Presentation on theme: "BIOMASS: first steps from selection to reality"— Presentation transcript:
1BIOMASS: first steps from selection to reality Shaun QueganUniversity of SheffieldCTCD - National Centre for Earth Observation
2Structure of talkWhat does BIOMASS do and why? What is it? Where are we? What needs doing?
3Biomass will map forest biomass, height and change with unprecedented accuracyForest biomass and forest height:global, 200 m scale, every 6 months for 4 years, 20% accuracy in biomass, 20-30% accuracy in heightDisturbances: global, at 50 m scaleBIOMASS will produce a series of global maps of forest biomass, forest height and forest disturbance at a precision, accuracy and resolution that will revolutionise our knowledge of the biosphere, its dynamics, and its interactions with the atmosphere.Specifically, these maps will help answer an urgent question: “What is the role of biomass in the global carbon cycle?”
4Biomass is strongly linked to societal benefits Forest biomass is basic to the energy, material, environmental protection, biodiversity & cultural benefits offered by forestsNote : ~80% of the energy use in sub-Saharan Africa comes from biomass burning
5Largest biomass uncertainty Biomass is needed to calculate carbon fluxes, so crucial for climate and treatiesLand usechangeLand use changereforestationfire & climate warmingdroughtpestsregrowthReducing Emissions from Deforestation & Degradation (UN-REDD+)Global Forest Observations InitiativeWhere are biomass estimates most uncertain and where are the critical zones of forest change? The Tropics and Asia have limited inventory systems, and incomplete data. The tropics have high biomass and ongoing LUC.Climate change, including warming and drought may have impacts in tropical and boreal zones. Reforestation is occurring in China at high rates. Pests and forest regrowth are documented in North America.The UN programme on reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation is focused on the tropics, as this is where LUC occurs - but lacks appropriate data to determine biomass changes.***********Be prepared to mention SOTRLargest biomass uncertainty
6(Polarimetric SAR Interferometry) The Biomass mission will make 3 types of measurement relevant to biomassPolSAR(SAR Polarimetry)PolInSAR(Polarimetric SAR Interferometry)xyzoTomoSAR(SAR Tomography)xyzoxyzo
7TimelineMay 2013: BIOMASS selected November 2013: 1st meeting of the new Mission Advisory Group; Phase B1 industrial BIOMASS design studies placed. June 2014: 2nd MAG meeting Activities around African airborne and in situ campaign. KO of initial science studies (Level 2 studies; in situ networks) October 2014: B1 studies completed November 2014: review by PBEO and approval for phase B2 March 2015: ITT for Phase B2 June 2015: Phase B2/C/D begins 2020: Planned launch date
8Mission budgetTotal budget = €470M Industrial return = €220M; this must satisfy geo-return Science budget = €10M. Implication: national funding is crucial to develop the science programme underpinning BIOMASS
9Calibration is crucial, and teaches us about the ionosphere 07/22/12Calibration is crucial, and teaches us about the ionosphereOrbit cycle nOrbit cycle n+1Calibration, Ionospheric correctionPolarimetryHHHVVVPhasedifferencesPolarimetry+InterferometryRetrieval algorithmThe need to map biomass drives us immediately towards radar.Optical sensors see biochemistry, radar sensitive to structure.What sort of radar?Polarimetry (figs on R)Repeat pass for interferometryBoth critical as we can seeForest biomassForest heightForest disturbance9
10Campaign data for testing retrieval methods and assessing performance KrycklanRemningstorpAlaskaLandesMaineLa Selva,Costa RicaParacouF.GuianaKalimantanColombiaMajor recent ESA campaigns:Kalimantan 2004 (Indrex)Remningstorp 2007 (BioSAR 1), 2010 (BioSAR 3)Krycklan 2008 (BioSAR 2)F. Guiana 2009 (TropiSAR), (TropiScat)ESA campaignsnon-ESA campaigns
11Working with key worldwide in situ networks In situ network led by Smithsonian, including Centre for Tropical Forest ScienceRainforAfritron
12Global consistency in the biomass – P-band backscatter relationship: why? Similar power-law relationships between backscatter and biomass are found for all forests where we have data:Inversion techniques need to deal with data dispersion and differences between different types of forest
13Exploiting biomass data to learn about forest mortality If rate of loss of biomass is proportional to biomass, with rate coefficient α, residence time thenwhere is mean production of biomass.What can we infer about forest mortality from current sub-optimal estimates of biomass and Net Production?
14Final Remarks Six years is not long, and a lot needs to be done. BIOMASS relies on supporting science activities and can provide a framework around which science activities can cluster, to mutual benefitThere is a need to grow the community of scientists interacting with the BIOMASS mission, especially younger scientistsSix years is a long time for some of us!
16Area (Millions of hectares) Global forest cover & biomass distribution is concentrated within the tropicsTotal Forest Area: 31% of the land surfaceForest BiomeArea (Millions of hectares)Biomass(tons/hectare)Total Biomass(gigatons)Boreal137283-128Temperate1038Tropical1755TOTAL4165meanWe know that global forest cover & biomass distribution is concentrated within the tropics. There are significant forests also located in temperate and boreal latitudes. In all cases the is significant uncertainty among current biomass estimates. Even the total global biomass estimates vary by a factor of two.ESA GlobCover mapBiomass is concentrated within the tropics – but the numbers shown here have large uncertainties particularly around the equatorUpscaling is key because of the global distribution of forests – their enormous extent is a major challenge to monitoring.The map shows the distribution of forests globally – greener colours reflect more biomass. TPan et al., 2011; Houghton et al.,2009
17Forest biomass plays a key role in the carbon cycle and hence in climate change Biomass is ~50% carbon. Changes in forest biomass represent carbon sources (deforestation and forest degradation) and carbon sinks (forest growth).Forest biomass is crucial in the 2 fluxes on the right – but these are tied to GCP numbers
18ESA’s 7th Earth Explorer mission My name is Mathew Williams. I am an ecologist from the University of Edinburgh. I am here to present the scientific justification for the BIOMASS mission. My colleagues will continue the presentation – detailing the mission concept, the measurement system, and the performance