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智慧型電池串之等化控制及充電控制研究 李永勳 王大同 輔仁大學 電機工程學系碩士在職專班 Introduction ‧ The voltage in one battery cell is inherently low, series battery cells are usually employed for many practical applications such as electric vehicles (EVs), electric scooters (ES), electric wheelchairs, electric bike systems, and so on. ‧ Cell voltage imbalances are caused by the differences in cell capacities, internal resistance, and the ambient temperature during charging or discharging. ‧ Imbalanced cell voltage will cause over charging or deep-discharging, and decrease the total storage capacity and lifetime of the battery. ‧ Voltage monitoring, equalization circuits, and battery management systems have been presented to prevent imbalances n-1n-1 n- 2 Fig 1 ： System configuration of battery strings Output state and Driving Signal Generator PWM Control Fuzzy Logic Equalization Controller and Microprocessor based Battery Management System Sensor of Battery states BC1 BC2 Q1Q1 Q2Q2 SC1 SC2 C1C1 V B1 V B2 D1D1 D2D2 Fig 2: Principle of capacitor energy transferred battery balancing system THE PROPOSED FULL DUTY ENERGY TRANSFERRING EQUALIZER P2 ‧ We proposed a complete cell voltage balancing is modified from the converter ‧ The cell voltages are controlled by the driving pulse width modulation (PWM) signals ‧ The cell voltage are balanced by the fuzzy logic equalization controller and a microprocessor THE PROPOSED ZVS SOFT-SWITCHING SYSTEM Li-Ion Battery Management System (Li-Ion BMS) Sensing of cell voltage D C2 D C1 D C3 D C4 D S1 D S2 D S3 D S4 R S1 R S4 R S2 R S3 R G1 R G2 R D1 R D2 C2C2 C1C1 L1L1 L3L3 L2L2 L4L4 S C1 S C2 S C3 S C4 V B1 V B2 V B3 ‧ This technique is easily achieved by setting in the short off interval (dead time) which adding resistance and diode during commutation of the complimentary pair MOSFET Fig 3: Principle of capacitor energy transferred battery balancing system P3 DESIGN OF FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER ‧ The FLC consists of the (1)fuzzy rule base (2)inference engine (3)fuzzification and (4)defuzzification ‧ We use fuzzy rule base to describe the knowledge and experience of the battery equalization Fig 4:Basic definition diagram of the FLC Fig 5: I BEC with respect to V d and V B Table 1: Control rule base of the FLC-BEC for linguistic variable Fig 6:The boundary conditions of CICM and DICM Fig 7:The boundary conditions of CICM and DCVM Table 2: Action compare table 5V/div 、 1A/div 、 20us/div 5V/div 、 1A/div 、 25us/div Fig11 ： CICM experimental results of inductor L1 (V B1 >V B2 >V B3 ) Fig12 ： CICM experimental results of inductor L2 (V B1 >V B2 >V B3 ) Fig8 ： CICM Simulation results of inductor L1 (V B1 >V B2 >V B3 ) Fig9 ： CICM Simulation results of inductor L2 (V B1 >V B2 >V B3 ) Fig10 ： DICM Simulation results of inductor L1 (V B1 >V B2 >V B3 ) Fig13 ： DICM experimental results of inductor L1 (V B1 >V B2 >V B3 ) P6 SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENT RESULTS 5V/div 、 1A/div 、 20us/div 5V/div 、 1A/div 、 25us/div Fig17 ： DICM experimental results of inductor L2 (V B1 >V B2 >V B3 ) Fig14 ： DICM simulation results of inductor L2 (V B1 >V B2 >V B3 ) Fig15 ： DCVM simulation results of capacitor Vc (V B1 >V B2 >V B3 ) Fig16 ： DCVM simulation results of sw i T 、 V T (V B1 >V B2 >V B3 ) Fig18 ： DCVM experimental results of capacitor Vc (V B1 >V B2 >V B3 ) Fig19 ： DCVM experimental results of sw i T 、 V T (V B1 >V B2 >V B3 ) P7 CONCLUSION ‧ The equalizer operation in full duty cycle, so the efficient and equalizing time of the proposed battery equalization system is improved. ‧ The ZVS soft-switching is really reduced power loss about 30%. ‧ The proposed FLC-BEC is not only used to maintain the equalizing process operation in safe region but also reduced the equalizing period about 16%. Fig 21 ： Without FLC-BEC VB1>VB2 >VB3 Fig 20:Simulation results for V B1 >V B2 >V B3 Fig22With FLC-BEC for VB1>VB2 >VB3 註明此篇研究成果的出處 ( 向右對齊 ) ，例如： Tamkang Journal of Science and Engineering, pp. 107-115, Vol. 3, No. 2

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