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Cells. Cell DefinitionDefinition 1. The structural, functional and biological unit of all organisms.1. The structural, functional and biological unit.

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Presentation on theme: "Cells. Cell DefinitionDefinition 1. The structural, functional and biological unit of all organisms.1. The structural, functional and biological unit."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cells

2 Cell DefinitionDefinition 1. The structural, functional and biological unit of all organisms.1. The structural, functional and biological unit of all organisms.organisms 2. An autonomous self-replicating unit that may exist as functional independent unit of life (as in the case of unicellular organism), or as sub-unit in a multicellular organism (such as in plants and animals) that is specialized into carrying out particular functions towards the cause of the organism as a whole.2. An autonomous self-replicating unit that may exist as functional independent unit of life (as in the case of unicellular organism), or as sub-unit in a multicellular organism (such as in plants and animals) that is specialized into carrying out particular functions towards the cause of the organism as a whole.autonomousunitlifeunicellular organismmulticellularorganism plantsanimalsorganismautonomousunitlifeunicellular organismmulticellularorganism plantsanimalsorganism 3. A membrane bound structure containing biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides.3. A membrane bound structure containing biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides.membranestructurebiomoleculesnucleic acidsproteinspolysaccharidesmembranestructurebiomoleculesnucleic acidsproteinspolysaccharides (Science: Cell Biology)

3 Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Animals & Plants (as well as Protocists and many Algae) have cells that contain membrane bound organelles: nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts etc.Animals & Plants (as well as Protocists and many Algae) have cells that contain membrane bound organelles: nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts etc. These are EukaryotesThese are Eukaryotes Karyote from Greek karyon Eu- meaning trueKaryote from Greek karyon Eu- meaning true (meaning kernal or nucleus) Prokaryotes do not have these internal membranesProkaryotes do not have these internal membranes (Pro- meaning before)

4 Eukaryotic Cells

5 Organelles you need to know: NucleusNucleus –Chromatin –Nuclear envelope –Nucleolus MitochondriaMitochondria Endoplasmic reticulumEndoplasmic reticulum Rough and smooth RibosomesRibosomes Golgi BodyGolgi Body Lysosomes Centrioles Chloroplasts Vacuoles Plasmodesmata

6 Nucleus Largest Organelle (10-20μm)Largest Organelle (10-20μm) Double membrane contains pores (nuclear envelope)Double membrane contains pores (nuclear envelope) Contains nucleic acids and proteinsContains nucleic acids and proteins When not dividing, DNA bonded to protein forming chromatinWhen not dividing, DNA bonded to protein forming chromatin Nucleolus dense area, produces ribosomesNucleolus dense area, produces ribosomes

7 Mitochondria Rod like structures (1μm wide x 10μm long)Rod like structures (1μm wide x 10μm long) Powerhouse of the cellPowerhouse of the cell Undertake RespirationUndertake Respiration Produce ATPProduce ATP Symbiotic evolutionSymbiotic evolution

8 Centrioles Usually a pairUsually a pair Near the nucleusNear the nucleus Involved in cell divisionInvolved in cell division

9 Endoplasmic Reticulum Network of cavities bound by membranesNetwork of cavities bound by membranes Transport systemTransport system Synthesis of chemicalsSynthesis of chemicals RER – ribosomes, protein synthesis/transportRER – ribosomes, protein synthesis/transport SER - synthesis of steroids and lipidsSER - synthesis of steroids and lipids

10 Ribosomes Small at ~20nmSmall at ~20nm Made of a combination of RNA and Protein (65%:35%)Made of a combination of RNA and Protein (65%:35%) Involved in protein synthesisInvolved in protein synthesis DNA  RNA  ProteinDNA  RNA  Protein

11 Golgi Body Took ages for science to discover what this didTook ages for science to discover what this did Used radioactive tracersUsed radioactive tracers Proteins transported there in vesicles, fuse and pass thru’Proteins transported there in vesicles, fuse and pass thru’ Proteins altered (carbohydrates added etc.)Proteins altered (carbohydrates added etc.) Put into vesicles which bud offPut into vesicles which bud off

12 Lysosomes Digestive enzymes packaged into a vescicleDigestive enzymes packaged into a vescicle Fuse with food vacuoles taken in by endocytosis by single celled animals or with damaged organellesFuse with food vacuoles taken in by endocytosis by single celled animals or with damaged organelles Can rupture and destroy the whole cell apoptosisCan rupture and destroy the whole cell apoptosis

13 Chloroplasts Large 4-10μm x 2-3 μmLarge 4-10μm x 2-3 μm ChlorophyllChlorophyll PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis

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15 Vacuoles Any fluid filled, membrane bound, spaceAny fluid filled, membrane bound, space Animal cells have temporary onesAnimal cells have temporary ones Plant cells vac. is surrounded by a membrane called the tonoplastPlant cells vac. is surrounded by a membrane called the tonoplast Filled with cell sapFilled with cell sap Osmosis keeps it ‘inflated’Osmosis keeps it ‘inflated’

16 Plasmodesmata

17 Cytoskeleton 3D, “web-like” structure filling the cytoplasm3D, “web-like” structure filling the cytoplasm Microfilaments (protein fibres)Microfilaments (protein fibres) Microtubules (protein tubes 20nm diameter)Microtubules (protein tubes 20nm diameter) Gives cytoplasm structureGives cytoplasm structure Holds organelles in placeHolds organelles in place Linked to:Linked to: cell movements transport

18 Prokaryotes

19 Bacteria  Cause diseases  good bacteria  very very small (0.5 uM to 1 um in size) 1 cm 1 mm. 1 uM (a bacteria)

20 Rod shapedCoccus shaped (round)

21 ‘BAD’ bacteria – cause diseases  meningitis  tuberculosis  anthrax  the plague  gonorrhoea  diarrhoea and vomiting Bacteria (E. coli) Human intestinal cell Bacteria ‘FIGHT’ with the human cells and immune system to survive and cause disease

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23 gangrene leprosy syphilis Tooth decay plague Stomach ulcers

24 Escherichia coli (E. coli)  Rod shaped bacteria  causes vomiting and diarrhoea  can cause kidney failure and DEATH E. coli E. coli 1 E. coli 2 E. coli 3 E. coli 4

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26 flagella Glycogen granule Lipid droplet ribosome Circular chromosome Plasma membrane Cell wall Outer membrane

27 flagella Glycogen granule Lipid droplet ribosome Circular chromosome Plasma membrane Cell wall Outer membrane

28 Viruses

29 Smallest of the microorganismsSmallest of the microorganisms 0.002 – 0.3 µm (50x smaller than bacteria)0.002 – 0.3 µm (50x smaller than bacteria) Viruses are not cellsViruses are not cells Merely arrangements of genetic material and proteinMerely arrangements of genetic material and protein Viruses

30 Electron Micrographs of Viruses A. Bacteriophage T4 B. Potato virus X C. Adenovirus D. Influenza virus

31 Structure of viruses

32 Viruses are geometric in shapeViruses are geometric in shape Considerable variation in the genetic material they have, structure of their protein coat (capsid) or whether they have an envelopeConsiderable variation in the genetic material they have, structure of their protein coat (capsid) or whether they have an envelope

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34 Cellular Organisation

35 Cells  Tissues Cells (basic units)Cells (basic units) –Organisms either unicellular or multi-cellular Aggregations of CellsAggregations of Cells –Colonies show little co-ordination –More complex organisms show specialisation –If perform similar function organised into tissues

36 Tissues 4 main types in the human:4 main types in the human: –Epithelial tissues (lining of surfaces) –Connective tissue –Muscle tissue –Nervous tissue

37 Tissues  Organs Organs are made up of a group of tissues together in one structure so that they can work effectively.Organs are made up of a group of tissues together in one structure so that they can work effectively.

38 Tissues: EpidermalEpidermal Palisade mesophyllPalisade mesophyll Spongy mesophyllSpongy mesophyll Vascular tissueVascular tissue (inc. phloem and xylem tissues) Plant leaf as an Organ

39 Organs  Systems When a number of organs work together to carry out a large scale function it is known as a system.When a number of organs work together to carry out a large scale function it is known as a system.


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