Phraseology—returns to center of Linguistics “You shall know a word by the company it keeps” (Firth, 1957) “…meaning arises from words in particular combinations…” (Sinclair, 2004) Unit of language is “ the phrase, the whole phrase, and nothing but the phrase” (Sinclair, 2008)
Phraseology—returns to center of Linguistics ….research in phraseology can also contribute to language acquisition theory by revealing something of the semantic complexity of languages and the cognitive processes which lie behind language learning and use, and which enable us to become fluent language users. (Kennedy, G. 2008:40)
Syllabus requirement Syllabus for English Majors (2000): Grade 1---(4000—5000 words) and 2000-2500 words and their basic collocations Grade 2---(5500-6500 words) and 3000-4000 words and their basic collocations Syllabus for Non-English Majors (2004): 6500 words and their basic collocations
Case study Size of the text corpus (B2U1, B2 & B1) and the reference corpus 2009 COCA Corpus Total number of words B2U1 2,775 B2 48,091 B1 56,278 2009 COCA 20,000,000
Procedure of the corpus research 1) The first step is to compare the 637-word glossaries of B2 (“An Integrated English Course” Book Two), the 3,300 words in senior high school text books, and the 570-word families in Coxhead’s Academic Word List (AWL, 2000), so as to classify the new academic verbs presented in the university textbook B2; 2) The second step is to retrieve the new academic verbs in B2 as to find out their chunk patterns in the textbook; 3) The third step is to carry out Questionnaire One to check how the Grade One English majors view these new academic verbs and their collocational knowledge;
Procedure of the corpus research 4) The fourth step is to check the chunks of the new academic verbs of B2 in the reference corpora 2009 COCA; 5) The fifth step is to compare the verbal chunks presented in the textbooks and those in 2009 COCA so that their panorama in the textbooks can be viewed. 6) The last step is to carry out Questionnaire Two to find out how much the Grade One English majors understand these verbal chunks and how they think of the corpus-based vocabulary teaching.
Results and Discussion Frequency of the 7 AWL verbs in B2U1, B2 and B1 assuredefineestablishintegraterestrainsuspendsustain B2U1 2321111 B2 910515221 B1 20219000
Results and Discussion Frequency and appearances of the 3 verbs in B2U1, B2 and B1 restrainsuspendsustain B2U1Once (Multiple Choice ) B2Once (rewriting exercise) Once (Multiple Choice) Once (prefix exercise) Once (Multiple Choice) B1zero
Results and Discussion Grammatical and Semantic information of sustain in 2009 COCA 147 tokens percentageprosodymeanings associating words vi.8 (5.4%)neutralkeepdifficult, expensive, harder vt.139 (94.6%)negativeendure, suffer microbes, flood, trance, pretense, deficit, debt, nonsense, fight, ruse, combat, drug abuse… neutralkeeppopulation, payment, sales, inhabitants positivemaintain; encourage Creation, enjoyment, paradise, friendship, benefit, effort
Results and Discussion Colligation pattern and semantic information of “sustain” in 2009 COCA colligation patternsemantic preference semantic prosody sustain (vt.) sustain + n. sustain + pronoun. co-occurring with words indicating terror, or unhappiness neutral sustain (vi.) can/can’t sustain v. + to sustain sustain against + n. co-occurring with words indicating disagreement, dissatisfaction, feeling cold, or just a kind of movement of sth. neutral
Results and Discussion Frequency and collocates of “sustain” in Wordfrequency List by Davies (2010 IDlemma lemmaPo S collocatecollPoSfreqmutInfo % coll < node 224mustvsustainv721.050.20 455effortnsustainv1052.580.60 609difficultjsustainv1183.190.08 756seriousjsustainv401.970.88 770resourcensustainv812.90.27 102 9 generationnsustainv281.850.72 150 5 cutnsustainv171.730.75 (Selected from http://www.wordfrequency.info/files/entriesWithCollocates.zip )http://www.wordfrequency.info/files/entriesWithCollocates.zip
Corpus based/aided Research on EFL Teaching Applying corpus to EFL Teaching Building corpus for EFL Teaching Pedagogical implication
Problems of applying corpus linguistic to EFL Teaching How to get relevant corpus for learners? How to design corpus-aided activity matching the ongoing teaching demands? How to make huge corpus data manageable in classroom teaching? How to evaluate corpus-aided teaching effect?
Free Corpus Websites Bank of English: http://www.collins.co.uk/Corpus/CorpusSearch.aspxhttp://www.collins.co.uk/Corpus/CorpusSearch.aspx British National Corpus (100 MILLION WORDS, UK, 1980s-1993): http://corpus.byu.edu/bnc/ http://corpus.byu.edu/bnc/ Corpus of Contemporary American English (1990-2009): http://www.americancorpus.org/http://www.americancorpus.org/ WebCorp:http://www.webcorp.org.uk/index.html Time Magazine Corpus (1923-2009): http://corpus.byu.edu/time/http://corpus.byu.edu/time/ Virtual Language Centre: http://www.edict.com.hk/concordance (The Starr Report, Brown, LOB, The Times (Jan, Feb, Mar) 3 files, SCMP, Business & Economy, Computing…)http://www.edict.com.hk/concordance MICASE ： http://www.hti.umich.edu/m/micase/ http://www.hti.umich.edu/m/micase/ CLEC Online Concordancer ： http://www.clal.org.cn/corpus/EngSearchEngine.aspx http://www.clal.org.cn/corpus/EngSearchEngine.aspx Leeds Collection of Internet Corpora: http://corpus.leeds.ac.uk/internet.htmlhttp://corpus.leeds.ac.uk/internet.html
Thank you! Any suggestions or criticism are highly appreciated!