Presentation on theme: "BRIDGE the Gap Between Authentic Materials and Exams: Using Bridge Magazine to Prepare Students for International Exams and Maturita BRNO TROY WITT March."— Presentation transcript:
1BRIDGE the Gap Between Authentic Materials and Exams: Using Bridge Magazine to Prepare Students for International Exams and MaturitaBRNOTROY WITTMarch 22th 2013
2OVERVIEW OF THE SEMINAR PART A: Theory & Practice (25 mins)PART B: Reading (45 mins)PART C: Speaking (45 mins)PART D: Writing (45 mins)PART E: Conclusions (20 mins)
3WHY B2? Today we’ll focus on the CEFR B2 level. While B1 is the common level of achievement expected of students leaving secondary school, B2 is often required for university entrance.It is the most widely taught and tested level.Most employers use this level (with a corresponding certificate) as the benchmark for potential job candidates.
4PART A: Theory & Practice This part of the seminar will…Examine the pros and cons of ‘international’ or ‘standardized’ exam systems as a language proficiency assessment toolExplore the challenges we face as teachers in preparing our students for success in these examsConsider the value of using authentic materials in the classroom
5STANDARIZED EXAMS PROS CONS There is value in having a standard against which students can be measured.An official ‘qualification’ is an asset in both the higher-educational and professional spheres.Can be a motivator: some students are driven best by tangible goals and achievements, such as an exam certificate.The ‘one size fits all’ format does not account for different types of students and their individual learning approaches.The best students can be the worst test takers; so what does an exam result actually tell us in practical terms?Can be a demotivator: some students aren’t able to relate a certificate to actual progress in their learning, or become threatened by the prospect of sitting an exam.
6EXAM PREPARATION? Jeremy Harmer “If students who are preparing for an exam only ever look at test types, discuss exam technique, and take practice tests, lessons may become monotonous. There is also the possibility that general English improvement will be compromised at the expense of exam preparation.”Jeremy HarmerThe Practice of English Language Teaching“A common problem with exam preparation classes arises when too much time is spent on exam technique and not enough on other areas.”Jim ScrivenerLearning Teaching
7To me, exam preparation is… AS TEACHERSTo me, exam preparation is…a necessary evila challengeworth the efforta waste of timea mystery
8AUTHENTIC MATERIAL Why use authentic material in your class? Standarized exams aim to test a candidate’s proficiency in ‘real-world’ situations, which authentic resources are derived from.The ‘contrived’ construction of TEFL materials means that many natural aspects of communication are lost.Authentic materials reinforce the relationship between the classroom and the outside world, where proficiency will truly be tested.Whereas TEFL materials are tend to restrict focus to a particular linguistic point, authentic materials combine a variety of relevant linguistic elements.BRIDGE magazine provides a source of authentic materials that can be used to practice the skills tested in standardized exams as well as Maturita.
9PART B: READING This part of the seminar will… Review the different reading tasks of the City & Guilds B2 Communicator paper, and the skills required of a candidate in eachProvide practical ideas and exercises for using authentic material from Bridge magazine to develop these skills
10CITY & GUILDS: Reading Parts 1 – 4 COMMUNICATOR LEVEL B2DESCRIPTIONSKILLReading Part 1:Multiple ChoiceOne long textSix four-option multiple choicequestionsunderstand in detail information, ideas and opinionsReading Part 2:Sentence InsertionOne text with six sentencesremovedChoice of eight sentences to choosefrom to complete the six gapsunderstand how meaning is built up in a textReading Part 3:Multiple MatchingFour short texts with a linked theme,but with a different purposeNine multiple matching questions toidentify information from the textsunderstand the purpose of text and to locate specific information and awareness of writers’ stance and attitudeReading Part 4:Short AnswersNine open-ended ‘wh’ questionsrequiring short answersunderstand specific information through detailed reading
11READING: CITY & GUILDS vs. MATURITA TASKCITY & GUILDSMATURITAMultiple Choice13/1Sentence Insertion2n/aMultiple Matching34Short Answers
13READING PART 1: Multiple Choice A candidate needs to…Locate and extract detailed information, ideas & opinions (scanning)Understand overall meaning, context or genre (often required in the final question)Avoid distractors that lead to incorrect options
14BRIDGE: How I Didn’t Make It To The NHL December 2012, pgs 12-13
15READING PART 1: A BRIDGE to Multiple Choice In pairs, read the first section of the article. Partner A should summarize section 1 for Partner B in his/her own words, and finish doing so by completing the following sentence: “The main idea of this section is…”Alternate roles with your partner and repeat the process for the remaining sections.Focus on the section of the article assigned to you by the teacher. With your partner, create two multiple choice questions:Question 1 – focus on the ‘main idea’ that you have already talked about.Question 2 – focus on a ‘specific detail’ (hint: you can use the phrases in bold).Write out the correct answer first, and then add three distractors.Test your classmates with your questions!
17READING PART 3: Multiple Matching A candidate needs to…Locate and extract specific informationDemonstrate extended comprehension skills, by recognizing parallel structures and rephrasing of contentUnderstand the purpose of a text, or the authors position or attitudeRecognize different text structures such as an , brochure, advert etc.
18BRIDGE: Strange But True September 2012, pg 19, October 2012 pg 23
19READING PART 3: A BRIDGE to Multiple Matching On a piece of paper, write the following (with a little space in between):A. Which text… ?B. Which text answers the following questions?Read the first text. Working with a partner, choose 2 facts that you both found interesting. State the facts using you own words—don’t just repeat the words from the text.Using your first fact, finish A above (again using your own words!). For B, write a full question that uses your second fact as the answer.Repeat the process for the other two texts (hint: You can make this more interesting by looking for a similar element in two or more texts, and base you question on that).Test your classmates who've read the other texts with your questions!
21READING PART 4: Short Answers A candidate needs to…Locate and extract specific information, and determine which is keyComprehend the overall purpose or intent of a textRephrase information (being concise, word formation)Be familiar with different text types such as narratives, instructions, biographies, articles, descriptions etc.
23READING PART 4: A BRIDGE to Short Answers In pairs, read the first section of the article. Partner A should summarize section 1 for Partner B in his/her own words.Working together, choose two interesting sentences that are factual and underline them.Alternate roles with your partner and repeat the process for the remaining sections (you should have underlined eight sentences in total).Read the factual sentences you underlined again.For each, write a ‘WH’ question that uses your sentence as the answer.Test your classmates with your questions!
24PART C: SPEAKING This part of the seminar will… Review the different speaking tasks of the City & Guilds B2 Communicator paper, and the skills required of a candidate in eachProvide practical ideas and exercises for using authentic material from Bridge magazine to develop these skills
25CITY & GUILDS: Speaking Parts 1 – 4 COMMUNICATOR LEVEL B2DESCRIPTIONTIMESpeaking Part 1:Personal InformationThe candidate is asked questions on various topics and must answer by drawing on his/her own experiences and opinions.2 minsSpeaking Part 2:Situational RoleplaysTwo or three situations are presented by the interlocutor and candidates are required to respond to or initiate interactions.Speaking Part 3:Interactive TaskUsing differing sets of input information, the candidate and interlocutor hold a discussion to make a plan, arrange or decided something3 minsSpeaking Part 4:Long TurnAfter 30 seconds of preparation time talk (2-3 minutes) about a topic provided by the interlocutor and answer follow-up questions.
26SPEAKING: CITY & GUILDS vs. MATURITA TASKCITY & GUILDSMATURITAPersonal Information1Situational Roleplays2n/aInteractive Task34Long Turn
27BRIDGE: Looking For A Family December 2012, pgs 6-7Start by doing a ‘paired’ reading!
29SPEAKING PART 1:Personal Information A candidate needs to…Employ level-appropriate lexis for a wide range of subject areasCommunicate personal information and experiencesExpress opinions and ideas
30SPEAKING PART 1: A BRIDGE to Personal Information With a partner, answer the following questions:The main topic of the article is….The subtopics the article talks about are…Think about the topics and subtopics you’ve mentioned:Choose two, and create a related question that asks about someone’s personal experience with each.With the other two, create a related question that asks about someone’s opinion on each.Ask and answer the questions with your partner!Here’s something to start you off…
32SPEAKING PART 3: Interactive Task A candidate needs to…Prepare and a deliver a cohesive discourse that moves through a series of points and concludesUtilize situation-appropriate functional languageExchange information (provision and reception)Co-operate in order to reach an agreement or decision
33SPEAKING PART 3: A BRIDGE to Interactive Task With your partner, answer the following:What is the main question/issue the article raises?ORWhat is the most important decision that needs to be made?Think about four factors/ideas that could influence this question/issue help make this decision.Fill in the ‘Decision Maker’ and then use it as basis to discuss which factors/ideas are the best or most important, how each would affect the decision, the consequences of each etc.Try to come to some consensus about the ‘best way forward!’
36SPEAKING PART 4: Long Turn A candidate needs to…Construct a cohesive and coherent narrative, or organize an argument with supportMake use of appropriate lexis to support a theme or conceptClearly communicate ideas and express opinions
37SPEAKING PART 4: A BRIDGE to Long Turn With a partner, answer the following questions (remember Part 1?):The main topic of the article is….The subtopics the article talks about are…For the main topic you’ve mentioned, write a ‘topic sentence’ that could be used as a basis for a talk.For the subtopic you’ve mentioned, write 3 related questions.Return to the topic sentence, and take 30 seconds to think about your talk or make some notes.Give your one-and-a-half minute talk to your partner, who will then ask you the follow-up questions
38PART D: WRITING This part of the seminar will… Review the structure and format the City & Guilds B2 Communicator writing paper, and the skills is required of a candidate to successfully complete itProvide practical ideas and exercises for using authentic material from Bridge magazine to develop these skills
39CITY & GUILDS: Writing Parts 1 – 4 COMMUNICATOR LEVEL B2DESCRIPTIONLENGTHWriting Part 1:Transactional TaskRespond appropriately to a given text, graphic or visual input to produce a response for an intended public audience100 – 150 wordsWriting Part 2:Personal WritingProduce a personal letter, a narrative or descriptive composition150 – 200 wordsCity & Guilds Part 1 corresponds directly to Maturita Part 1.
40ASSESSING WRITING CRITERIA DESCRIPTION task fulfillment grammar A measure of how far the candidate has achieved/addressed the task. Has the candidate done what was asked (eg “Write four sentences” – are there four sentences?)grammarA measure of the range, appropriacy and accuracy of grammar.vocabularyA measure of the range, accuracy and appropriacy of vocabulary. This criterion also includes spelling accuracy.structureA measure of coherence and cohesion. How the text is put together. Is there an attempt to link the ideas and to organise them in a coherent manner? We also look at the accurate use of punctuation in this criterion.
42WRITING PART 1: Transactional Task A candidate needs to…Organize the piece of writing in a logical way, to include all four content pointsUnderstand and be familiar with the structural elements of the writing form required (in this case an article)Produce a coherent, cohesive final product that demonstrates the above
43BRIGE: Carnival and Jazz September 2012, pgs 14-15Start by doing a ‘paired’ reading!
44WRITING PART 1: A BRIDGE to Transactional Task Review the article checklist, and try to identify the as many points as possible through examples.Identify the main theme of the article, by completing the following sentence: “This article is really about…”Use the ‘Article Creator’ to create a task based on the main theme.Write your article in 100 – 150 words.
45An ARTICLE Checklist Is intended for a public audience Needs an interesting titleUses a semi-formal register, and may include 1st person narrativeUses literary devices (rhetorical questions, exclamations, exaggeration or overstatement etc.) to engage the readerProvides an overview and other relevant information on the subject being written aboutIncludes the author’s personal opinion or feelingsFinishes by summarizing the main point and restating the author’s opinion
49BRIDGE and GATE THE EASY WAY TO ENGLISH BRIDGE (B1 – B2)UPPER SECONDARYGYMNAZIUMInternational TestsExam and Fun topicsLanguage PagesBrain TeaserCD (songs + articles)Speaking CardsFilm + TasksMapsE-book, Comic stripsCompetitionsFacebookGATE (A1 – A2)UPPER PRIMARYLOWER SECONDARYInternational TestsSchool and Fun TopicsLanguage PagesPosterComic stripsCD (songs + articles)Speaking CardsFilm + TasksMapsCompetitionsFacebook
50CITY & GUILDS CEFR IESOL* ISESOL** Preliminary A2 Waystage Access A1 BreakthroughPreliminaryA2 WaystageAccessB1 ThresholdAchieverB2 VantageCommunicatorC1 EOPExpertC2 MasteryMastery*International English for Speakers of Other Languages (listening, reading, writing)*International Spoken English for Speakers of Other Languages (speaking)
51CITY & GUILDSBritish examining and certification body providing 50% of the UK’s vocational qualifications.City & Guilds ČR organizes exams in English through 30 approved testing centres.City & Guilds exams in English:General English exams: IESOL (written) + ISESOL (spoken)Business English exams: EBC (written) + SETB (spoken)Exams for Young learners: YESOL (written) + YSESOL (spoken)
52CITY & GUILDS Some important exam features… benchmarked to the CEFR (6 levels)valid for liferecognized internationallybased on the communicative methodassessed by independent examiners in London (both the written and spoken exams)flexible preparation materialsrecognized by many Czech universities
53SOME ADVANTAGES… BRIDGE CITY & GUILDS Provides current material, and thus doesn’t become ‘dated’ as a course book canContains Czech-based content, bringing more engagement and relevance to studentsProvides teachers with something new and original that can be added to their classroom on a monthly basisIs based on accessible content: topics, themes and scenarios with ‘day-to-day’ applicationsOffers a candidate-friendly structure: students can sit separate exams at different levels, offered on a monthly basisAllows teachers flexibility in terms of preparation material: an ‘exam prep course book’ is not required
54IN SUMMARY…Exam preparation needs to be more than direct task practice; there are a multitude of alternative methods than can be implemented to develop the required skills for success.As standarized exams (including Maturita) are all based on the use of similar testing methods, a wide range of material can be utilized for preparation.This material should be examined, adapted and implemented in order to not only reinforce examine-relevant skills, but promote greater proficiency in general.Bridge magazine contains a great variety of authentic materials that suit this purpose, and provides diverse and stimulating content for students.City & Guilds exams are likewise based on authentic material, and test a student’s skills and aptitudes in a real-word context.
55www.bridge-online.cz www.cityandguilds.cz www.cityandguildsenglish.com THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME!