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Jason H.D. Cho 1,2, Parikshit Sondhi 1, Chengxiang Zhai 1, Bruce R. Schatz 1,2,3 1 Department of Computer Science, 2 Institute of Genomic Biology, 3 Department.

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Presentation on theme: "Jason H.D. Cho 1,2, Parikshit Sondhi 1, Chengxiang Zhai 1, Bruce R. Schatz 1,2,3 1 Department of Computer Science, 2 Institute of Genomic Biology, 3 Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jason H.D. Cho 1,2, Parikshit Sondhi 1, Chengxiang Zhai 1, Bruce R. Schatz 1,2,3 1 Department of Computer Science, 2 Institute of Genomic Biology, 3 Department of Medical Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL Resolving Healthcare Forum Posts via Similar Thread Retrieval

2 72% of internet users looked online for health information within the past year 18% of internet users have gone online to find others who might have health concerns similar to theirs Improving health information retrieval and similar case retrieval will improve quality of search for vast majority of users Not many posts are answered in timely manner! * Pew Research Motivation 2

3 3

4 Envisioned Response The following threads discuss similar problems:  Doritos Allergy Very Severe and New  Certain Foods + Beer = Flushing and Head Pounding…Help!  Peanut/Food Allergies …………………… 4

5 Traditionally defined as retrieving relevant cases doctors may be interested in Doctors may want to compare cases that are similar to the current patient In online domain, we define this as retrieving forum posts written by patients We tackled cases where we do not know user’s background Case Retrieval Task 5

6 Query Characteristics Queries meant for human experts not automated systems Simple non-technical language Presence of emotional statements 6

7 Document Characteristics 7

8 How can we improve case retrieval search task? How should we represent queries? Entity-based search, or context-based search? Which posts are most informative in a given thread? Can we utilize forum categories? Our Goal 8

9 Evaluation via Pooling 350K threads and 20 queries from HealthBoards 2 judges first judged 100 query-thread pairs 88% agreement (κ=0.76) 730 total judged query-thread pairs 324 relevant 406 irrelevant 9

10 Method Summary Baseline weighting First Post BM-25 Thread BM-25 Semantic weighting Medical term extraction Shallow Information Extraction Post weighting Monotonic weighting Parabolic weighting Forum Category weighting Uniform weighting (FCUW) Feedback weighting (FCFW) Q: How should we represent queries? 10

11 State of the Art Baseline Baseline BM-25 formula: c(w,t): Count of word w in thread t c(w,q): Count of word w in query q FPBM-25: Consider only the content of first post to represent the thread document TBM-25: Consider content of entire thread to represent the thread document 11

12 Results: Query Representation Comparison B1Baseline TBM B2Baseline FPBM (56.6%) (74.8%) (67.7%) Representing first post as query is better than utilizing all of the posts 12

13 Method Summary Baseline weighting First Post BM-25 Thread BM-25 Semantic weighting Medical term extraction Shallow Information Extraction Post weighting Monotonic weighting Parabolic weighting Forum Category weighting Uniform weighting (FCUW) Feedback weighting (FCFW) Q: Which one works better? Entity- based search, or context-based search? 13

14 Medical Entity Extraction Applied ADEPT toolkit (MacLean and Heer 2013) High precision but low recall 14

15 MedicalEx: Relevance Scoring Count of occurrences labeled as med entity Count of occurrences not labeled as med entity Modified query frequency 15

16 Background (BKG) Neither PE nor MED I am severly allergic to some product that is found in both Tostitos and Doritos, as well as random other types of chips. I know the solution is "don't eat chips" but what could the product be? I don't want to accidentally consume it. When I eat this, I get very bad stomach cramps and it ruins the rest of my day/night - the only solution is to go to sleep so I can't feel it. Help! Any ideas on this? Shallow Information Extraction Physical Examination (PE) Disease, Symptoms Medication (MED) Treatment, Prevention Sondhi,

17 ShallowEx: Relevance Scoring Give higher importance to PE and MED sentences Modified Query Count Word count in PE sentences Word count in MED sentences Word count in BKG sentences 17

18 Results: Semantic Methods B2Baseline FPBM S1 B2+MedEx S2B2+ShallowEx 0.53 (12.7%) (-2.5%) (4.9%) Shallow extraction is better than medical entity extraction 18

19 Method Summary Baseline weighting First Post BM-25 Thread BM-25 Semantic weighting Medical term extraction Shallow Information Extraction Post weighting Monotonic weighting Parabolic weighting Forum Category weighting Uniform weighting (FCUW) Feedback weighting (FCFW) Q: Which posts are most informative in a given thread? 19

20 Not all posts are equally representative Post Weighting Sondhi,

21 Post Weighting : gives the weight of post i in a thread with K posts 21

22 Monotonic Post Weighting Post Position i Relative Post Weight for K=10 22

23 Parabolic Post Weighting 23

24 Post Weighting Methods Evaluation 24

25 Results: Post Weighting B2Baseline FPBM P1Monotonic (8.5%) (5.3%) (9.5%) P2Parabolic (8.5%) Both post weighting schemes outperform the baseline 25

26 Method Summary Baseline weighting First Post BM-25 Thread BM-25 Semantic weighting Medical term extraction Shallow Information Extraction Post weighting Monotonic weighting Parabolic weighting Forum Category weighting Uniform weighting (FCUW) Feedback weighting (FCFW) Q: Can we utilize forum categories? 26

27 Forum Categories 27

28 Relevance feedback based on top k retrieved categories Forum Category Uniform weighting (FCUW) Forum Category Feedback weighting (FCFW) Forum Category Weighting Randomly selecting forum ID Ratio of current forum ID amongst retrieved documents 28

29 Forum Category Weighting Scoring New Score Forum Category Feedback weighting Weights for forum category weighting 29

30 Results: Forum Category Weighting B2Baseline FPBM P1Uniform weighting (10.6%) (-7.0%) (0.5%) P2Feedback weighting (8.5%) (-7.3%) (2.2%) Uniform weighting and Feedback weighting similar performance, but FCFW less parameters to tune. 30

31 Results: Method Combinations B2Baseline FPBM S2 Baseline FPBM-25 + ShallowEx C2 Monotonic + ShallowEx (14.9%) (7.6%) (12.9%) C3 Parabolic +ShallowEx C4 Monotonic + ShallowEx + FCFW (13.1%) Monotonic + ShallowEx performs the best 31

32 Conclusion Fairly high accuracy is achievable Treating first post as query performed the better than utilizing all posts in thread Shallow information extraction is better for query understanding Incorporates contextual information Utility of posts drops steadily with position Easy extension of baseline method 32

33 Future Work Recommending relevant forum posts for doctors Various online forums have ‘ask a doctor’ section Doctors will save time by recommending forum posts Intent-based case retrieval Identifying intents for both the end user and the existing posts will improve search quality Examples: Cause of symptom, managing disease, adverse effects 33

34 This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number CNS We would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their invalu- able feedback, and Institute of Genomic Biology for their computing resources. Acknowledgements 34

35 Questions? Thank you! 35

36 J. H. D. Cho and V. Q. Liao and Y. Jiang and B. Schatz, Aggregating Personal Health Messages for Scalable Comparative Effectiveness Research. ACM BCB, 2013 J. H. D. Cho and P. Sondhi and C. Zhai and B. Schatz, Resolving Healthcare Forum Posts via Similar Thread Retrieval. ACM BCB, 2014 K. Pattabiraman and P. Sondhi and C. Zhai, Exploiting Forum Thread Structures to Improve Thread Clustering. ICTIR P. Sondhi and M. Gupta and C. Zhai and J. Hockenmaier, Shallow Information Extraction from Medical Forum Data. COLING B. W. Chee and R. Berlin and B Schatz, Predicting Adverse Drug Events from Personal Health Messages, AMIA 2011 Diana L. MacLean and Jeffrey Heer. Identifying medical terms in patient- authored text: a crowdsourcing-based approach. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, pages amiajnl–2012– , May References 36

37 Features & Performance of Shallow Information Extraction Method 37

38 We use the best performing SVM based classifier (Posts: 175, Sentences: 1494) ShallowEx: Extraction Model 38


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