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B2 – Lesson 1 Keeping Healthy Brainstorm how we get ill How do we get ill?

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1 B2 – Lesson 1 Keeping Healthy Brainstorm how we get ill How do we get ill?

2 Infections - Objectives and Outcomes At the end of the lesson students will be able to: State 3 types of micro-organism (D) Explain why you get symptoms when you have an infection or disease (C) Discuss the health risks associated with infections (B)

3 The Importance of Hygiene Why should you wash your hands after using the toilet?

4

5 What are Pathogens? Micro organisms that cause disease.

6 What are Microbes? Living things are called __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __. Tiny organisms can be made of only __ __ __ cell. We call them __ __ __ __ __ organisms.

7 Micro-organisms are some times called microbes for short. We can not see them with our eyes… What are Microbes? Do we use a microscope or a telescope to see them? Microscope Telescope

8 What Diseases do you know of?

9 What causes Disease?

10 There are three types of microbes: Different Types of Microbes bacteriavirusesfungi microbes

11 What are microorganisms? FungiSmall... Bacteria...smaller... Viruses...smallest!

12 Why do bacteria and viruses make you ill? Symptoms of disease are caused by damage done to cells or by toxins they make. In suitable conditions micro-organisms can reproduce rapidly into large numbers!

13 Which is not a microbe A, Fungus B, Bacteria C, Virus D, Organ

14 What do you call a disease causing microbe? A, Antigen B, Pathogen C, Capsicum D, Pathostem

15 What does not cause symptoms of disease A, Damage to Cells B, Toxins C, Rapid reproduction of the pathogen D, High temperature

16 Microbe Size StructureHow Reproduce Picture Viruses Bacteria Fungi

17 5 minute breather Video of TV ad campaign for Sti’s

18 True or False? 1.A person can have an STI and not know it 2.Once you have had an STI and have been cured, you can’t get it again 3.A pregnant woman who has an STI can pass it on to her baby 4.Most STIs go away without treatment, if people wait long enough 5.STIs that aren’t cured early can cause sterility 6.Birth control pills offer protection from STIs 7.Condoms can help prevent the spread of STIs 8.If you know your partner, you can’t get an STI 9.A sexually active woman should get an annual pap test from her doctor 10.Chlamydia is a type of STI 11.Only young people can get STI

19 What is under your fingernail?? There are lots of things in the world around us that you cannot see with your own eyes. There are living things made of many cells And there are living things made of only one cell Microbes are micro organisms that are too small to be seen. A pathogen is a microbe that can cause diseases if it enters the body:

20 Micro-bugs vs Bacteria Microbug on a Human hair Bacteria Human hair

21 Is that as small as microbes get? Nope: Viruses are even smaller

22 Lesson 1: Infectious diseases Copy and complete: Infections are caused by some ____________ that invade the body. Microorganisms are ______, ________ and _______. When disease microorganisms get inside your body, they _______ very quickly. This causes _______ - the ill feelings. Symptoms can be caused by 1. ______________________ 2.______________________

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24 Infect nearby cells and repeat the process. Use the cell contents to replicate (form thousands of identical copies) Viruses are taken into cells in the body Damage the cell as they burst out and Virus Reproduction - What’s the Order?

25 1.Viruses are taken into cells in the body 2.Use the cell contents to replicate (form thousands of identical copies) 3.Damage the cell as they burst out and 4.Infect nearby cells and repeat the process. Virus Reproduction - What’s the Order?

26 B2 lesson 2 Microbe attack LO: to know what parts of your body stop micro- organisms getting in [C] and how the body fights off micro-organisms when they are inside [B]

27 8C Defence!

28 Fighting disease If microbes do enter our body they need to be neutralised or killed. This is done by WHITE BLOOD CELLS: White blood cells do 3 things: 1)They eat the microbe (phagocytosis) 2)They produce antibodies to neutralise the microbe 3)The produce antitoxins to neutralise the poisons produced by microbes

29 Producing antibodies Step 1: The white blood cell “sees” the antigen (microbe) Step 2: The cell produces antibodies to “fit” the antigen Step 3: The antibodies fit onto the antigens and cause them to “clump” Step 4: The antigens are “eaten” by the white blood cells You’re going down

30 Brainpop – Immune system

31 8C Immunity

32 Quick Questions Red blood cells carrying…… ? White blood cells ready to fight…… ?

33 Story Board Rules Task : in pairs draw a story board that illustrates the two methods white blood cells use to fight infection 5 mins brainstorm and discuss 20 mins Must contain GOOD science Must use keywords – antigen, antibodies, immune, phagocytosis, Pages 92-93

34 BINGO Antigen Infection Antibody White blood cell Immunity Fungi Phagocytosis Engulf Red blood cell Memory cell Lymph nodes Pathogen Virus Bacteria Microorganism

35 In GCSE science exams they like to test your MATHS skills... Calculate the population growth of microorganisms given appropriate data EXAMPLE:- Revisium biologus is a bacterium that reproduces every 20 minutes. If 10 R.biologus bacteria are left for 2 hours, how many bacteria will there be at the end of this period? There are some simple steps to work this out...

36

37 Immune System LO: to understand the different roles white blood cells can play in fighting off disease [C] calculate population growth of microorganisms [B] explain why white blood cells create antibodies [A] (STS: 2) Mix and match I cause thrush I provide antibodies I cause AIDS I am smaller than fungi but bigger than a virus I only kill bacteria and fungi

38 mini test 6 = A* 5 = A 4 = B 3 = C 2 = D

39 What is a pathogen? C A disease causing microbe A A change in the environment B Fungi, Bacteria and Viruses D A type of medicine

40 Which of these is NOT a first line of defence against disease? AB CD Mucus White blood cells Skin Stomach acid

41 Which picture shows a virus? AB A low number of species which are adapted to survive in low oxygen concentrations CD

42 What do ALL microbes need for optimum growth? AB CD Warmth Nutrients Carbon dioxide Oxygen Moisture Warmth Moisture Alkali Nutrients Warmth Moisture Nutrients

43 What does ‘phagocytosis’ mean? B The immune system C A WBC engulfing (eating) a microbe A Fossilisation D To get better quickly after infection

44 Fighting disease If microbes do enter our body they need to be neutralised or killed. This is done by WHITE BLOOD CELLS: White blood cells do 3 things: 1)They eat the microbe (phagocytosis) 2)They produce antibodies to neutralise the microbe 3)The produce antitoxins to neutralise the poisons produced by microbes

45 Producing antibodies Step 1: The white blood cell “sees” the antigen (microbe) Step 2: The cell produces antibodies to “fit” the antigen Step 3: The antibodies fit onto the antigens and cause them to “clump” Step 4: The antigens are “eaten” by the white blood cells You’re going down

46 Specific antibodies Antibodies are specific – they will only neutralise the microbe they have been made for. Once we have made an antibody to recognise a particular microbe, ‘memory cells’ can make that antibody again very quickly, therefore protecting against that microbe in the future - IMMUNITY

47 fighting off infection Outcomes: produce a story board that explains how our white blood cells create antibodies to fight off infection. Success Criteria: C – create a labelled diagram for each stage B – explain in words what is happening A – use 8 scientific words in your explanation Stages (not in correct order) Antigens eaten Antigens seen Produces antibodies Clump together 20 minutes EXTENSION Draw a diagram to represent WBC making antitoxins to neutralise the poisons produced by microbes

48 Key Words White blood cellAntitoxins MicrobePathogen AntibodiesPhagocytosis AntigenImmune EngulfMemory Cells SpecificNeutralised

49 8C Immunity

50 Worksheet - Bacteria and viruses can grow EXPONENTIALLY... reproduction period 1 reproduction period 2 3 4

51 In GCSE science exams they like to test your MATHS skills... Calculate the population growth of microorganisms given appropriate data EXAMPLE:- Revisium biologus is a bacterium that reproduces every 20 minutes. If 10 R.biologus bacteria are left for 2 hours, how many bacteria will there be at the end of this period? There are some simple steps to work this out...

52 Exam Question (hard)

53 3 marks – pick from the following number of bacteria after 2 hours is (or 1.28 x 10 4 ), which is a sufficient number to cause food poisoning idea that if conditions were not optimum the actual number may be lower than this idea that not enough data/evidence/information, or would need to measure more things, to conclude that person will definitely get food poisoning idea of immune response against bacteria or toxins / acid in stomach destroying bacteria or toxins

54 Graphs – yuck! ( but a popular question) Discuss with your partner what I show. Concentration of antibodies in blood Time (days) 1 st exposure to MO 2 nd exposure to the same MO 10 days 25 days

55 End of lesson quiz Turn to the back of your book and put 1 to 5 in the margin. The questions will pop up, answer them as quickly as possible.

56 Quiz questions 1.Name the 3 main types of microbes 2. Which organ uses acid to kill microbes? 3. What do white blood cells make to fight microbes? 4. What P is a disease causing microbe? 5. What does engulf mean? 5 correct A 4 correctB 2-3 correctC 1 correctD

57

58 Drug Testing LO To know the main stages of drug testing and the ethical and validity issues of being in a drugs trial STARTER If you were ill and you were asked to take part in a trial for a new drug what questions would you ask before deciding if you would be involved. write three questions

59 spiders on drugs video

60 Drug Testing Leaflet Create a leaflet that is all about testing new drugs. On it describe the 3 main stages of testing a new drug On your leaflet explain the following key terms in clinical trials and why they are important: a. double blind trial b. blind trial c. a placebo. d. random groups e. the control group

61 What is a pathogen? C A disease causing microbe A A change in the environment B Fungi, Bacteria and Viruses that do not cause disease D A type of medicine

62 What is a double blind trial? AB CD Even the scientist don’t know who got the real drug The patients are testing eye drops The scientists know who gets the real drug Both the scientists and the patients know the treatment being used

63 The patients don’t know if they have been given the real drug What is a blind trial? AB A low number of species which are adapted to survive in low oxygen concentrations CD The trial has psychological effects Even the scientist don’t know who got the real drug The patients are testing eye drops

64 What is a placebo? An 90’s indie band AB CD A fake treatment to eliminate psychological effects A real test drug used in medical trials A type of white blood cell

65 What is an open-label trial? B C An unethical trial A fake treatment to eliminate psychological effects A D Both the scientists and the patients know the treatment being used Even the scientist don’t know who got the real drug

66

67 Heart Disease LO - To know the risk factors associated with heart disease. Starter You are part of a double blind trial for a new drug and you are given the placebo. Explain what this means in words a year 7 would understand.

68 Task: create an informative poster for use in a doctors surgery on how to reduce your risk of heart disease. Include information on: –Diet –Smoking –Drugs –Stress –Alcohol –Epidemiological Studies - extension

69 HEART DISEASE (T or F) Heart attacks are common in the UK Only men have heart attacks. Young people don’t have heart attacks. Smoking increases your risk of heart attack. Heart attacks happen when arteries to the heart are blocked. Heart attacks are always fatal. When you have a heart attack, some of your muscle dies. Heart muscle dies when it doesn’t get oxygen. Any fat in your diet is harmful. Being overweight puts a strain on your heart.

70

71 Starter - Which is riskier? Nuclear Power or Peanut Butter? Calculating Microbial Growth and Antimicrobial Resistance

72 HEART DISEASE (T or F) Heart attacks are common in the UK Only men have heart attacks. Young people don’t have heart attacks. Smoking increases your risk of heart attack. Heart attacks happen when arteries to the heart are blocked. Heart attacks are always fatal. When you have a heart attack, some of your muscle dies. Heart muscle dies when it doesn’t get oxygen. Any fat in your diet is harmful. Being overweight puts a strain on your heart.

73 Worksheet - Bacteria and Viruses can grow EXPONENTIALLY... reproduction period 1 reproduction period 2 3 4

74 In GCSE science exams they like to test your MATHS skills... Calculate the population growth of microorganisms given appropriate data EXAMPLE:- Revisium biologus is a bacterium that reproduces every 20 minutes. If 10 R.biologus bacteria are left for 2 hours, how many bacteria will there be at the end of this period? There are some simple steps to work this out...

75 Step 1:work out how many minutes there are! 2 hours = 120 minutes Step 2:work out how many reproduction periods that will be! 120 minutes÷20 minutes = 6 reproduction periods Step 3:work out the number of bacteria after the first reproduction period 10 R.biologus (at start) x 2 = 20 R.biologus Step 4:work out the number of bacteria you’d have after the second reproduction period 20 R.biologus x 2 = 40 Step 5: keep going until you have done all 6 reproduction periods! EXAMPLE:- Revisium biologus is a bacterium that reproduces every 20 minutes. If 10 R.biologus bacteria are left for 2 hours, how many bacteria will there be at the end of this period?

76 You could use a table... Reproduction periodNumber of bacteria 1 10 R.biologus x 2= R.biologus x 2= R.biologus x 2= R.biologus x 2= R.biologus x 2= R.biologus x 2= 640 <<< ANSWER!!! EXAMPLE:- Revisium biologus is a bacterium that reproduces every 20 minutes. If 10 R.biologus bacteria are left for 2 hours, how many bacteria will there be at the end of this period?

77 Exam practice 1 Huguntis flavis is a bacterium that reproduces every 30 minutes. If 5 H.flavis bacteria are left for 3 hours, how many bacteria will there be at the end of this period? Exam practice 2 Vicitus diosilus is a bacterium that reproduces every 10 minutes. If 12 V.diosilus bacteria are left for 40 minutes, how many bacteria will there be at the end of this period? EXTENSION - Exam practice 3 Krispeecremus donutus is a bacterium that reproduces every 45 minutes. If 15 K.donutus bacteria are left for 4.5 hours, how many bacteria will there be at the end of this period?

78 Exam Question (hard)

79 3 marks – pick from the following number of bacteria after 2 hours is (or 1.28 x 10 4 ), which is a sufficient number to cause food poisoning idea that if conditions were not optimum the actual number may be lower than this idea that not enough data/evidence/information, or would need to measure more things, to conclude that person will definitely get food poisoning idea of immune response against bacteria or toxins / acid in stomach destroying bacteria or toxins

80 Antibiotic Resistance Superbug Video

81 15 mins to make a postcard for a doctors surgery on antibiotic resistance Fungi Needs Bacteria Full Course How it works

82

83 Circulation and the Heart LO - To know the role of the heart and how it works Starter You are part of an open label trial for a new drug. No one is given a placebo. Explain what this means in words a year 7 would understand. Give an ethical reason why open label trials are used in developing new drugs.

84 The heart

85 This section of the system including the right side of the heart, deals with the deoxygenated blood. This section of the system including the left side of the heart, deals with the oxygenated blood. Lungs Body cells Our circulatory system is in two parts. It is in fact called a double circulatory system. Double circulatory system

86

87 Blood from the lungs

88 pulmonary vein Atrium

89 Blood from the lungs Blood squeezed through valves into…

90 Blood from the lungs …the ventricle

91 Blood from the lungs

92 Blood from the lungs… …goes to the body

93 Aorta

94 pulmonary vein

95

96 Blood from the body

97 Vena cava Atrium

98

99 …to the lungs

100 Aorta Vena cava

101 Copy picture Aorta Vena Cava

102 The human circulatory system

103 Video and Dissection

104 blood valve These valves are rather like doors that only open in one direction. Valves

105 The main valves in the heart

106 The Circulatory System There are 3 types of blood vessels Arteries Veins Capillaries

107

108 Blood vessels This is a system of tubes that transport blood around the body. Vein – carries blood towards the heart Artery – carries blood away from the heart Capillaries – really small blood vessels

109 Arteries and Veins Artery Vein thin outer wall thick layer of muscle and elastic fibres thick outer layer thin layer of muscle and elastic fibres

110 Arteries These carry blood AWAY from the heart (Think Arteries Away = AA) They are buried deep in the body They carry oxygen rich blood (except for the pulmonary artery!)

111 Veins These carry blood IN to the heart (Think veINs=IN) They carry oxygen poor blood (except for the pulmonary vein!)

112 Capillaries These carry blood to the cells They are narrow vessels running throughout the body They carry oxygen rich blood from the arteries, past the cells. The oxygen poor blood is then carried to the veins.

113 Can you label the blood vessels? 1. Artery, capillary, vein, 2. small lumen, large lumen, very small lumen 3. Single cell wall, thick elastic wall, thin wall

114 Plenary - The Circulatory System Arteries Veins Capillaries Which of these blood vessels: 1.Takes blood away from the heart? 2.Carries oxygenated blood? 3.Contains blood under high pressure? 4.Is only 1 cell thick? 5.Contains valves?

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116 What is the effect of alcohol on the heart rate of Daphnia? Starter – label your Daphnia diagram

117

118

119 What is your independent variable? What is your dependent variable? What variables will you keep the same? Why?

120 What will you do to make your results reliable (repeats)? What will you do to make your results accurate (measurements)? How many results will you need to collect to make the investigation valid?

121 What is the effect of alcohol on people?

122 What effect do you think the alcohol will have on the heart beat of Daphnia?

123 What equipment will you need?

124 What is the effect of alcohol on Daphnia? Planning My independent variable that I will change is ______. My dependent variable that I will measure is _______. To make it a fair test I will keep ______, __________, _____________, and __________ the same. The equipment that I will need is ____________________________________________________________ Method I predict that __________________________________________________________________________ Results Alcohol %Attempt 1 Attempt 2 Attempt 3 average Conclusion As the amount of alcohol in the water increased ________________________________________________ When there was the most alcohol in the water _________________________________________________ When there was the least alcohol in the water _________________________________________________ My conclusion about the effect of alcohol on Daphnia is __________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ I think in humans alcohol __________________________________________________________________

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126 Normal diet Drunk plenty of water Has been exercising but not drunk anything Who’s urine? MATCH UP!

127 Learning Objective To be able to explain how our bodies control water content. Title - Homeostasis

128 Learning Outcome Homeostasis involves making sure that our bodies have the correct levels of 4 key things. Can you name two of them?

129 What is Homeostasis? Homeostasis makes sure our body has the correct levels of; Temperature Carbon dioxide OxygenWater Homeostasis involves maintaining a constant environment in the body

130 InOut Breath Sweat Faeces Urine Food and drink Water made in respiration B2 : How does the body control water balance? Our bodies need a balanced water level to keep the internal concentration of our cells at the correct level for them to work properly.

131 The kidneys Kidneys do two main jobs: 1.Remove waste urea from the blood. 2. Keep a balance of other chemicals in the blood – including water.

132 How kidneys work Filtering all small molecules from the blood. Reabsorbing all of the glucose. Reabsorbing as much salt as the body needs. Reabsorbing as much water as the body needs. Excreting the remaining urea, excess water and salt as urine, which is stored in the bladder.

133 Water balance The concentration of blood plasma is monitored as it passes through the brain. If the blood is too dilute then kidneys excrete more water in the urine. If the blood is too concentrated then kidneys excrete less water in the urine. The amount of water in the blood depends on: external temperature, exercise, intake of fluids and salts.

134 ADH and water balance. The concentration of urine is controlled by a hormone called ADH (anti-diuretic hormone). It is released into the bloodstream by the pituitary gland.

135 Normal blood concentration Blood too concentrated – detected in brain ADH secreted by pituitary gland ADH causes kidneys to reabsorb more water to blood Normal blood concentration Blood too dilute – detected in brain ADH not secreted by pituitary gland kidneys reabsorb less water to blood Water Balance

136 Outcomes: create a think board on homeostasis and water balance. Which hormone controls water content in the body? Where is it released from? What 3 main things can effect the concentration of urine? (D) How do the Kidneys help keep water in the body balanced? (C) Draw a flow diagram of how the concentration of urine is controlled by a hormone (B) Explain in as much detail as possible (use as many science key words as you can) how Alcohol and Ecstasy affect ADH production (A) TITLE: Controlling Water Content

137 True/False Quiz! Your urine is always the same. The pituitary gland monitors blood plasma. Homeostasis maintains a constant internal environment. The liver helps balance water and waste in the body. Alcohol suppresses ADH production. Ecstasy increases ADH production. FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE Dehydration Drowning

138

139 Which is the odd one out? bacteria virus fungus

140 B2 past EXAM questions! I will be round to mark them as you go ready to put into your progress folder. ALL must do 2 exam questions SOME will do more so can pick their highest grade for progress folder FEW will do all exam questions for a PRIZE!

141 Exam Question (hard)

142 3 marks – pick from the following number of bacteria after 2 hours is (or 1.28 x 10 4 ), which is a sufficient number to cause food poisoning idea that if conditions were not optimum the actual number may be lower than this idea that not enough data/evidence/information, or would need to measure more things, to conclude that person will definitely get food poisoning idea of immune response against bacteria or toxins / acid in stomach destroying bacteria or toxins

143 Testing Urine Draw the following table in your books neatly. Test the 3 urine samples for protein and for sugar using the equipment available. EXTENSION: explain in as much detail as possible what homeostasis is and how water content is controlled in the body. SampleProteinSugar A B C

144

145 Drug Trials Outcomes: create a Powerpoint on the use of drug trials in medical science. Include information on the following: -Laboratory testing on human cells [C] -Laboratory testing on animals [C-B] -Human clinical trials [A] -‘blind trails’ (you’ll need to know what a placebo is) -‘double blind trials’ -‘open label trials’

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147 Starter – Describe what this image below shows An antibody can only bind to a specific type of antigen

148 Exam Question (hard)

149 3 marks – pick from the following number of bacteria after 2 hours is (or 1.28 x 10 4 ), which is a sufficient number to cause food poisoning idea that if conditions were not optimum the actual number may be lower than this idea that not enough data/evidence/information, or would need to measure more things, to conclude that person will definitely get food poisoning idea of immune response against bacteria or toxins / acid in stomach destroying bacteria or toxins

150 Describe the peer review process and explain why it is important Scientists in the same field check the validity of research Work is only published if it is found to be trustworthy /reliable Important because only trustworthy/reliable science is published Information will not mislead the public

151 How will alcohol in the beer affect the amount of ADH release into Damon’s bloodstream and how will this affect the volume of Damon’s urine? Alcohol suppresses ADH production Damon will have a greater volume of urine

152 Why is there no vaccine for the HIV virus? HIV does not have a protein coat so cannot be recognised by antibodies HIV seeks out and actively attacks WBCs therefore weakening the immune response HIV makes your own body start to destroy its own WBCs

153 Arteries and Veins Artery Vein thin outer wall thick layer of muscle and elastic fibres thick outer layer thin layer of muscle and elastic fibres

154 Arteries These carry blood AWAY from the heart (Think Arteries Away = AA) They are buried deep in the body They carry oxygen rich blood (except for the pulmonary artery!)

155 Veins These carry blood IN to the heart (Think veINs=IN) They carry oxygen poor blood (except for the pulmonary vein!)

156 Capillaries These carry blood to the cells They are narrow vessels running throughout the body They carry oxygen rich blood from the arteries, past the cells. The oxygen poor blood is then carried to the veins.

157 Can you label the blood vessels? 1. Artery, capillary, vein, 2. small lumen, large lumen, very small lumen 3. Single cell wall, thick elastic wall, thin wall

158 Antibiotic Resistance Superbug Video

159 15 mins to make a postcard for a doctors surgery on antibiotic resistance Fungi Needs Bacteria Full Course How it works Wash hands

160 Plenary - The Circulatory System Arteries Veins Capillaries Which of these blood vessels: 1.Takes blood away from the heart? 2.Carries oxygenated blood? 3.Contains blood under high pressure? 4.Is only 1 cell thick? 5.Contains valves?

161

162 Name an organism that has a cell wall What is the advantage of having a cell wall? If penicillin prevents bacteria forming peptide cross-linkages in cell walls, how does penicillin work?

163 Starter- B2 lesson 3 Immunity Discuss with the person next to you. (at your discretion) What is the worst illness you’ve ever had? Have you ever been into hospital (apart from birth) Have you taken medicine for an illness (what was it) How did it work?

164 Antibiotics Read together pg 40 and 41 – summarise in your own words Question Ways to fight diseases

165 Vaccine Draw diagrams from page 44 showing how a vaccine works

166 SMALL POX – WHY VACCINATED AND ERADICATED Smallpox is a serious, contagious, and sometimes fatal infectious disease (30% of infected people died). There is no specific treatment for smallpox disease, and the only prevention is vaccination. The name smallpox is derived from the Latin word for “spotted” and refers to the raised bumps that appear on the face and body of an infected person.

167 Smallpox Click

168 RISK What is the…

169 BENEFIT What is the…

170 WS AB2_11 Is it worth it

171 Flu AIDS Why can you Why can you not catch this again? fight this off?

172 Susan and June are both young mothers with babies. They are in the park watching their older children play. June:We’re taking little April for her MMR jab tomorrow. I hope she’ll be alright. Susan:You’re mad! Why are you even risking it? June:We’d rather risk her having a bad reaction to the jab than getting one of those diseases. Susan:But those old diseases have almost disappeared now. There’s hardly any chance of her getting one of them. June:But the diseases have only disappeared because people get their children vaccinated. Susan:Yes, but they have disappeared. So now there’s no need to worry. June:But if people don’t get their babies vaccinated the disease will come back. Susan:Yes, but that’s people, not you. There’ll always be plenty of goody-goodies who do what the doctors say. So why should you risk April’s health when you’ve no need to? June:Well, we’re not risking it very much. The doctor told us that the chances of her being badly affected, or affected at all, are very low indeed. Susan:Yes, but why take any risk at all? As long as other people are having their babies done, why take the chance? I’m certainly not going to risk my Danny. Susan thinks that it’s stupid to vaccinate your baby. There is a small risk of the baby being badly affected by the vaccine. She thinks that this is OK because enough other people are getting their babies vaccinated. So it’s unlikely that her baby will get the disease. WS AB2_9 What if everyone did that

173 Whooping cough Rd pages 47 and 48

174 Cut and stick viewpoints

175 Whiteboard quiz Whatcha know now eh??

176 10 mins to finish a postcard for a doctors surgery for mums awaiting an MMR jab Pros cons consequences advice How it works

177

178 Which is riskier? Nuclear Power or Peanut Butter?

179 How would you know? When people talk about risk what do they say?

180 Rank these in order of highest to lowest risk travelling in a plane cycling driving a car living near a nuclear power plant living in Cornwall living in a city smoking

181 Rank these in order of highest to lowest risk travelling in a plane cycling driving a car living near a nuclear power plant fall-out from a nuclear accident such as Chernobyl living in Cornwall living in a city smoking We’ll find out later if you were right!

182 An example about perception of risk… People are still very frightened about BSE as they did not volunteer to take a risk of catching disease when they bought the food. However, some people will volunteer to aid refugees in war. Who perceives that the risk is larger? Whether or not you volunteer for the risk affects your perception

183 3 other things that affect your perception… Can you think of a risk that does not affect people or an area equally? Can you think of a risk that results from a man-made rather than a natural source? Can you think of a risk where there is a threat of death in some form?

184 Some hints… Can you think of a risk that does not affect people or an area equally? Can you think of a risk that results from a man-made rather than a natural source? Can you think of a risk where there is a threat of death in some form? Bird fluMobile phone masts Climate change

185 All these risks give an equal probability of increasing your chance of death by one part in a million:

186 Is this better?

187 Were you right?

188 So what is risk? risk = probability x consequence

189 Apply this equation to bungee jumping

190 risk = probability x consequence Apply this equation to driving a car

191 risk = probability x consequence Apply this equation to having a swimming pool in your back garden and having small children

192 risk = probability x consequence Apply this equation to getting out of bed in the morning

193 X-rays… Are they safe?

194 Another way of expressing risk… In the 1980s the following research was published: –Women who take the contraceptive pill have a 50% increased risk of cervical cancer.

195 Another way of expressing risk… In the 1980s the following research was published: –Out of 100,000 women not on the pill 4 are likely to get cervical cancer. –Out of 100,000 women on the pill 6 are likely to get cervical cancer. –This is a increase of 50%. …. What do you think now?

196

197 Arteries and veins

198 Brainpop

199 Coronary Arteries How the heart itself lives?? Bring oxygen and glucose to the heart muscles Fatty lumps can block it and bring on a heart attack

200 Video IB.2

201 As the atrium fills with blood, the valves are closed. When the atrium contracts and squeeze the blood, the valves are pushed open. These valves are connected to the side wall of the heart by tough tendons. These tendons allow the valves to close but not invert.

202 valve tendon wall of ventricle These tendons can be compared to an arm holding onto the handle of a door.

203 The arm bends as the door is opened. When the door is closed the arm is fully extended. It would be impossible for the door to open in the other direction without the person moving with it. The tendon (represented by the arm) is held in a fixed position and therefore the valve (door) can only open in one direction.

204 The blood will naturally push against the valve. However, the valves remain firmly shut. In this way, the blood can be moved from chamber to chamber quite efficiently. The valves prevent the blood from moving in the wrong direction.

205 we also find valves here...and here! These extra valves stop the blood from re-entering the heart when it is pumped from the ventricles.

206 When the blood knocks against the second set of heart valves, it makes a ‘dub’ like sound. valve ventricle artery The blood ‘slaps’ against the valve and then passes along the artery. These two sounds – lub and dub – are actually what we hear as our heartbeat. So our heartbeat is in fact the sound of the valves opening and closing. When the blood knocks against the first heart valves, it makes a ‘lub’ like sound.

207 Heart disease AB2.9 Video Cholesterol and the heart

208 1 min talk about healthy hearts

209 Plenery

210

211 HEART DISEASE (T or F) 1.Heart attacks are common in the UK 2.Only men have heart attacks. 3.Young people don’t have heart attacks. 4.Smoking increases your risk of heart attack. 5.Heart attacks happen when arteries to the heart are blocked. 6.Heart attacks are always fatal. 7.When you have a heart attack, some of your muscle dies. 8.Heart muscle dies when it doesn’t get oxygen. 9.Any fat in your diet is harmful. 10.Being overweight puts a strain on your heart.

212 !!! BREAD IS DANGEROUS !!! Research on bread indicates that: 1. More than 98 percent of convicted felons are bread users. 2. Fully HALF of all children who grow up in bread-consuming households score below average on standardized tests. 3. In the 18th century, when virtually all bread was baked in the home, the average life expectancy was less than 50 years; infant mortality rates were unacceptably high; many women died in childbirth; and diseases such as typhoid, yellow fever, and influenza ravaged whole nations. 4. More than 90 percent of violent crimes are committed within 24 hours of eating bread. 5. Bread is made from a substance called "dough." It has been proven that as little as one pound of dough can be used to suffocate a mouse. The average American eats more bread than that in one month! 6. Primitive tribal societies that have no bread exhibit a low incidence of cancer, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease, and osteoporosis. 7. Bread has been proven to be addictive. Subjects deprived of bread and given only water to eat begged for bread after as little as two days.

213 Videos

214 Epidemiological studies 1.Describe the correlation between smoking and lung cancer. 2.Is one case of a smoker dying of lung cancer enough to prove a link? 3.How big was the study by Doll and Hill which gave more evidence that smoking caused lung cancer? 4.What was the final piece of the puzzle that confirmed smoking causes lung cancer?

215 Page 58 Read page and do Q 1-6

216

217 Starter - What are the 7 life processes ? (things that all living things do) Use MRS GREN to help you… 1. M = 2. R = 3. S = 4. G = 5. R = 6. E = 7. N =

218 Life Process What it Means M Movement M _ _ _ all or parts of themselves. R R _ p r _ d _ _ t _ _ n Make m_re living th_ _ gs like themselves S S _ n _ it _ v _ _ _ Se _ se and re _ c _ to things around them

219 Life ProcessWhat it Means G G_ _ wt _Increase in cell n_ m _ _ r and/or s_ z _. R RespirationUse a chemical reaction to release e_ _ _ g _ from f _ _ d. E ExcretionGet rid of w_ _ t _ materials they make N N _ tr _t _ _ nNeed various substances to help them r _ p_ _ r and g _ _ _.

220 x9-v2Mhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UaYHR x9-v2M

221 Introduction

222 The oldest preserved medical document is from Egypt. It was written in 1570 and is 20 metres long. Over 700 remedies are included. Many diseases are described, including diabetes and arthritis.

223 There have always been medical experts. In 1804 bloodletting was used to treat many illnesses.

224 This 18th century kit was used for drilling a hole into the patient’s skull. This treatment was used for centuries before this.

225 But anaesthetics weren’t introduced until This picture shows the first public operation with anaesthetic.

226 New technology has helped doctors make a better diagnosis. For example, X-rays show bones.

227 MRI scans give information about soft parts of the body.

228 So do ultrasounds.

229 Now doctors can get a lot of information without having to go into the patient’s body. Treatments have also changed as scientists have learnt more about how the body works.

230 There are many medical challenges still to overcome. Perhaps one of the most difficult is how to give expensive treatment to everyone who needs it.

231 Some very large microbes You may have seen pictures of bugs living in your house before. These bugs although scary looking are much, much larger than what we will talk about

232 Imaginary Animals?

233 Bee mites. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of bee mites on the body of a bee. These parasites feed by cutting into the surface membranes of the bee. In large numbers they can devastate colonies of bees.

234 Dust mites. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of two dust mites on fabric fibres. Millions of dust mites inhabit the home, feeding on shed skin cells. They mainly live in furniture, and are invisible to the naked eye due to their size. The excrement and dead bodies of these mites may cause allergic reactions in susceptible people. Magnification: x150

235 Follicle mites. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of follicle or eyelash mites These harmless parasites infest hair follicles (holes in the skin which contain the roots of hairs) around the eyelids, nose and in the ear canals of humans. One follicle may contain up to 25 growing mites. They feed on oily secretions from the glands, as well as dead skin cells. Magnification: x180 at 6x7cm size.

236 Lice. Two lice, Phthirus pubis, also known as crab lice, hanging from human hair. An adult louse and infant louse are seen. An infestation of P. pubis causes pediculosis, the symptoms of which are severe itching and a rash. The lice suck blood, feeding five times a day. Each of the louse's six legs terminates in a massive claw, which folds inward to meet a thumb-like projection on the opposite side. The louse climbs & swings through its habitat, locking into position when disturbed. Magnification: x20 at 6x7cm size.

237 Head louse and egg. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) and an egg attached to a strand of human hair. The louse ranges in size from 2 to 3 millimetres in length. Each of its six legs end in a claw. Adult lice live for approximately 30 days, and during this time a female may lay 100 eggs (nits), which are glued to the bottom of hair shafts. An infestation of lice causes itching due to an allergic reaction to louse saliva.

238 Bed bug. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of 2 parasitic bed bugs, on fabric. The head has a pair of eyes (red), two antennae, and piercing mouthparts. A regular diet of blood is necessary for bed bugs to reach maturity. A parasite of humans, this species feeds at night and after a blood meal the body becomes quite swollen. The bite of a bed bug produces swellings on the skin. It is painful and may be lasting in some cases. During the day the bed bug lives in mattresses, floors, or in tears in furniture. Magnification: x10 at 6x7cm size.

239 Dog tick, seen from the front. This blood- sucking parasite of dogs can transmit to humans a bacteria which causes spotted fever or tick fever, a form of typhus. The tick's specialised mouthparts are adapted to pierce the skin of the host. It has a flattened body which swells after a meal. Magnification: x22 at 5x7cm size.

240 Feeding tick. Coloured scanning electron micrograph of a tick feeding head-down in human skin. Ticks are arachnids which parasitise mammals, birds and reptiles, feeding on their blood. In the feeding process, they cut through the skin with the scissor- like action of their modified mouthparts, and thrust their hypostome (feeding tool) through the lacerated skin, and lock into the surrounding tissues. Ticks can transmit diseases such as relapsing fever and Lyme disease, and their bites may become infected. Magnification: x30 at 6x7cm size.

241 Deer tick. Coloured scanning electron micrograph of a deer tick. This is a bloodsucking parasite of animals and humans. Its sensory pedipalps (lower left) are seen shielding its specialised mouthparts, which are used to pierce the host's skin. Hairs on the pedipalps locate the host by detecting air-borne vibrations. Magnification: x27 at 6x7cm size.

242 Even smaller…..

243 So what is Bacteria??? Bacteria is a single cell organism about 100 times smaller than a human cell. Bacteria can reproduce outside of a human and are used to create cheese. They can also cause the food poisoning and tooth decay.

244 Bacteria

245 Chicken skin infected with bacteria Bacteria found in waterBacteria on human skin

246 So what is a Virus??? A virus is another microbe. It is about smaller than a human cell. A virus needs another cell (a host cell) in order to reproduce. Viruses are responsible for causing HIV, common cold and chickenpox.

247

248 8C Even smaller! Fungus Fungi are another form of microbe. There are many different varieties ranging from bread mould to mushrooms. Yeast is a type of fungus that we use everyday to make bread

249 penicillin

250 fungus - yeast

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