 Pref B1 DRAM request buffers Bank 0 Bank 1 DRAM service time Overlapped time Dem B0Pref B0 Pref B1 DRAM service time Overlapped time Dem B0Pref B0 Pref B1 Bank 0 Bank 1  FIFO (Intel Core)  BLP-aware Bank 0Bank 1 Saved time Older α:α: Increasing the number of requests ≠ high DRAM BLP β 2 requests0 request Pref B0 Pref B1 β Simple issue policy improves DRAM BLP 1 request Full

10 4/17/ BLP-Aware Prefetch Issue (BAPI) Sends prefetches to MSHRs based on current BLP exposed in the memory system –Sends a prefetch mapped to the least busy DRAM bank Adaptively limits the issue of prefetches based on prefetch accuracy estimation –Low prefetch accuracy → Fewer prefetches issued to MSHRs –High prefetch accuracy → Maximize BLP

11 4/17/ Implementation of BAPI FIFO prefetch request buffer per DRAM bank –Stores prefetches mapped to the corresponding DRAM bank MSHR occupancy counter per DRAM bank –Keeps track of the number of outstanding requests to the corresponding DRAM bank Prefetch accuracy register –Stores the estimated prefetch accuracy periodically

12 4/17/ BAPI Policy Every prefetch issue cycle 1.Make the oldest prefetch to each bank valid only if the bank’s MSHR occupancy counter ≤ prefetch send threshold 2.Among valid prefetches, select the request to the bank with minimum MSHR occupancy counter value

13 4/17/ Adaptivity of BAPI Prefetch Send Threshold –Reserves MSHR entries for prefetches to different banks –Adjusted based on prefetch accuracy Low prefetch accuracy → low prefetch send threshold High prefetch accuracy → high prefetch send threshold

14 4/17/ DRAM BLP-Aware Request Issue Policies BLP-Aware Prefetch Issue (BAPI) BLP-Preserving Multi-core Request Issue (BPMRI)BLP-Preserving Multi-core Request Issue (BPMRI)

15 4/17/ BLP Destruction in CMP Systems DRAM request buffers are shared by multiple cores –To exploit the BLP of a core, the BLP should be exposed to DRAM request buffers –BLP potential of a core can be destroyed by the interference from other cores’ requests Request issue policy from each core to DRAM request buffers affects BLP of each application

16 4/17/ Why is DRAM BLP Destroyed? To DRAM Core A DRAM request buffers Bank 0 Bank 1 Time Req A0  Round-robin  BLP-Preserving Bank 0Bank 1 Core B Request issuer Req A0 Req A1 Req B1 Req B0 Req B1Req A1 Core A Core B Stall Bank 0 Bank 1 Time Req A0 Req B0 Req B1 Req A1 Core A Core B Stall Saved cycles for Core A Increased cycles for Core B Req A0 Req A1 Req B1 Req B0 DRAM controller Older Serializes requests from each core Issue policy should preserve DRAM BLP

17 4/17/ BLP-Preserving Multi-Core Request Issue (BPMRI) Consecutively sends requests from one core to DRAM request buffers Limits the maximum number of consecutive requests sent from one core –Prevent starvation of memory non-intensive applications Prioritizes memory non-intensive applications –Impact of delaying requests from memory non-intensive application > Impact of delaying requests from memory intensive application

18 4/17/ Implementation of BPMRI Last-level (L2) cache miss counter per core –Stores the number of L2 cache misses from the core Rank register per core –Fewer L2 cache misses → higher rank –More L2 cache misses → lower rank

19 4/17/ BPMRI Policy Every request issue cycle If consecutive requests from selected core ≥ request send threshold then selected core ← highest ranked core issue oldest request from selected core

20 4/17/ Simulation Methodology x86 cycle accurate simulator Baseline processor configuration –Per core 4-wide issue, out-of-order, 128-entry ROB Stream prefetcher (prefetch degree: 4, prefetch distance: 64) 32-entry MSHRs 512KB 8-way L2 cache –Shared On-chip, demand-first FR-FCFS memory controller(s) 1, 2, 4 DRAM channels for 1, 4, 8-core systems 64, 128, 512-entry DRAM request buffers for 1, 4 and 8-core systems DDR DRAM, ns, 8KB row buffer

21 4/17/ Simulation Methodology Workloads –14 most memory-intensive SPEC CPU 2000/2006 benchmarks for single-core system –30 and 15 SPEC 2000/2006 workloads for 4 and 8-core CMPs Pseudo-randomly chosen multiprogrammed BAPI’s prefetch send threshold: BPMRI’s request send threshold: 10 Prefetch accuracy estimation and rank decision are made every 100K cycles Prefetch accuracy (%)0~4040~8585~100 Threshold1727

22 4/17/ Performance of BLP-Aware Issue Policies 4-core8-core 1-core 13.8% 13.6%8.5%

23 4/17/ Hardware Storage Cost for 4-core CMP Cost (bits) BAPI94,368 BPMRI72 Total94,440 Total storage: 94,440 bits (11.5KB) –0.6% of L2 cache data storage Logic is not on the critical path –Issue decision can be made slower than processor cycle

24 4/17/ Conclusion Uncontrolled memory request issue policies limit the level of BLP exploited by DRAM controller BLP-Aware Prefetch Issue –Increases the BLP of useful requests from each core exposed to DRAM controller BLP-Preserving Multi-core Request Issue –Ensures requests from the same core can be serviced in parallel by DRAM controller Simple, low-storage cost Significantly improve DRAM throughput and performance for both single and multi-core systems Applicable to other memory technologies

25 4/17/ Questions?


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